1. bookVolume 11 (2021): Issue 1-2 (June 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Leibniz’s and Herder’s philosophy of optimism

Published Online: 04 Jun 2021
Page range: 37 - 47
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The author studies Leibniz’s views of vindicating God for the existence of evil in the world, as well as the idea of the best of all possible worlds, including the past and present criticism. Following Leibniz, he opted for the presentation of Herder’s philosophy of history as one of the most significant forms of philosophical optimism that influenced the first half of the 19th century, including contemporary debates on and critiques of the topic. He defines Herder’s concept as the philosophy of historical progress, which also significantly influenced Slovak philosophy of the given period. The main goal of the article is to present Leibniz’s and Herder’s views as a starting point for the Slovak philosophy of optimism and historical progress of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century.

Keywords

ANCHOR, R. (2000): Kant and philosophy of history in Goethe’s “Faust”. In: Historical Reflections/Réflexions Historiques, 26(3), pp. 487–506. Search in Google Scholar

ANDERSON-GOLD, S. (2009): Kant and Herder. In: A. Tucker (ed.): A companion to the philosophy of history and historiography. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 457–467. Search in Google Scholar

BARNARD, F. M. (2003): Herder on nationality, humanity, and history. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Search in Google Scholar

BERLIN, I. (1976/2013): Three critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder, 2nd ed., ed. H. Hardy. Princeton, NJ & Oxford: Princeton University Press. Search in Google Scholar

BROAD, C. D. (1975): Leibniz: An introduction, ed. C. Lewy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

CHALUPKA, J. (1847): Kázně nedělnj a swátečné II [Sunday and holiday sermons, vol. II]. Pešť, b.n. Search in Google Scholar

DALLMAYR, F. (1997): Truth and diversity: Some lessons from Herder. In: The Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 11(2), pp. 101–124. Search in Google Scholar

DAVID, Z. V. (2007): Johann Gottfried Herder and the Czech National Awakening: A Reassessment. In: Carl Beck Papers in Russian & East European Studies, 1807, pp. 1–53. Search in Google Scholar

DIETZE, C. (2008): Toward a History on Equal terms: A discussion of Provincializing Europe. In: History and Theory, 47(1), pp. 69–84. Search in Google Scholar

DOLEŽAL, A. (1791): Pamětná celém světu Tragoedia, anebožto Veršovné vypsánj žalostného Prvnjch Rodičů Pádu… [A Tragedy the Whole World Remembers or a Versed Story on the Fall of the First Parents…]. Uherská Skalica: Jozef Antonin Škarnycl. Search in Google Scholar

DONSKIS, L. (2002): On the boundary of two worlds: Lithuanian philosophy in the twentieth century. In: Studies in East European Thought, 54(3), pp. 179–206. Search in Google Scholar

EGGEL, D., LIEBICH, A. & MANCINI-GRIFFOLI, D. (2007): Was Herder a nationalist? In: The Review of Politics, 69(1), pp. 48–78. Search in Google Scholar

FORDINÁLOVÁ, E. (1993): Stretnutie so starším pánom alebo Tragédia Augustína Doležala [A meeting with an elderly gentleman or the Tragedy of Augustín Doležal]. Martin: Osveta. Search in Google Scholar

FRANKLIN, J. (2002): Two caricatures, II: Leibniz’s best world. In: International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 52(1), pp. 45–56. Search in Google Scholar

GLUCHMAN, V. (2011): The origin of evil and the benefit of sin. In: H. A. Harris (ed.): God, goodness and philosophy. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 209–215. Search in Google Scholar

GROVER, S. (2003): This world, ‘Adams worlds’, and the best of all possible worlds. In: Religious Studies, 39(2), pp. 145–163. Search in Google Scholar

HADSELL, N. (2019): Leibniz’s horrendous and unthinkable world: A critique of Leibniz’s ‘Best possible worldtheodicy. In: Heythrop Journal (forthcoming). Search in Google Scholar

HERDER, J. G. (1784/1800): Outlines of a philosophy of the history of man, trans. T. Churchill. London: St. Paul’s Church-Yard. Search in Google Scholar

HERNANDEZ, J. G. (2010): Moral evil and Leibnizs form/matter defense of divine omnipotence. In: Sophia, 49(1), pp. 1–13. Search in Google Scholar

KANT, I. (759/1992): An attempt at some reflections on optimism. In: I. Kant: Theoretical Philosophy, 1755–1770, trans. & eds. D. Walford & R. Meerbote. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 67–84. Search in Google Scholar

KANT, I. (1791/1973): On the failure of all attempted philosophical theodicies, trans. M. Despland. In: M. Despland: Kant on History and Religion. Montreal & London: McGill & Queen’s University Press, pp. 283–297. Search in Google Scholar

