1. bookVolume 11 (2021): Issue 2 (September 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The Polish Experience in the Development of Smart Cities

Published Online: 15 Nov 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 11 (2021) - Issue 2 (September 2021)
Page range: 48 - 64
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

In recent years, Poland has seen an increased migration of people to cities, which translates into significant urban population growth. This, in turn, raises new challenges in the performance of cities’ tasks and responsibilities. Additionally, climate changes and the depletion of natural resources necessitate the modification of existing urban practices. Polish cities seek solutions which would enable social, economic and environmental demands to be reconciled so that urban spaces become friendly for the city’s inhabitants and investors. Some Polish cities have applied the smart city concept to solve their problems. Despite the fact that the concept has been the subject of scientific research for many years, no universal definition of the smart city has been agreed upon. Analyzed assumptions of the smart city concept as well as the Polish experiences in the implementation indicate that the concept is dynamic and changes over time. It should be considered as a perpetual process unrestricted by a specific timeframe. This impedes the formulation of uniform, generally accepted assumptions of the concept since its existence is inscribed in the change related to urban development. This article claims that this would be a beneficial approach for formulating the general characteristics of the smart city that could be applicable to any city, and that could be employed regardless of the present challenges cities may face.

Keywords

Albino, V.; Berardi, U. & Dangelico, R. M. (2015), ‘Smart cities: Definitions, dimensions, performance, and initiatives,’ Journal of Urban Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2014.94209210.1080/10630732.2014.942092 Search in Google Scholar

Bak, J. (2018), ‘Wise use of water in smart cities—possibilities and limitations,’ E3S Web of Conferences, vol. 30, art. 01014. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/2018300101410.1051/e3sconf/20183001014 Search in Google Scholar

Business Insider (2020), ‘Smart cities to nie fantastyka. W Polsce już wyrastają inteligentne miasta’ [Smart cities are not a fantasy. Smart cities are already emerging in Poland], 21 December. Retrieved from https://businessinsider.com.pl/firmy/w-polsce-juz-wyrastaja-inteligentne-miasta/tdzv02m [accessed 15 Jan 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Caragliu, A.; Del Bo, C. & Nijkamp, P. (2011), ‘Smart cities in Europe,’ Journal of Urban Technology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 65–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2011.60111710.1080/10630732.2011.601117 Search in Google Scholar

Carvalho, L. (2015), ‘Smart cities from scratch? A socio-technical perspective,’ Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 43–60. https://doi.org/10.1093/cjres/rsu01010.1093/cjres/rsu010 Search in Google Scholar

Cieśla, M. (2021), ‘Modern urban transport infrastructure solutions to improve the safety of children as pedestrians and cyclists,’ Infrastructures, vol. 6, no. 7, art. 102. https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures607010210.3390/infrastructures6070102 Search in Google Scholar

Climate Home News (2019), ‘Poland faces threat of water crisis as rivers dry up,’ 29 July. Retrieved from https://www.climatechangenews.com/2019/07/29/poland-faces-threat-water-crisis-rivers-dry/ [accessed 12 Jul 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, B. (2015), ‘The 3 generations of smart cities. Inside the development of the technology driven city,’ Fast Company, 8 October. Retrieved from https://www.fastcompany.com/3047795/the-3-generations-of-smart-cities [accessed 16 Jun 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2, 1997, Journal of Laws 1997, no. 78, Item 483. Search in Google Scholar

Dameri, R. P. (2013), ‘Searching for Smart City definition: a comprehensive proposal,’ International Journal of Computers & Technology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 2544–2551. https://doi.org/10.24297/ijct.v11i5.114210.24297/ijct.v11i5.1142 Search in Google Scholar

Department of Regional Policy of the Lublin Province (2017), Regionalna Polityka Miejska Województwa Lubelskiego [Regional Urban Policy of the Lublin Province]. Retrieved from https://umwl.bip.lubelskie.pl/upload/pliki//0RPMWL.pdf [accessed 3 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Giffinger, R. (2007), Smart cities. Ranking of European medium-sized cities, Centre of Regional Science Report. Retrieved from http://www.smart-cities.eu/download/smart_cities_final_report.pdf [accessed 14 Jan 2021] Search in Google Scholar

