1. bookVolume 26 (2020): Issue 3 (August 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Feb 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Proteomic Implications of Tumoral Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Melanoma: PD-L1, CD4 and CD8 - Short Review

Published Online: 13 Sep 2021
Page range: 117 - 121
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Feb 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Melanoma is a tumor developed by malignancy of melanocytes, being one of the most lethal cancers. Usually, it is associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiations, being most common in the skin, but can also be located extracutaneously as in the digestive tract, leptomeninges or uvea. Histopathologically it presents a phase of radial growth and a vertical one, often accompanied by an intra and peritumoral inflammatory infiltrate. Immunohistochemically, the confirmation of the diagnosis of melanoma should be accompanied by the assessment of proteomic markers of lymphocytic infiltrate such as PD-L1, CD4 and CD8. Those have a role in evaluating the prognosis and a possible prediction of the immunotherapeutic response.

Keywords

1. Rad Pour S, Morikawa H, Kiani NA, Yang M, Azimi A, Shafi G, et al. Exhaustion of CD4+ T-cells mediated by the Kynurenine Pathway in Melanoma. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):12150. Search in Google Scholar

2. Antohe M, Nedelcu RI, Nichita L, Popp CG, Cioplea M, Brinzea A, et al. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes: The regulator of melanoma evolution. Oncol Lett. 2019 May;17(5):4155–61. Search in Google Scholar

3. Hendry S, Salgado R, Gevaert T, Russell PA, John T, Thapa B, et al. Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 2: TILs in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Mesothelioma, Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Genitourinary Carcinomas, and Primary Brain Tumors. Adv Anat Pathol. 2017 Nov;24(6):311–35. Search in Google Scholar

4. Weiss SA, Han SW, Lui K, Tchack J, Shapiro R, Berman R, et al. Immunologic heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte composition in primary melanoma. Hum Pathol. 2016 Nov;57:116–25. Search in Google Scholar

5. Hadrup S, Donia M, Thor Straten P. Effector CD4 and CD8 T cells and their role in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Microenviron. 2013 Aug;6(2):123-33. Search in Google Scholar

6. Teng MW, Ngiow SF, Ribas A, Smyth MJ. Classifying Cancers Based on T-cell Infiltration and PD-L1. Cancer Res. 2015;75(11):2139-2145. Search in Google Scholar

7. Mandalà M, Merelli B, Massi D. PD-L1 in melanoma: facts and myths. Melanoma Manag. 2016;3(3):187-194. Search in Google Scholar

8. Obeid JM, Erdag G, Smolkin ME, et al. PD-L1, PD-L2 and PD-1 expression in metastatic melanoma: Correlation with tumor-infiltrating immune cells and clinical outcome. Oncoimmunology. 2016;5(11):e1235107. Search in Google Scholar

9. Gadiot J, Hooijkaas AI, Kaiser AD, van Tinteren H, van Boven H, Blank C. Overall survival and PD-L1 expression in metastasized malignant melanoma. Cancer. 2011;117(10):2192-2201. Search in Google Scholar

10. Kaunitz GJ, Cottrell TR, Lilo M, et al. Melanoma subtypes demonstrate distinct PD-L1 expression profiles. Lab Invest. 2017;97(9):1063-1071. Search in Google Scholar

11. Hirsch FR, McElhinny A, Stanforth D, et al. PD-L1 Immunohistochemistry Assays for Lung Cancer: Results from Phase 1 of the Blueprint PD-L1 IHC Assay Comparison Project. J Thorac Oncol. 2017;12(2):208-222. Search in Google Scholar

12. Zajac M, Ye J, Mukhopadhyay P, et al. Optimal PD-L1-high cutoff for association with overall survival in patients with urothelial cancer treated with durvalumab monotherapy. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231936. Search in Google Scholar

13. Mahoney KM, Freeman GJ, McDermott DF. The Next Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors: PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade in Melanoma. Clin Ther. 2015;37(4):764-782. Search in Google Scholar

