1. bookVolume 27 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
08 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Chemical Oxidation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water By Ferrates(VI)

Published Online: 29 Jan 2021
Page range: 529 - 542
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
08 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a common part of the environment where they come from burning fossil fuels (through an incomplete combustion process). From a toxicological point of view, PAHs are considered to be carcinogens with a mutagenic and teratogenic effect. On the other hand, ferrates are generally believed to be the ideal chemical agent for water treatment due to their strong oxidation potential. Herein, the efficiency of degradation of PAHs (with the special emphasis on B[a]P) by ferrates under laboratory conditions was studied. The formation of degradation products was also considered. For this, two types of ferrates were used and both of them efficiently degraded B[a]P. When comparing ferrates that were bought from a Czech and USA company, no significant changes in terms of B[a]P degradability were observed. It was determined that the degradation efficiency of PAHs by ferrates was dependent on their molecular weight. Two and three cyclic PAHs have been completely degraded within 30 minutes, whereas five (and more) cyclic PAHs, only partially. The results obtained with ferrates were compared to the ones obtained with a classical oxidizing agent - KMnO4. In a qualitative test to detect degradation products of PAHs, two were identified, namely fluoren-9-one derived from fluorene and acentaphthylene, formed from acenaphthene.

Keywords

[1] Vo-Dinh T, Fetzer J, Campiglia AD. Monitoring and characterization of polyaromatic compounds in the environment. Talanta. 1998;47:943-69. DOI: 10.1016/S0039-9140(98)00162-3.Search in Google Scholar

[2] US EPA O. Resources and Guidance Documents for Compliance Monitoring. US EPA. 2013. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources-and-guidance-documents-compliance-monitoring.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Council Directive 75/440/EEC. European Environment Agency. Available from: https://www.eea.europa.eu/policy-documents/council-directive-75-440-eec.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Council Directive 79/869/EEC. Available from: http://rod.eionet.europa.eu/instruments/213.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Council Directive 80/778/EEC. Available from: https://rod.eionet.europa.eu/instruments/218.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Official Journal of the European Union - L:1998:330:TOC. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/oj/direct-access.html.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Korzeniowska J, Panek E. Trace metal concentrations in Pleurozium schreberi and Taraxacum officinale along the road No. 7. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2019;26:651-63. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2019-0047.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Harvey RG. Bridged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A review. Org Prep Proced Int. 1997;29:243-83. DOI: 10.1080/00304949709355197.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Council Directive 79/869/EEC of 9 October 1979 concerning the methods of measurement and frequencies of sampling and analysis of surface water intended for the abstraction of drinking water in the Member States. vol. OJ L. 1979. Available from: https://op.europa.eu/cs/publication-detail/-/publication/af622130-de1c-405e-bced-d93f3fc6de64/language-en.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Norin M, Strömvaix AM. Leaching of organic contaminants from storage of reclaimed asphalt pavement. Environ Technol. 2004;25:323-40. DOI: 10.1080/09593330409355466.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Becker L, Matuschek G, Lenoir D, Kettrup A. Leaching behaviour of wood treated with creosote. Chemosphere. 2001;42:301-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00071-0.Search in Google Scholar

[12] Pozzoli L, Gilardoni S, Perrone MG, de Gennaro G, de Rienzo M, Vione D. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere: monitoring, sources, sinks and fate. I: monitoring and sources. Annali Di Chimica. 2004;94(1-2):17-33. DOI: 10.1002/adic.200490002.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Jiang CQ, Alexander R, Kagi RI, Murray AP. Origin of perylene in ancient sediments and its geological significance. Org Geochem. 2000;31:1545-59. DOI: 10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00074-7.Search in Google Scholar

[14] Barrado AI, García S, Castrillejo Y, Barrado E. Exploratory data analysis of PAH, nitro-PAH and hydroxy-PAH concentrations in atmospheric PM10-bound aerosol particles. Correlations with physical and chemical factors. Atmosph Environ. 2013;67:385-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.10.030.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Pachurka L, Gruszecka-Kosowska A, Kobus D, Sowka I. Assessment of inhalational exposure of residents of Wroclaw, Krakow and Warszawa to benzo[a]pyrene. Ecol Chem Eng A. 2018;25:39-49. DOI: 10.2428/ecea.2018.25(1)4.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Mackay D, Shiu WY, Ma KC. Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties of Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1997. ISBN: 1566706874Search in Google Scholar

