1. bookVolume 9 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)
Journal Details
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
access type Open Access

Geomorphology of the Beqaa Valley, Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 9 (2022) - Issue 1 (March 2022)
Page range: 1 - 22
Journal Details
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

Geomorphology of Lebanon presents a unique pattern of contrasting landforms. These include two notable mountain ranges, the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains, the Beqaa Valley, the elongated coastal area and a significant amount of karst relief forms. This study focuses on the investigation of the topographic and geologic setting of Lebanon by visualizing datasets covering Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains and the Beqaa Valley. Data were collected using the open source repositories of the high-resolution data (GEBCO, ETOPO1, DEM embedded in R). Three 3D models of the relief of the country are presented based on the ‘grdview’ package of GMT with azimuth rotations of the view point at 205°/30° and 165°/30°. The geologic map is based on the compiled datasets of the USGS. The R based modelling allowed division of the raster grid into several geomorphological zones according to the slope steepness and aspect orientation. The extreme elevations of the study area range from -2007 m and 2973 m. The key contribution of this work is the topographic and geologic data synthesis for 2D and 3D modelling of Lebanon. Another aspect concerns technical integration of GMT and R scripting approaches with QGIS mapping into the cartographic framework for visualizing of the Lebanese topography as a multi-tool approach. For the future similar studies on Lebanon this paper can serve as a guide for completing a project on the multi-source 2D and 3D data mapping as a conceptual foundation for research on Lebanese environment.


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