GreenMatch (2018), ‘Mapped: Europe’s most and least polluted countries.’ Retrieved from https://www.greenmatch.co.uk/blog/2018/11/mapped-europes-most-and-least-polluted-countries [accessed 12 Jul 2021] Search in Google Scholar

IESE (2020), IESE Cities in Motion Index. Retrieved from https://media.iese.edu/research/pdfs/ST-0542-E.pdf [accessed 19 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

IMD (2019), IMD Smart City Index 2019. Retrieved from https://www.imd.org/research-knowledge/reports/imd-smart-city-index-2019/ [accessed 4 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

IRMiR (2018), Mieszkalnictwo społeczne. Raport o stanie polskich miast [Social housing. Report on the state of Polish Cities], Observatory of Urban Policy, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, 15 March. Retrieved from http://obserwatorium.miasta.pl/mieszkalnictwo-spoleczne-raport-o-stanie-polskichmiast/ [accessed 25 Jul 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Korolewska, M. & Marchewka-Bartkowiak, K. (2015), ‘Budżet obywatelski jako przejaw aktywności społecznej—analiza doświadczeń na przykładzie jednostek samorządu terytorialnego’ [Civic budget as a manifestation of social activity—an analysis of experiences on the example of local government units], Studia BAS, no. 4(44), pp. 123–140. Search in Google Scholar

Kubicka, J. (2021), ‘Uchwały antysmogowe w Polsce—aktualizacja’ [Anti-smog resolution in Poland—an update]. Mapping Air, 9 March. Retrieved from https://mappingair.meteo.uni.wroc.pl/2021/03/uchwaly-antysmogowe-w-polsce/ [accessed 25 Jul 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Lara, A. P.; Moreira Da Costa, E.; Zilinscki Furlani, T. & Yigitcanlar, T. (2016), ‘Smartness that matters: towards a comprehensive and human-centred characterisation of smart cities,’ Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, vol. 2, art. 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-016-0034-z10.1186/s40852-016-0034-z Search in Google Scholar

Letaifa, S. B. (2015), ‘How to strategize smart cities: Revealing the SMART model,’ Journal of Business Research, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 1414–1419. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.02410.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.024 Search in Google Scholar

Lewandowski, A. (2019), Przykłady Smart Cities. Jakie są inteligentne miasta w Polsce? [Examples of Smart Cities. What are smart cities in Poland?], Almine, 4 August. Retrieved from https://almine.pl/smart_city_przyklady_polska/ [accessed 6 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Masik, G.; Sagan, I. & Scott, J. W. (2021), ‘Smart City strategies and new urban development policies in the Polish context,’ Cities, vol. 108, art. 102790, pp. 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.10297010.1016/j.cities.2020.102970 Search in Google Scholar

Masik, G. & Stępień, J. (2021), ‘Smart Local Governance: The case of the Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot Metropolitan Area in Poland,’ Journal of Urban Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2021.193084110.1080/10630732.2021.1930841 Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Development Funds and Regional Policy of Poland (n.d.), Partnerska Inicjatywa Miast [Partner City Initiative]. Retrieved from https://www.gov.pl/web/fundusze-regiony/partnerska-inicjatywa-miast [accessed 3 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Development Funds and Regional Policy of Poland (2016), Polityka miejska [Urban policy]. Retrieved from https://www.gov.pl/web/funduszeregiony/polityka-miejska [accessed 3 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Development Funds and Regional Policy of Poland (2019), Krajowa Strategia Rozwoju Regionalnego 2030, Rozwój społecznie wrażliwy i terytorialnie zrównoważony [National Strategy of Regional Development 2030, Socially sensitive and territorially balanced development]. Retrieved from https://www.gov.pl/web/ia/krajowa-strategia-rozwoju-regionalnego-2030-ksrr [accessed 15 Jan 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Development Funds and Regional Policy of Poland (2020), Nowa Karta Lipska. Transformacyjna siła miast na rzecz wspólnego dobra [The New Leipzig Charter. The transformative power of cities for the common good]. Retrieved from https://www.gov.pl/attachment/a56e8572-34f8-4d40-b7bc-2d23d16f0dee [accessed 6 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