[17] Sverdrup LE, Nielsen T, Krogh PH. Soil ecotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in relation to soil sorption, lipophilicity, and water solubility. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:2429-35. DOI: 10.1021/es010180s.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Gundel LA, Lee VC, Mahanama KRR, Stevens RK, Daisey JM. Direct determination of the phase distributions of semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using annular denuders. Atmosph Environ. 1995;29:1719-33. DOI: 10.1016/1352-2310(94)00366-S.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Chin YP, Aiken GR, Danielsen KM. Binding of pyrene to aquatic and commercial humic substances:  the role of molecular weight and aromaticity. Environ Sci Technol. 1997;31:1630-5. DOI: 10.1021/es960404k.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Krauss M, Wilcke W. Predicting soil-water partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls by desorption with methanol-water mixtures at different temperatures. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35:2319-25. DOI: 10.1021/es001616r.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Organization WH. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: Recommendations. World Health Organization; 2004. Available from: https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/GDWQ2004web.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Fernández P, Carrera G, Grimalt JO, Ventura M, Camarero L, Catalan J, et al. Factors governing the atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to remote areas. Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37:3261-7. DOI: 10.1021/es020137k.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Durant JL, Busby WF, Lafleur AL, Penman BW, Crespi CL. Human cell mutagenicity of oxygenated, nitrated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with urban aerosols. Mutation Res/Genetic Toxicol. 1996;371:123-57. DOI: 10.1016/S0165-1218(96)90103-2.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Allen JO, Dookeran NM, Taghizadeh K, Lafleur AL, Smith KA, Sarofim AF. Measurement of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with a size-segregated urban aerosol. Environ Sci Technol. 1997;31:2064-70. DOI: 10.1021/es960894g.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Rosenkranz HS, Mermelstein R. The genotoxicity, metabolism and carcinogenicity of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Environ Sci Health Part C: Environ Carcinogenesis Rev. 1985;3:221-72. DOI: 10.1080/10590508509373334.Search in Google Scholar

[26] Diamond SA, Milroy NJ, Mattson VR, Heinis LJ, Mount DR. Photoactivated toxicity in amphipods collected from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;22:2752-60. DOI: 10.1897/02-640.Search in Google Scholar

[27] Monson PD, Ankley GT, Kosian PA. Phototoxic response of Lumbriculus variegatus to sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Toxicol Chem. 1995;14:891-4. DOI: 10.1002/etc.5620140522.Search in Google Scholar

[28] Ankley GT, Collyard SA, Monson PD, Kosian PA. Influence of ultraviolet light on the toxicity of sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Toxicol Chem. 1994;13:1791-6. DOI: 10.1002/etc.5620131110.Search in Google Scholar

[29] Ninane L, Kanari N, Criado C, Jeannot C, Evrard O, Neveux N. New Processes for Alkali Ferrate Synthesis. Ferrates, vol. 985. Am Chem Soc; 2008. ISBN: 9780841269613. DOI: 10.1021/bk-2008-0985.ch006.Search in Google Scholar

[30] Alsheyab M, Jiang JQ, Stanford C. Electrochemical generation of ferrate(VI): Determination of optimum conditions. Desalination. 2010;254:175-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.desal.2009.11.035.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Kudlek E. Identification of degradation by-products of selected pesticides during oxidation and chlorination processes. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2019;26:571-81. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2019-0042.Search in Google Scholar

[32] Rahdar A, Rahdar S, Ahmadi S, Fu J. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin from aqueous environment by using synthesized nanoceria. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2019;26:299-311. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2019-0021.Search in Google Scholar

[33] Sabliy L, Kuzminskiy Y, Zhukova V, Kozar M, Sobczuk H. New approaches in biological wastewater treatment aimed at removal of organic matter and nutrients. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2019;26:331-43. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2019-0023.Search in Google Scholar

[34] Wacławek S, Padil VVT, Černík M. Major advances and challenges in heterogeneous catalysis for environmental applications: A review. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2018;25:9-34. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2018-0001.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Vinod VTP, Wacławek S, Senan C, Kupčík J, Pešková K, Černík M, et al. Gum karaya (Sterculia urens) stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles: characterization and applications for the removal of chromium and volatile organic pollutants from water. RSC Adv. 2017;7:13997-4009. DOI: 10.1039/C7RA00464H.Search in Google Scholar