14. Kakavand H, Rawson RV, Pupo GM, et al. PD-L1 Expression and Immune Escape in Melanoma Resistance to MAPK Inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23(20):6054-6061. Search in Google Scholar

15. Piras F, Colombari R, Minerba L, et al. The predictive value of CD8, CD4, CD68, and human leukocyte antigen-D-related cells in the prognosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma with vertical growth phase. Cancer. 2005;104(6):1246-1254. Search in Google Scholar

16. Zhu J, Paul WE. CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults. Blood. 2008;112(5):1557-1569. Search in Google Scholar

17. Dadmarz R, Sgagias MK, Rosenberg SA, Schwartzentruber DJ. CD4+ T lymphocytes infiltrating human breast cancer recognise autologous tumor in an MHC-class-II restricted fashion [published correction appears in Cancer Immunol Immunother 1995 Sep;41(3):201]. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1995;40(1):1-9. Search in Google Scholar

18. Dadmarz RD, Ordoubadi A, Mixon A, et al. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human ovarian cancer patients recognize autologous tumor in an MHC class II-restricted fashion. Cancer J Sci Am. 1996;2(5):263-272. Search in Google Scholar

19. Robbins PF, El-Gamil M, Li YF, Zeng G, Dudley M, Rosenberg SA. Multiple HLA class II-restricted melanocyte differentiation antigens are recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from a patient with melanoma. J Immunol. 2002;169(10):6036-6047. Search in Google Scholar

20. Thomas WD, Hersey P. CD4 T cells kill melanoma cells by mechanisms that are independent of Fas (CD95). Int J Cancer. 1998;75(3):384-390. Search in Google Scholar

21. Chen Q, Hersey P. MHC-restricted responses of CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell clones from regional lymph nodes of melanoma patients. Int J Cancer. 1992;51(2):218-224. Search in Google Scholar

22. Takahashi T, Chapman PB, Yang SY, Hara I, Vijayasaradhi S, Houghton AN. Reactivity of autologous CD4+ T lymphocytes against human melanoma. J Immunol. 1995;154:772-779. Search in Google Scholar

23. Ladányi A. Prognostic and predictive significance of immune cells infiltrating cutaneous melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015;28(5):490-500. Search in Google Scholar

24. Pandiyan P, Hegel JK, Krueger M, Quandt D, Brunner-Weinzierl MC. High IFN-gamma production of individual CD8 T lymphocytes is controlled by CD152 (CTLA-4). J Immunol. 2007;178(4):2132-2140. Search in Google Scholar

25. Dixon SJ, Lemberg KM, Lamprecht MR, et al. Ferroptosis: an iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death. Cell. 2012;149(5):1060-1072. Search in Google Scholar

26. Yang WS, SriRamaratnam R, Welsch ME, et al. Regulation of ferroptotic cancer cell death by GPX4. Cell. 2014;156(1-2):317-331. Search in Google Scholar

27. Wang W, Green M, Choi JE, et al. CD8+ T cells regulate tumour ferroptosis during cancer immunotherapy. Nature. 2019;569(7755):270-274. Search in Google Scholar

28. Cameron F, Whiteside G, Perry C. Ipilimumab: first global approval. Drugs. 2011;71(8):1093-1104. Search in Google Scholar

29. Martens A, Wistuba-Hamprecht K, Yuan J, et al. Increases in Absolute Lymphocytes and Circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Are Associated with Positive Clinical Outcome of Melanoma Patients Treated with Ipilimumab. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22(19):4848-4858. Search in Google Scholar

30. Maibach F, Sadozai H, Seyed Jafari SM, Hunger RE, Schenk M. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Their Prognostic Value in Cutaneous Melanoma. Front Immunol. 2020;11:2105. Search in Google Scholar

31. Steele KE, Tan TH, Korn R, et al. Measuring multiple parameters of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in human cancers by image analysis. J Immunother Cancer. 2018;6(1):20. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo