Buško Blato Reservoir, the third largest hydro accumulation in Europe, is situated in the south-eastern part of the karstic Livanjsko Polje Valley. This aquatic ecosystem is distinguished by a very rich ichthyofauna and the presence of four endemic fish species. Numerous studies focus on ichthyological researches of Buško Blato Reservoir. Its ichthyofauna has been exposed to changes in ecological factors, which in turn reflected on the structure and composition of fish populations. The main objective of this paper was to assess the current state and predict future trends in the ichthyofauna structure and dynamics based on the field data and comprehensive analyses of literature data. The results of the research indicated the presence of 11 fish species from four families, which is the largest number of fish species ever recorded in this ecosystem.