Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Embryo production by in vitro fertilization in wild ungulates: progress and perspectives

Published Online: 09 Mar 2022
Volume & Issue: AHEAD OF PRINT
Page range: -
Received: 24 Aug 2021
Accepted: 04 Jan 2022
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Wild ungulates are of fundamental importance for balancing ecosystems, as well as being the species of economic interest. Increasing concern over the accelerated population reduction of these species has resulted in the development of assisted reproduction techniques, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), as a tool for conservation and multiplication. In the present scenario, IVF protocols were developed based on the methodologies used for domestic ungulates. Nevertheless, owing to the physiological and reproductive differences among the species, several factors associated with IVF and its relationship with the characteristics of the species of interest require clarification. In vitro conditions for the collection and selection of female and male gametes, oocyte maturation, sperm capacitation, co-incubation of gametes, and embryonic development can influence IVF results. Therefore, the present review considers the main advances in the methodologies already used for wild ungulates, emphasizing the strategies for improving the protocols to obtain better efficiency rates. Additionally, we discuss the conditions of each IVF stage, with emphasis on aspects related to in vitro manipulation and comparability with the protocols for domestic ungulates.


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