KANT, I. (1792/1978): Lectures on philosophical theology, trans. A. W. Wood & G. M. Clark. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press. Search in Google Scholar

KOLLÁR, J. (1823/1831): O tom štestj, že se nám Bůh w nynejšjch časjch naroditi dal [About the happiness that God has been born to us in these days]. In: J. Kollár, Nedělnj, Swátečné i přiležitostné Kázne a Řeči [Sunday, holiday and occasional sermons and speeches]. Pesst: Trattner & Karoli, pp. 57–69. Search in Google Scholar

LEIBNIZ, G. W. (1710/2007): Theodicy: Essays on the goodness of God, the freedom of man and the origin of evil, trans. E. M. Haggard. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar. Search in Google Scholar

LOUGHEED, K. (2014): Divine creation, modal collapse, and the theistic multiverse. In: Sophia, 53(4), pp. 435–446. Search in Google Scholar

MCCARTHY, J. A. (2002): Criticism and experience: Philosophy and literature in the German Enlightenment. In: N. Saul (ed.): Philosophy and German literature, 1700–1990. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 13–56. Search in Google Scholar

MACDONALD, S. (2018): Being and goodness: The concept of the good in metaphysics and philosophical theology. Ithaca & London: Cornell University Press. Search in Google Scholar

MÜNZ, T. (1961): Filozofia slovenského osvietenstva [Philosophy of the Slovak Enlightenment]. Bratislava: SAV. Search in Google Scholar

NADLER, S. (2008): The best of all possible worlds: A story of philosophers, God, and evil. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux. Search in Google Scholar

PALTI, E. (1999): The “Metaphor of life”: Herder’s philosophy of history and uneven developments in late eighteenth-century natural sciences. In: History and Theory, 38(3), pp. 322–347. Search in Google Scholar

PALTI, E. J. (2001): The nation as a problem: Historians and the “national question”. In: History and Theory, 40(3), pp. 324–346. Search in Google Scholar

PATTEN, A. (2010): “The most natural state”: Herder and nationalism. In: History of Political Thought, 31(4), pp. 657–689. Search in Google Scholar

RUKGABER, M. (2019): The implied theodicy of Kant’s Religion within the boundaries of mere reason: Love as a response to radical evil. In: International Journal of Philosophy of Religion, 85(2), pp. 213–233. Search in Google Scholar

SCHOPENHAUER, A. (1819/1966): The world as will and representation, vol. II, trans. E. F. J. Payne. Mineola, NY: Dover. Search in Google Scholar

SIKKA, S. (2011): Herder of humanity and cultural difference: Enlightened relativism. New York: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

SILVER, B. (2018): Grammar, philosophy, and logic. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan Search in Google Scholar

SPENCER, V. (2007): In defense of Herder on cultural diversity and interaction. In: The Review of Politics, 69(1), pp. 79–105. Search in Google Scholar

STEINBERG, J. R. (2007): Leibniz, creation and the best of all possible worlds. In: International Journal of Philosophy of Religion, 62(3), pp. 123–133. Search in Google Scholar

STEINER, L. (2011): The Russian Aufklärer: Tolstoi in search of truth, freedom, and immortality. In: Slavic Review, 70(4), pp. 773–794. Search in Google Scholar

STRICKLAND, L. (2005): Determining the best of all possible worlds. In: Journal of Value Inquiry, 39(1), pp. 37–47. Search in Google Scholar

STRICKLAND, L. (2017): How Leibniz would have responded to the Lisbon Earthquake. In: L. Strickland, E. Vynckier & J. Weckend (eds.): Tercentenary Essays on the Philosophy and Science of Leibniz. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 257–278. Search in Google Scholar

TAYLOR, CH. (1995): Philosophical arguments. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Search in Google Scholar

VOLTAIRE (1759/2006): Candide and other stories, trans. R. Pearson. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

WADE, I. O. (1969): Intellectual development of Voltaire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Search in Google Scholar

WILSON, C. (1995): The reception of Leibniz in the eighteenth century. In: N. Jolley (ed.): The Cambridge companion to Leibniz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 442–474. Search in Google Scholar

WILSON, C. (2010): Leibniz’s reputation in the eighteenth century: Kant and Herder. In: G. A. J. Rogers, T. Sorell & J. Kraye (eds.): Insiders and outsiders in seventeenth-century philosophy. New York & London: Routledge, pp. 294–308. Search in Google Scholar

WILSON, W. A. (1963/2006): Marrow of human experience: Essays on folklore, eds. J. T. Rudy & D. Call. Logan, UT: University Press of Colorado & Utah State University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo