With the development of society and economy, electrical automation has come to be widely used in many industries; from industries in which merely basic construction activity is involved to aerospace high-tech, there is no shortage of electrical automation, and it has found the most extensive application in heavy industry and power generation . The improvement and effective use of electrical automation can comprehensively improve work quality and work efficiency, and maximise the economic benefits obtained by enterprises . A series of standards has been formulated in China to ensure the better development of electrical automation and to improve the versatility of related equipment . In the 21st century, electrical engineering and its automation technology are being continuously improved and updated, and the effective integration of computer information technology and electrical automation can comprehensively improve the quality and work efficiency of the entire electrical automation system, thus facilitating it to become one of the important guarantees for the long-term development of the Chinese economy .
In traditional electrical control, most components of the electrical system are controlled in the form of relay contact, but relay control has the disadvantages of slow response time, high average repair rate, complicated wiring, low reliability, high power consumption and poor flexibility . Therefore, an automatic control system with a wide range of applications, powerful functions and convenient use is urgently needed. The programmable logic controller appeared in response to this requirement and has been widely used in the field of automatic control, which has greatly promoted an enhancement in the levels of effectiveness and efficiency for industries that have adopted this automation . The working principle of PLC is fundamentally the same as that of a computer, and it also realises a series of task controls through the execution of certain user programs. In terms of time, the PLC controller is different from the relay control system when performing tasks . In the work of PLC, the method of cyclic scanning is used. This method refers to sampling the signals in each process during the running time of the program, and then performing operations and processing on the signals. The results are sent to the relevant actuators . During the operating cycle of the system, some of the input data do not change, and similarly, some output data remain fixed whereas others might or might not change. In the PLC, the cycle scanning method is used to continuously sample and output the input variables and output variables, so that the corresponding execution actions can be made when the conditions are met .
Electrical automation based on PLC technology is widely used in all walks of life. In the field of agriculture, through precise control of the supply of water and fertiliser to crops, the waste of water resources can be reduced and the level of agricultural modernisation can be improved , Accordingly, several studies are available in the literature describing the impact of application of this technology in agricultural automation tasks. Leedy et al.  designed a fertiliser distribution device for a sprinkler irrigation system to realise the integrated irrigation of water and fertiliser. Colaco and Molin  and Chandel et al.  equipped the fertiliser applicator with a PDA and a vehicle-mounted computer, respectively, combined with technologies such as sensors, cameras and GIS positioning, to achieve accurate measurement and control of orchard fertilisation decision-making information. Sarangapani et al.  used two-line decoding technology and cloud computing to realise the intelligent irrigation of the water and fertiliser integrated delivery machine. Dwinugroho et al.  designed and optimised the mixed fertiliser system of the three-channel bypass fertiliser applicator, and verified the stability of the whole machine structure through simulation and experiments. Boobalan et al.  combined fuzzy control and FPGA technology to design a greenhouse water and fertiliser integration system for online fertiliser mixing. The application results show that the system has good control performance. Yang and Cheng  developed an intelligent irrigation system controlled and monitored by the Android platform. In applying this system, any Android-powered mobile phone can be used to communicate with soil moisture and temperature sensors in real time to realise automatic irrigation of farmland and online analysis of optimal water volume or crop yield. Liu et al.  designed a soilless cultivation irrigation cloud system based on EC sensors, which drives the single-chip microcomputer to control the irrigation and fertilisation devices according to the fertiliser parameters collected by the wireless sensors. Ouberri et al.  designed a fuzzy controller for precision irrigation nonlinear systems, using the T-S model to achieve continuous management of multiple input variables. Rajkumar et al.  established an intelligent fuzzy inference model for the randomness and nonlinearity of automatic irrigation systems, which can effectively improve their accuracy. Yadav and Shevade  proposed using the WebGIS framework to connect discrete agricultural systems to the Internet, and use big data analysis, AI, drones and other technologies to achieve sustainable promotion of precision agriculture. Stavrakoudis et al.  used UAV remote sensing technology to predict the data of rice yield and fertiliser requirement, and established a nutrient content inversion model of rice growth period through multiple linear regression method to ensure accurate diagnosis of rice fertiliser application.
In the field of urban drainage automation, Chopade  studied the adaptability of automatic control systems under different environmental conditions, and used experimental tests to obtain the results; Nie and Xu  mainly designed and implemented BCI-based automatic control systems. Yang and Fu  focussed on research into the automatic display system of drainage systems under certain conditions, using a mobile liquid crystal display. After years of development, the automation level of the current sewage treatment industry has been greatly improved, and the related technologies of the control system have been gradually updated and improved . At present, the three main control systems in the control field are PLC programmable controller system, FCS fieldbus control system and DCS distributed control system . Among them, the structure of the DCS control system is divided into three levels, including the control station, the operation station and the instruments in the process. FCS realises the organic combination of field process equipment, PLC controller and upper computer monitoring part through the established communication network, and thus facilitates the automation of field-level industrial control. FCS system is a relatively popular development point in the current control field, and it is also a popular development direction . The openness, dispersion, maintainability and operability of the FCS system are relatively good, and it is also simple and easy to implement in such a way as to achieve complete onsite control. It is being increasingly used in current industrial production applications . As a result of the effective development of the development platform and configuration software, the PLC control system has a more friendly human–machine interface, and at the same time, the cost is reduced; thus, by opting for this system, users can economically use a control system that offers a greater capability for friendly (i.e. hassle-free) human–machine interaction. The improvement of the communication level also makes the security and stability of the control system develop by leaps and bounds. The openness characteristics of PLC systems are also generally developed based on the customised needs of users, allowing the integration of third-party software and hardware to make PLC more powerful and empowering its use in a wider range.
Based on the findings from the literature outlined above, it is observed that PLC technology is widely used in various fields of electrical automation, which greatly improves the efficiency of the control system and simplifies the installation, monitoring, management, maintenance and other procedures. However, it still has some shortcomings, such as the efficiency still not being very high, the response time being long and the control accuracy being low. Therefore, this paper studies the practical application of PLC technology in various fields of electrical automation engineering, analyses its working principle in depth and optimises the automatic control system based on the PLC principle.
In the electrical automation control system, the RL network is a common loop in the electrical system, in which the resistance R and the inductance L are constants, the voltage U is the input quantity, the current I is the output quantity and the differential equation expressions of the input quantity and the output quantity are such as indicated in Eqs (1)–(4):
In addition, the RC network structure is also a common loop of the electrical system. The resistance R and the capacitance C are both constants, the voltage Ur is the input quantity and the voltage Uc is the output quantity. Further, according to the circuit theory, the differential equation expressions of the input and output quantities can be obtained as shown in Eqs (5) and (6):
At the same time, the PLC uses the armature voltage to control the DC motor in the system, I is the excitation current,
The back EMF is proportional to the motor speed, as shown in Eq. (10):
The electromagnetic torque M generated by the motor is proportional to the armature current I, as shown in Eq. (11):
The torque balance formula on the motor is shown in Eq. (12):
Eqs (9)–(12) are the dynamic and static correlations of the armature controlled by the PLC, which is one of the mathematical models of the electrification system. The four equations mentioned above are transformed by formulas to obtain the attitude equation between the input and output of the motor, as shown in Eq. (13):
Since the inductance of the motor has little influence on the system, Eq. (13) can be simplified to Eq. (14):
At the same time, the rotational speed of the motor is known as the input quantity, and it can be simplified by using the following Eq. (15):
At the same time, PLC is in the motor drive control, in which the servo motor drives the screw to rotate once, and the volume V of the object brought out is shown in Eq. (16):
Then, every time the screw rotates once, the mass
For the power model of the PLC-controlled motor drive, the motor power balance equation can be written as shown in Eq. (18):
The transmission force formula of PLC-controlled servo motor is given by Eq. (19):
After Laplace transformation from Eqs (18) and (19), Eqs (20)–(22) can be obtained:
For the motor controlled by PLC, if the influence of the friction resistance of the screw is not considered, the transfer function of the power model of the mechanical transmission of the servo system can be written as shown in Eq. (23):
By mathematical transformation, Eq. (23) can be simplified to Eq. (24):
In the engineering electrical automation control system, the advantages of PLC technology are particularly prominent. Electrical automation regards PLC technology as a sequential control system in many fields, and the test practice effect of PLC is very significant. The automatic sequence function is a feature of PLC technology, which can reasonably and effectively arrange the sequence of electrical automation equipment, thereby reducing the repetition rate and the processing process related to electrical automation, further improving the processing efficiency of electrical automation, effectively reducing the production cost of electrical automation, and ensuring that the automation and efficiency targets are completed on time. The automation program includes the main program and multiple functional sub-modules, and the electrical automation sequence control is one of them. The mutual assistance between the modules can realise remote control, and can strengthen the management and control of related electrical automation equipment. The application of PLC technology in sequence control can be divided into primary and secondary stations, on-site sensing and remote control, etc.; designers need to carry out the relevant electrical automation program design scientifically and reasonably, so as to achieve effective management of electrical automation data, thereby improving production efficiency. Also, the remote control function can reduce the occurrence rate of safety accidents and realise the comprehensive improvement of the control ability of electrical automation equipment.