MSIP Krakow (2019), ‘MSIP – ogólnie czym jest MSIP?’ [Municipal Spatial Information System—What is MSIP in general terms?] Retrieved from https://msip.krakow.pl/223757,artykul,msip___ogolnie_czym_jest_msip_.html [accessed 17 Dec 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Polish Economic Society (2015), Krajowa Polityka Miejska 2023. Retrieved from http://www.pte.pl/pliki/2/21/KrajowaPolitykaMiejska.pdf [accessed 30 Jul 2021] Search in Google Scholar

PUHP “LECH” (2017), ‘Zakład Unieszkodliwiania Odpadów Komunalnych w Białymstoku’ [Municipal Waste Disposal Plant in Białystok], Przedsiębiorstwo Usługowo-Handlowo-Produkcyjne “LECH” Spółka z o.o. Retrieved from http://www.lech.net.pl/pl/ofirmie/zuokbialystok/ [accessed 4 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Ryś, R.; Górny, P.; Sobol, A. & Muzioł-Węcławowicz A. (2020), Wyzwania i rekomendacje dla krajowej polityki miejskiej [Challenges and recommendations for the national urban policy], Report of thematic expert groups of the Congress of Urban Policy 2019. Shaping space. Transport and urban mobility. Environment and adaptation to climate change. Housing. Retrieved from http://obserwatorium.miasta.pl/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/raport-wyzwania-irekomendacje-krajowa-polityka-miejska-Rajmund-Ry%C5%9B-Pawe%C5%82-G%C3%B3rny-Agnieszka-Sobol-Alina-Muzio%C5%82-Wec%C5%82awowicz-.pdf [accessed 6 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Santangelo, M. (2016), ‘Una ciudad (¿más?) inteligente’ [A (more?) intelligent city], Nóesis: Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, vol. 25, no. 49, pp. 65–77. https://doi.org//10.20983/noesis.2016.12.510.20983/noesis.2016.12.5 Search in Google Scholar

Serwis Samorządowy PAP (2019), ‘Smart narzędzia. MIiR o instrumentach wsparcia dla rozwoju idei smart city w Polsce’ [Smart tools. MIiR on support instruments for the development of the smart city idea in Poland], 9 October. Retrieved from https://samorzad.pap.pl/kategoria/archiwum/smart-narzedzia-miir-oinstrumentach-wsparcia-dla-rozwoju-idei-smart-city-w [accessed 4 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Urban Agenda for the EU (2016), Pact of Amsterdam. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/policy/themes/urban-development/agenda/pact-of-amsterdam.pdf [accessed 11 Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Ustawa o zasadach... (2019), Ustawa z dnia 6 grudnia 2006 r. o zasadach prowadzenia polityki rozwoju [Act of December 6, 2006 on the principles of development policy], Journal of Laws, 2019, Item 1295; 2020, Item 1378. Search in Google Scholar

Załęczny, P. (2019), ‘Program Zielone Karty dla Maślic’ [The Green Charter Program for Maślice], Zielony Wrocław, 16 April. Retrieved from https://www.wroclaw.pl/srodowisko/zielone-karty-dla-maslic-pilotaz-programu [accessed 6 Feb 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Załęska, M. (2018), ‘Agenda Miejska UE. Polskie Doświadczenia’ [The Urban Agenda of the EU: Experience of Poland], Bliżej Brukseli, no. 21, pp. 12–17. Retrieved from https://www.malopolska.pl/publikacje/blizej-brukseli/21-blizejbrukseli-agenda-miejska [accessed 14 Jan 2021] Search in Google Scholar

Zawieska, J. & Pieriegud, J. (2018), ‘Smart city as a tool for sustainable mobility and transport decarbonisation,’ Transport Policy, vol. 63, pp. 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2017.11.00410.1016/j.tranpol.2017.11.004 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo