1. bookVolume 12 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
19 Sep 2012
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Enterprise Digital Divide: Website e-Commerce Functionalities among European Union Enterprises

Published Online: 04 Jun 2021
Page range: 197 - 215
Received: 27 Jan 2021
Accepted: 17 Mar 2021
Journal Details
First Published
19 Sep 2012
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

Background: Information and communication technologies (ICTs) gained prevalent organizational and structural value in the modern economy. E-commerce is one of the sectors directly influenced by technological change. However, not all countries have the same opportunities to develop e-commerce growth; there are significant discrepancies in ICT utilization worldwide, known as the digital divide.

Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to explore the level of difference among European countries regarding the e-commerce functionalities in their enterprises using a cluster analysis.

Methods/Approach: To accomplish the paper goal, the k-means cluster analysis was conducted on the Eurostat data from 2019. Enterprises from 28 European countries were taken into consideration. The Kruskal-Wallis test is used to explore if the differences among clusters regarding the digital development, measured by the Digital Economy and Society Index are significant.

Results: The investigation confirmed that there are significant differences among European countries regarding the development of e-commerce. However, a similar level of e-commerce is not related to economic and digital development.

Conclusions: Since the relationship between economic development and e-commerce development in European countries is not linear, country-level policies are likely to be significant factors driving e-commerce development, which leads to the need for further investigation of this issue.


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