1. bookVolume 57 (2020): Issue 2 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-577X
First Published
17 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Defining the effective deformation of the vertebral column

Published Online: 31 Dec 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 57 (2020) - Issue 2 (December 2020)
Page range: 131 - 150
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2199-577X
First Published
17 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Summary

The Cobb angle is calculated in the coronal plane, irrespective of vertebral rotation, lordokyphosis and local wedge properties of individual verte-brae other than the end plates used for the measurement. Rigorous three-dimensional generalizations of the Cobb angle are complicated for at least two reasons. Firstly, the vertebral column is segmented, not continuous, making the choice of rigorous model ambiguous. Secondly, there exists an inherent curvature (in terms of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis) that may be considered physiologically healthy or ’normal’. When attempting to find a three-dimensional deviation measure, such normal sagittal curvature must be compensated for.

In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional local deformation parameter (which we call the local effective deformation) motivated by both biomechanics and the basic theory of spatial curves, and simultaneously introduce a technical procedure to estimate the parameter from CT scans using MPR (multi-phase reconstruction) in PACS (IDS-7). A detailed description of the proposed modelling of vertebral column deformation is given, together with a stepwise procedure to estimate the three-dimensional deformation (in terms of local effective deformation). As a deformation measure it requires knowledge about the natural healthy kypholordosis. A method is described by which such knowledge may be incorporated in future work.

Keywords

Daghighi A., Tropp H., Dahlsröm N., Klarbring A.: A F.E.M. stress investigation of scoliosis apex. The Open Biomedical Engineering Journal 12: 51–71.10.2174/1874120701812010051Search in Google Scholar

D’Amico M., Merolli A., Santambrogio G.C. (eds) (1995): Three Dimensional Analysis of Spinal Deformities. IOS Press.Search in Google Scholar

Dansereau J., Stokes I. (1988): Measurements of the three-dimensional shape of the rib cage. Journal of Biomechanics 2(11): 893–901.10.1016/0021-9290(88)90127-3Search in Google Scholar

Donzelli S., Poma S., Balzarini L., Borboni A., Stefano Respizzi S., Villafane J.H., Zaina F., Negrini S. (2015): State of the art of current 3-D scoliosis classifications: a systematic review from a clinical perspective. J. Neuroeng. Rehabil. 12: 91.Search in Google Scholar

Drerup B., Hierholzer E. (1992): Evaluation of frontal radiographs of scoliotic spines—Part I measurement of position and orientation of vertebrae and assessment of clinical shape parameters. Journal of Biomechanics. Technical note 25(11): 1357–1362.10.1016/0021-9290(92)90291-8Search in Google Scholar

Ho E., Upadhyay S.S., Chan F.L., Hsu L., Leong J. (1993), New Methods of Measuring Vertebral Rotation From Computed Tomographic Scans: An Intraob-server and Interobserver Study on Girls with Scoliosis. Spine 18: 1173–1177.10.1097/00007632-199307000-000088362322Search in Google Scholar

Kawakami N., Tsuji T., Imagama S., Lenke L.G., Puno R.M., Kuklo T.R. (2009): Classification of Congenital Scoliosis and Kyphosis: A New Approach to the Three-Dimensional Classification for Progressive Vertebral Anomalies Requiring Operative Treatment. Spine 34(17): 1756–1765.10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181ac004519644327Search in Google Scholar

Lam G.C. (2008): Vertebral rotation measurement: a summary and comparison of common radiographic and CT methods. Scoliosis 3(16): 1–10.10.1186/1748-7161-3-16258746318976498Search in Google Scholar

Lenke L.G., Betz R.R., Harms J., Bridwell K.H., Clements DH., Lowe T.G., Blanke K.(2001): Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a new classification to determine extent of spinal arthrodesis. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume. 83-A(8): 1169–1181.10.2106/00004623-200108000-00006Search in Google Scholar

Ovadia D. (2013): Classification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics 7(1): 25—28.10.1007/s11832-012-0459-2356625024432055Search in Google Scholar

Sangole A., Aubin C.-E., Labelle H., Stokes I.A., Lenke L.G., Jackson R., Newton P. (2009): Three-dimensional classification of thoracic scoliotic curves. Spine 34(1): 91–99.10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181877bbb19127167Search in Google Scholar

Somoskeöy S., Tunyogi-Csapó M., Bogyó C., Illés T. (2012): Clinical validation of coronal and sagittal spinal curve measurements based on three-dimensional vertebra vector parameters. The Spine Journal 12(10): 960–968.10.1016/j.spinee.2012.08.17523018164Search in Google Scholar

Stokes I. (1994): Scoliosis research society working group on 3D terminology of spinal deformity: Three-dimensional terminology of spine deformity. Spine 19: 236–248.10.1097/00007632-199401001-00020Search in Google Scholar

Stokes I., Sangole A.P., Aubin C.E. (2009): Classification of scoliosis deformity three-dimensional spinal shape by cluster analysis. Spine 34(6): 584–590.10.1097/BRS.0b013e318190b914266424919282737Search in Google Scholar

Vrtovec T., Pernus F., Likar B. (2009): A review of methods for quantitative evaluation of spinal curvature. European Spine Journal 18(5): 1–15.10.1007/s00586-009-0913-0323399819247697Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo