1. bookVolume 25 (2020): Issue 1-2 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Hydrogen - Some Historical Highlights

Published Online: 29 Jan 2021
Page range: 5 - 34
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
17 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The early history of experiments in which an inflammable air was prepared is outlined. Once hydrogen had been discovered by Cavendish in 1766, the world of science and technology was given a colossal impetus. Its scientific and social consequences form the main focus of this essay. Special attention is given to explain why experiments were done, and their aims. The many difficulties which confronted scientists in the interpretation of their results are discussed. Timelines have been used in order to facilitate an understanding of the evolution of ideas. A particular emphasis is given to the story of how, through spectral analysis of the hydrogen atom, our understanding of atomic structure developed. Experiments involving hydrogen constitute important teaching material in schools. Detailed instructions are given for making hydrogen in the laboratory and for demonstrating its lightness and flammability. Suggestions are made of how to use these reactions to teach a wide variety of chemical concepts and facts.

Keywords

[1] Partington J. A History of Chemistry (volume 2). London: Macmillan & Co Ltd; 1961.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Holmyard E. Makers of Chemistry. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1931, p. 130-1.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Lardener D. Natural Philosophy for Schools. London: Walton Maberly; 1857, p. 97.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Holmes R. The Age of Wonder. London: Harper Press; 2009, p. 131-2. ISBN: 9780007149537.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Brown R, editor. Science for All. volume 2. London: Cassell and Company Limited. c; 1890, p. 60.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Thorpe TE. Dictionary of Applied Chemistry. volume 2. London: Longmans Green and Co; 1891, p. 296.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Larsen E. A History of Invention. London: J M Dent Sons Ltd; 1969, p. 207. ISBN: 978-0460066044.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Sella A. Landriani’s eudiometer. Chemistry World. 2015. Available from: https://www.chemistryworld.com/opinion/landrianis-eudiometer/8200.article.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Nicholson W. A Dictionary of Theoretical and Practical Chemistry. No 6. Bridge Street: Richard Phillips; 1808.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Partington JR. Everyday Chemistry. London: Macmillan and co Ltd; 1952, p. 108.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Menshutkin BN. Russia’s Lomonosov. Princeton New Jersey: Princeton University Press; 1952, p. 117-8.Search in Google Scholar

[12] Wisniak J. Thomas Graham. Contributions to thermodynamics, chemistry and the occlusion of gases. Educ Quim. 2013;24(2):506-15. DOI: 10.1016/50187-893X(13)72521-7.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Hartley WN. Air and its Relations to Life. London: Longmans, Green and Co; 1876, p. 100.Search in Google Scholar

[14] Leicester HM. The Historical Background of Chemistry. New York: Dover Publications; 1971, p. 162. ISBN: 0486610535.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Angus LH. Physical Chemistry. London: University Tutorial Press; 1958, p. 19.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Ball R. The Story of the Sun. London: Cassell and Company Limited; 1901, p. 103.Search in Google Scholar

[17] Nightingale E. Heat and Light. London: G. Bell and Sons Ltd; 1934.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Grimsehl E. A Textbook of Physics. Volume 5, Physics of the atom. London: Blackie Son Ltd; 1949, p. 182.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Cutting TA. Practical Spectroscopy. London: Macmillan Heinemann Ltd; 1952, p. 4.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Pauling L. General Chemistry. San Francisco: W H Freeman and Company; 1970, p. 431. ISBN: 716701480.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Szydło ZA. History of Fire. Chem Didact Ecol Metrol. 2019;24(1-2):23-43. DOI: 10.2478/cdem-2019-0002.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Szydło ZA. Two English Chemists/authors/teachers: John Read and James Riddick Partington. Chem Didact Ecol Metrol. 2018; 23(1-2):47-70. DOI: 10.1515/cdem-2018-0003.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Atkins P, de Paula J. Atkins’ Physical Chemistry. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2014, p. 357. ISBN: 9780199697403.Search in Google Scholar

[1] Angus LH. Physical Chemistry. Chapter IV: The Classical Atomic Theory. London: University Tutorial Press; 1958, p. 86-115.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Dickerson RE, Gray HB, Haight GP Jr. Chemical Principles. Chapter 8: Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure. Menlo Park, California: WA Benjamin Inc; 1974, p. 291-335. ISBN: 0805323643.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Herzberg G. Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure. New York: Dover Publications; 1944.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Leicester HM. The Historical Background of Chemistry. Chapter 16. The Laws of chemical combination. New York: Dover Publications; 1971, p. 150-65.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Moore WJ. Physical Chemistry. Chapter 13 Particles and waves. Chapter 14 Quantum mechanics and atomic structure. Harlow: Longman Scientific and Technical; 1990, p. 570-669. ISBN: 0582442346.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Partington JR. The Composition of Water. London: G Bell and Sons; 1928.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Roscoe HE. John Dalton and the Rise of Modern Chemistry. London: Macmillan and Co; 1895.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Russell B. The ABC of Atoms. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner Co; 1923.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo