Introduction. Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.

Aim of the study is to analyze efficacy of neoadjuvant CRT and survival rates in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

Materials and methods. Retrospective study of 60 locally advanced rectal cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant radiotherapy with or without addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Clinic of Oncology of Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital from 2007 to 2012 was done.

Results. Long-course radiotherapy (45-50.4 Gy) received 52 patients. Median time from diagnosis to radiotherapy was 35.8 days. Median time to surgery was 47.7 days. Pathological complete remission (pCR) of the primary rectal cancer was not observed. Distribution by pathologic staging was as follows: 28.8% Stage I (7.7% T1N0M0), 32.7% Stage II and 38.5% Stage III. Downstaging occurred in 93.7% in concomitant chemoradiation with Ftorafur, 61.9% in combination with 5FU/LV, and 53.3% in radiation without chemotherapy. Median PFS and OS were not met. In median follow up of 22.6 month overall survival was 90.3%, and PFS - 88%.

Conclusions. Addition of chemotherapy to neoadjuvant radiotherapy is increasing tumor downstaging rate. Ftorafur in concomitant neoadjuvant chemoradiation showed increased downstaging compared to standard 5FU therapy. Response to preoperative therapy improves survival in patient with locally advanced rectal cancer.

Publication timeframe:
Volume Open
Journal Subjects:
Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Surgery, other