In the operation of the traditional electrical automation switch system, the system consumes a certain amount of time and a large amount of power when starting control, and the electrical automation system is often short-circuited. The use of PLC technology can effectively solve such problems. The rational application of PLC technology in the control of switching electrical automation system can effectively promote the integration of electrical operation and information editing, thereby ensuring the safety and stability of the electrical automation control system. At the same time, the application of PLC technology can effectively shorten the response time of the relays in the electrical automation system during operation, can control the frequency of short-circuit accidents taking place in the system, and can also improve the production efficiency, thereby avoiding the major pitfalls or limitations typically associated with electrical automation systems, namely loss of equipment control and resulting safety issues.
PLC technology can strengthen the processing of electrical automation data, and is also the main task of engineering electrical automation. PLC technology may be used to carry out simple programming, conduct preliminary screening of electrical automation information, and then perform an overall scan of the ladder diagram inside the electrical automation equipment to obtain electrical automation data information. In this way, the electrical automation operation steps can be optimised, the PLC running speed can be accelerated and the electrical automation data information can be processed more effectively. The digital information age has imposed strict requirements on data security, and given the background of this requirement, it is noteworthy to emphasise that accelerated data processing can effectively manage data and improve the security of electrical automation data. Since the electrical automation data control includes two parts, namely the control part and the controlled object, the electrical automation control program can be used to collect the electrical automation data reasonably and effectively, arrange the controller to compile the program, and then use statistical methods and digitalisation to efficiently process data that control electrical automation.
The sequence of processing the electrical automation output information and returning to the original beginning is called electrical automation closed-loop control. The electrical automation closed-loop control can start the system operation under the action of the feedback mechanism, and output relevant information smoothly; and at the same time, it can re-input and output basic object information, and achieve the expected effect through reasonable improvement. The application of PLC technology in closed-loop control can effectively integrate the running time of the motor in electrical automation and make a reasonable selection of production tools, and this ideally results in improvement in production quality. PLC technology includes closed-loop control and sequence control, which can further improve the intelligence level of the control electrical automation system, and effectively enhance the structure control and electrical automation data closed-loop management.
In order to ensure the mechanical strength, the rivet necessitates strict requirements on the processing pressure and temperature in the process of hot pressing and forming. If the pressure is too low, the forming effect of the rivet will be poor, which will affect its normal use. If the temperature is too high or too low, it will affect the stability of the internal structure of the rivet and reduce its life and mechanical strength. In order to provide the yield of rivet processing, PLC is used to automatically control the CNC machine tool press in the process of rivet processing. The effect is shown in Figure 1 and Table 1. An analysis of Figure 1 shows that when PLC is used to control the pressure of the CNC machine tool for pressing rivets, when the control time is between 0 s and 10 s, the pressure curve of the rivet will overshoot during the preparation process. However, with the increase of PLC automatic control time, the curve of rivet bearing pressure begins to maintain a smooth state, and there is almost no fluctuation. Before PLC is used, the pressure change of rivets will have a large amplitude and the curve will fluctuate greatly.
Test results of PLC temperature regulation
Table 1 illustrates the effect of temperature changes during rivet processing on automatic control. During the operation of the PLC-controlled electrical automation system, the flow of people and the changes in indoor and outdoor temperatures will cause thermal load disturbances in the rivet processing workshop. Therefore, when the thermal load disturbance multiples of the electrical automation system are different, the effect of PLC on the automatic control of CNC machine tools is tested. The results are shown in Table 1. On analysing Table 1, it is inferred that the thermal load disturbance multiple can have a certain impact on the automatic temperature control of the CNC machine tool. When using PLC to control the temperature of the electrical automation system, when the disturbance multiple is 1.0–1.6, it has no obvious influence on the PLC automatic control, and the automatic control of the CNC machine tool temperature response time is short. However, with the increase of the thermal load disturbance multiple of the electrical automation system, there is a deviation when the PLC automatically controls the temperature of the CNC machine tool, but the maximum deviation value is 1.49°C, and the error percentage is only about 0.001. The results show that PLC has a better effect on temperature control of electrical equipment, and higher precision.
The control electrical automation system designed by this PLC adopts Siemens S7–200 series PLC external analogue input module EM235 to input the signal obtained by the weighing sensor into the PLC. This module can convert the signal obtained by the sensor into (0–32,000) between the numbers. Therefore, the design deviation of the electrical automation system can be converted into (−32 to 32), and its absolute value is changed to (0–32) to simplify the programming, so that the quantisation factor is 3/16; the PID control loop number is selected as 0, and VB100 as the starting address.
In order to edit the fuzzy controller, Matlab mathematical simulation software is used to input the controller into the software, and then a two-dimensional fuzzy controller is determined with two inputs and three outputs. The parameters in the editing interface select the FIS controller type as Mamdani, and the defuzzification method adopts the centre of gravity method. The minimum method is selected for inference rules, and the maximum method is selected for synthesis rules. Then, the membership functions of the input and output variables are edited, the obtained control rules are input into the controller, the Simulink simulation simulator provided in Matlab is used to conduct electrical automation simulation experiments, and a simulation model is established for the control effect of fuzzy PID control.
After the simulation is completed, the weighing system of the electrical automatic packaging machine is run and debugged. Table 2 shows the weighing data in the experiment of weighing accuracy of 200 g with 200 g/bag as the experimental basis. The distribution line of the deviation corresponding to the target quality is shown in Figure 2. After the above experimental analysis, it can be known that the accuracy of the weighing system of the packaging machine is within the range of
Packaging test results of PLC control 200 g
The application of PLC technology can not only effectively improve various problems existing in the traditional electrical automation control system, but also play a role in controlling material loss and saving costs, which can also promote the production efficiency and economic benefits derived by electrical automation enterprises. The use of internal model PID control algorithm strengthens the adaptability of the controller to the changes of the electrical automation system model, better meets the control requirements of stability, accuracy and rapidity, and realises the system heat source that would enable effective and efficient operation corresponding to the least amount of resource consumption; however, the electrical automation system Fan PID parameters have not yet achieved self-matching and self-adaptive functions. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to carefully analyse a large amount of electrical automation data that have been collected, establish electrical automation system models under various working conditions, and combine fuzzy control rules, compile fuzzy programs and add them to existing programs. In this way, the electrical automation system can independently choose to change the motor PID parameters according to different working conditions, so that the entire electrical automation system can always maintain efficient operation.
In order to further improve the accuracy of the weighing system of the bag packaging machine based on the electrical automation system, this paper studies and analyses the PLC control system, combines the fuzzy control with the PID control and proposes the fuzzy control based on the traditional PID. The control of the fuzzy PID control electrical automation system in the packaging machine weighing system is realised through the powerful control effect and programming ability of PLC. The experimental results show that the improved electrical automation control system has good accuracy, the system overshoot is small and the weighing accuracy is controlled at about ±0.1%, which better meets the requirements of accurate measurement of electrical automation packaging machines.
The automatic control system of electrical equipment based on PLC technology is designed. The PID control algorithm is used in the system, and it is written into the PLC programmable electrical automation system controller in a self-programming way. The electrical automation system controller is used to realise electrical The device is automatically controlled. The simulation test results show that the PLC is less affected by the number of threads, and its operation is relatively stable. The spectrum efficiency curve of the electrical automation system coincides with the ideal curve, and it has better communication performance and good applicability.
Packaging test results of PLC control 200 g
Test results of PLC temperature regulation
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Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching Research on evaluation system of cross-border E-commerce platform based on the combined model A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Application of hybrid kernel function in economic benefit analysis and evaluation of enterprises Research on classification of e-commerce customers based on BP neural network The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Study on the influence of adolescent smoking on physical training vital capacity in eastern coastal areas Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G) on the set of maximal subgroups of p-groups Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Computational Algorithm to Solve Two–Body Problem Using Power Series in Geocentric System Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training Nonlinear Channel Estimation for Internet of Vehicles Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model An empirical research on economic growth from industrial structure optimisation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Study of agricultural finance policy information extraction based on ELECTRA-BiLSTM-CRF Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Innovative research of vertical video creation under the background of mobile communication Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model Genetic algorithm-based congestion control optimisation for mobile data network