[36] Wacławek S, Silvestri D, Hrabák P, Padil VVT, Torres-Mendieta R, Wacławek M, et al. Chemical oxidation and reduction of hexachlorocyclohexanes: A review. Water Res. 2019;162:302-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2019.06.072.Search in Google Scholar

[37] Sharma VK. Potassium ferrate(VI): an environmentally friendly oxidant. Adv Environ Res. 2002;6:143-56. DOI: 10.1016/S1093-0191(01)00119-8.Search in Google Scholar

[38] Jiang JQ. Advances in the development and application of ferrate(VI) for water and wastewater treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 2014;89:165-77. DOI: 10.1002/jctb.4214.Search in Google Scholar

[39] Hrabák P, Homolková M, Wacławek S, Černík M. Chemical degradation of PCDD/F in contaminated sediment. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2016;23:473-82. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2016-0034.Search in Google Scholar

[40] Walsh FC. Electrochemical technology for environmental treatment and clean energy conversion. Pure Appl Chem. 2001;73:1819-37. DOI: 10.1351/pac200173121819.Search in Google Scholar

[41] Jiang JQ, Lloyd B. Progress in the development and use of ferrate(VI) salt as an oxidant and coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. Water Res. 2002;36:1397-408. DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00358-X.Search in Google Scholar

[42] Systém evidence kontaminovaných míst » SEKM. Available from: http://www.sekm.cz/.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Licht S, Naschitz V, Halperin L, Halperin N, Lin L, Chen J, et al. Analysis of ferrate(VI) compounds and super-iron Fe(VI) battery cathodes: FTIR, ICP, titrimetric, XRD, UV/VIS, and electrochemical characterization. J Power Sourc. 2001;101:167-76. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-7753(01)00786-8.Search in Google Scholar

[44] Patra D. Applications and new developments in fluorescence spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Appl Spectrosc Rev. 2003;38:155-85. DOI: 10.1081/ASR-120021166.Search in Google Scholar

[45] Douglas GS, McCarthy KJ, Dahlen DT, Seavey JA, Steinhauer WG, Prince RC, et al. The use of hydrocarbon analyses for environmental assessment and remediation. J Soil Contamin. 1992;1:197-216. DOI: 10.1080/15320389209383411.Search in Google Scholar

[46] Boehm PD. 15 - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). In: Morrison RD, Murphy BL, editors. Environmental Forensics, Burlington: Academic Press; 1964. DOI: 10.1016/B978-012507751-4/50037-9.Search in Google Scholar

[47] Sharma VK. Disinfection performance of Fe(VI) in water and wastewater: a review. Water Sci Technol. 2007;55:225-32. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2007.019.Search in Google Scholar

[48] 40 CFR 141.61 - Maximum contaminant levels for organic contaminants. USEPA, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. 2002. Available from: https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/40/141.61.Search in Google Scholar

[49] Sharma VK, Kazama F, Jiangyong H, Ray AK. Ferrates (iron(VI) and iron(V)): Environmentally friendly oxidants and disinfectants. J Water Health. 2005;3:45-58. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15952452/Search in Google Scholar

[50] Yunho L, Cho M, Kim YJ, Yoon J. Chemistry of ferrate (Fe(VI)) in aqueouus solution and its applications as a green chemical. J Ind Eng Chem. 2004;10:161-171. Available from: https://www.cheric.org/research/tech/periodicals/view.php?seq=441272.Search in Google Scholar

[51] Baldantoni D, Morelli R, Bellino A, Prati MV, Alfani A, De Nicola F. Anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene degradation in soil is favoured by compost amendment: Perspectives for a bioremediation approach. J Hazard Mater. 2017;339:395-400. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.06.043.Search in Google Scholar

[52] Cerniglia CE. Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Microorganisms to Combat Pollution. Dordrecht: Springer; 1992. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-1672-5_16.Search in Google Scholar

[53] Liao X, Zhao D, Yan X, Huling SG. Identification of persulfate oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon during remediation of contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater. 2014;276:26-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.05.018.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo