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Research on the protection and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage under the background of rural revitalisation

Published Online: 23 Dec 2022
Volume & Issue: AHEAD OF PRINT
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Received: 09 May 2022
Accepted: 16 Jul 2022
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2444-8656
First Published
01 Jan 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Introduction

In the process of economic development, the gap between urban and rural areas has gradually widened. Three rural issues have become a weak link in the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics and a bigger obstacle to its continued development. This strategy provides a fundamental solution to the ‘three rural issues’. However, in the process of economic development, we should pay full attention to the value of cultural resources. At present, there are problems in system, fund and policy in cultural protection in China. To some extent, these problems have affected the effectiveness and stability of China’s rural cultural construction. Rural revitalisation and the protection of intangible cultural heritage actually have a potential positive feedback effect. Improving the protection mechanism of intangible cultural heritage and using intangible cultural heritage to carry out innovative economic development model can provide more opportunities and a more solid foundation for rural development [14].

Complexity of rural revitalisation in China

‘Rural revitalisation’ is a new strategy in the new era. In the process of realising rural revitalisation, we should first recognise the complexity of rural revitalisation in China. First, the complexity of rural revitalisation is caused by the difference in resource endowment in different rural areas. With the rapid development of urbanisation and marketisation, the difference in resource endowment will become even greater. Therefore, it is necessary to reshape the relationship between urban and rural areas. In this process, we should pay full attention to the value of cultural resources, especially the use of intangible cultural heritage to carry out innovative economic development model, realise cultural interaction and complementarity, and realise the balanced development of economy and culture. At present, rural culture is seriously assimilated by urban culture. This phenomenon will continue to have a serious impact on the purpose and development of Rural Revitalisation. However, due to the complex objective environment and various contradictions, there are serious deficiencies in the protection mechanism of intangible cultural heritage during the implementation of Rural Revitalisation [59]. If the problems of urban-rural opposition and post rural society cannot be effectively solved, it will be difficult to realise the sustainable development of rural society. At the same time, while the heterogeneous foreign culture has a strong deconstruction effect on traditional culture, rural culture has shown an obvious declining trend. Urban and rural areas have different economic structures and development systems.

At present, rural culture has entered an ‘empty’ state, and the coordination of multiple planning integration has brought some difficulties. In terms of external factors, it needs the teamwork of architects, artists, trainers and volunteers to fundamentally solve the situation of the increasing marginalisation of rural economic and cultural status. To some extent, using culture to promote industrial innovation and development can effectively solve these problems. At the same time, cultural development is conducive to promoting local social and economic development and improving people’s living standards [1012].

In the process of economic development, educational institutions, public management departments and cultural and intangible cultural departments should be fully integrated to provide the basic driving force for Rural Revitalisation. It should be noted that previous strategic measures can no longer cope with today’s complex situation. At the same time, we should pay full attention to the role of talents and take the road of integrated development [1317]. Although the gap between urban and rural areas has gradually widened for a long time, as long as we adopt scientific methods and adhere to the correct strategy, we will be able to regain the voice of rural ideology and culture. The revitalisation of Chinese rural culture is facing a complex external objective environment and implementation process, which requires profound reform and huge transformation. At the same time, it should be noted that the spiritual and cultural needs of farmers have increased. This increase is a positive signal and the ideological basis of Rural Revitalisation. In response to this demand, on the one hand, actively introduce excellent culture, on the other hand, actively protect intangible culture, and fundamentally solve the development of rural culture. This measure is conducive to providing more opportunities and a more solid foundation for rural development [1823].

In addition, China’s rural areas have shown the characteristics of ‘post rural society’. This means that Rural Revitalisation can no longer continue to take the road of industrialisation, but must take the road of cultural development. Cultural revitalisation will be the main mode of Rural Revitalisation in the future. This path requires multi-sectoral coordination. Cultural revitalisation is an ecological revitalisation strategy. In this process, we should give full play to the role of the party and the masses and realise reform and transformation at the organisational level. In the past, rural work mainly focused on economic development, and did not realise the importance of culture, especially the basic role of culture in economic development. Therefore, to take the road of cultural revitalisation, we should combine culture with economy and culture with other elements. In this way, we can fundamentally solve the ‘three rural issues’ [2430].

Type, value and distribution of rural intangible cultural heritage
Types of rural intangible cultural heritage

The classification of intangible cultural resources is the basic work of the development planning of intangible cultural projects and the basic basis for the development of intangible culture. The classification of intangible cultural resources is mainly based on the actual existence, forms of expression, needs of intangible cultural people and the development purpose of intangible cultural enterprises. It includes the following six parts: belief intangible culture, life intangible culture, social intangible culture, economic intangible culture, folklore intangible culture and entertainment intangible culture. The classification of rural intangible culture is shown in Table 1.

Classification and examples of rural intangible culture

Folk customConcrete contentGive an example
Belief intangible cultureNature worship, totem worship, ancestor worship and ghost worshipTaiwan aborigines use snakes as their totem
Living intangible cultureDiet, language, architecture, clothing and marriage customs, etc.Cantonese cuisine, Cantonese, arcade, cheongsam
Social intangible cultureIncluding folk crafts, legislation, etc.Woodcut
Economic intangible cultureEconomic production and consumptionAgricultural solar terms proverb
Folklore intangible cultureFolk songs, folk tales
Entertainment intangible cultureQuyi performance, sports, etc.Folk love songs and dances
Value of rural intangible cultural heritage

For the specific types of rural intangible cultural resources, the general evaluation method is often not suitable, resulting in the error of evaluation of intangible cultural resources. The evaluation of rural intangible cultural resources needs to select index elements from three aspects: resource elements, location elements and environmental elements, and carry out objective scoring and evaluation. Rural intangible cultural values are shown in Table 2.

Rural intangible cultural value

Rural intangible cultural resourcesIndexDegree of importance
Resource elementsRural human resources (ancient sites, modern historical events, villages, lifestyles, agricultural culture)Important
Location factorsAccessibilityMore important
Peripheral attractionCommonly
Environmental elementseconomic environmentImportant
social environmentMore important
environmental qualityCommonly
Policy environmentImportant
Distribution of important rural intangible cultural heritage
Overall spatial distribution type of cultural heritage

Intangible cultural heritage is unevenly distributed in space. In order to explain the overall spatial distribution type and determine the protection means, the spatial distribution of rural cultural heritage should be scientifically investigated. Generally speaking, the spatial distribution of rural cultural heritage can be abstracted as point distribution, and the nearest neighbour index is a geographical index used to judge the mutual proximity of point things in the underground space. Therefore, this paper selects the nearest neighbour index to judge the overall spatial distribution type of rural cultural heritage. There are three main spatial distribution states of point elements: random, uniform and condensed. According to the relevant knowledge of geography and statistics, the nearest neighbour index is selected to analyse the cultural heritage in combination with ArcGIS, Excel and other tools. The calculation formula is as follows: R=r¯1rE rE¯=12×NA where R is the nearest neighbour index, r¯1 represents the mean value of the actual nearest distance of rural cultural heritage in the study area, rE represents the mean value of the theoretical nearest neighbour index distance of rural intangible cultural heritage, N represents the number of point elements and a is the area of the sample range.

Analysis of spatial agglomeration degree of intangible cultural heritage

In order to further explore its distribution status, distribution hotspots, concentration degree, and the relationship between the distribution of rural cultural heritage and other elements in the region, it is necessary to study its spatial distribution hot spots.

The degree of geographical concentration is an important index used to describe the geographical concentration of a certain element in geography. The emergence of intangible cultural heritage is closely related to geographical elements. Therefore, this index can also accurately and effectively reflect the spatial agglomeration degree of rural cultural heritage in the region, and its calculation formula is: G=100×i=1n(XiT)2$$G = 100 \times \sqrt {\mathop \sum \limits_{i = 1}^n {{\left( {{{{X_i}} \over T}} \right)}^2}} $$

Excavation of rural intangible cultural heritage

The excavation of intangible cultural heritage is an important measure for its protection. Generally speaking, the main method is fuzzy prediction data generation algorithm. Based on the simulated training historical data, the flow of the environment data fuzzy prediction algorithm is as follows:

Fuzzification of raw data

For a virtual environment data, suppose that the historical average data of x1, x2, … xT month in the environment is a set of real numbers a, and use them to construct a set of fuzzy numbers, when t = 1 and T, U1=max(x1,x2)$${U_1} = \max {\rm{ }}\left( {{x_1},{x_2}} \right)$$ UT=max(xT1,xT)$${U_T} = \max {\rm{ }}({x_{T - 1}},{x_T})$$

When t(1,T), Ut=max(xt1,xt,xt+1)$${U_t} = \max {\rm{ }}({x_{t - 1}},{x_t},{x_{t + 1}})$$

Calculating the order of fuzzy time series

Take different positive integer k values in the given historical year t to calculate the trend equation: SVt=p^0+p^1×t+p^2×t2++p^k×tk where p^ is the estimated value of fuzzy coefficient pi, and the fitting deviation is calculated as de=1Tt=1Td˜e(SVt,SVt)$${d_e} = {1 \over T}\sum\limits_{t = 1}^T {{{\tilde d}_e}\left( {S{V_t},SV_t^ * } \right)} $$ where ${\tilde d_e}$d~e is the distance between two fuzzy numbers. When de is the smallest, its k value is the appropriate order.

Calculate the fuzzy coefficient pi and boundary line of the trend equation

If pi is a triangular fuzzy function, its estimated value p^i can be set as: p^i(x)={1|xβi|SiβiSixβi+Si0other$${\hat p_i}(x) = \left\{ {\matrix{ {1 - {{|x - {\beta _i}|} \over {{S_i}}}} \hfill & {{\beta _i} - {S_i} \le x \le {\beta _i} + {S_i}} \hfill \cr 0 \hfill & {{\rm{other}}} \hfill \cr } } \right.$$

Here, p^i(x) is the triangular fuzzy number with (βi,Si) as the parameter. In order to make the fuzziness of the trend equation obtained by parameter (βi,Si) as small as possible, set the fuzziness $$S = \mathop \sum \limits_i^k {w_i} \times {S_i}$$S=ikwi×Si of the trend equation composed of the above fuzzy number, where e is its weight vector and S is the ambiguity under W.

The fuzziness of the trend equation is calculated by ordinary linear regression method. It is assumed that the linear regression equation of the original time series to t is: S^Vt=a^0+a^1×t+a^2×t2++a^k×tk {minS=ikwi×SiS.t.hth0t[1,T]$$\left\{ {\matrix{ {\min S = \mathop \sum \limits_i^k {w_i} \times {S_i}} \hfill & {} \hfill \cr {S.t.{h_t} \ge {h_0}} \hfill & {t \in [1,T]} \hfill \cr } } \right.$$ ht=(SVt,SVt*)=1| αti=0kβiti |ct+i=0kSiti $${h_t} = (S{V_t},SV_t^ * ) = 1 - {{\left| {{\alpha _t} - \mathop \sum \limits_{i = 0}^k {\beta _i}{t^i}} \right|} \over {{c_t} + \mathop \sum \limits_{i = 0}^k {S_i}{t^i}}}$$ {i=0ktiβi(1h0)i=0ktiSiαt+ct(1h0)i=0ktiβi+(1h0)i=0ktiSiαtct(1h0)$$\left\{ {\matrix{ {\mathop \sum \limits_{i = 0}^k {t^i}{\beta _i} - (1 - {h_0})\mathop \sum \limits_{i = 0}^k {t^i}{S_i} \le {\alpha _t} + {c_t}(1 - {h_0})} \cr {\mathop \sum \limits_{i = 0}^k {t^i}{\beta _i} + (1 - {h_0})\mathop \sum \limits_{i = 0}^k {t^i}{S_i} \ge {\alpha _t} - {c_t}(1 - {h_0})} \cr } } \right.$$

If the estimated value p^i of pi is obtained, the trend equation is: SVt=p^0+p^1×t+p^2×t2++p^k×tk

The random number of normal distribution is obtained by box Muller algorithm

The core of box Muller algorithm is to first generate a group of random numbers subject to uniform distribution, and then convert the group of uniformly distributed random numbers into normally distributed random numbers through change.

u1 and u2 are generated in the value range of (0, 1], and u1u2 are two independent random numbers: u1=rand()1.0/RAND_MAX u2=rand()1.0/RAND_MAX Z=Rcos(a)

Rural intangible cultural heritage innovation

Rural intangible cultural heritage is an important resource and the material basis of Rural Revitalisation. In the development of intangible cultural resources, we should pay attention to the balance between protection and innovation [14]. Intangible culture, in the final analysis, is created by rural residents. Therefore, farmers have a fundamental say in how to use and innovate. In particular, attention should be paid to the status of women in rural economy and culture, and attention should be paid to women’s voice in rural intangible cultural heritage. Specifically, the innovation of rural intangible cultural heritage should start from the following aspects:

First, build a team of rural leaders. Protecting and inheriting traditional culture is a systematic project, which requires a high-quality talent and excellent leadership teams [15]. Therefore, strengthening the construction of leading talents is an important and key step. Through the construction of leading talents, we can promote the establishment of good family customs. Generally speaking, on the one hand, leaders should take the lead and establish a good model image. For example, leaders should organise various theme and festival activities, establish a long-term mechanism for cultivating cultural talents and cultivate excellent talents. For non-material culture, innovation is the upgrading of protection. Protection cannot stay at the conservative level. It must be transformed into a resource with vitality and reproduction through innovation. On the other hand, leaders should be based on the grass-roots level, deeply explore the connotation of intangible cultural heritage, drive the masses to participate in discussing the limitations of current protection measures and think about ways to solve problems. At the same time, according to the current situation of cultural facilities in the village, cultivate and expand the team of local cultural talents. In this way, we can find the development mode. It can be seen that building a reasonable echelon of cultural talents is the basis and key to the practice of building a civilised countryside, combined with regional characteristics, organise public cultural training, assistance and volunteer activities to fundamentally enhance cultural diversity. This is an expression of respect for human creativity and the basis for the development and planning of local rural projects.

Build a service system for intangible cultural heritage and integrate it with rural construction: In this process, we should guide the villagers to spread and practice virtue, meet the cultural needs of the villagers, and enhance the ideological basis for the protection and innovation of their intangible cultural heritage, so as to provide lasting help for the revitalisation of rural culture. In terms of specific practice, it can be divided into two implementation paths: upward and downward. Generally speaking, the upward path is to create characteristic cultural cards with intangible cultural heritage and set an example of regional virtue, so as to drive the local economy. In the process of implementation, it is necessary to create a cultural business card under the guidance of the upper level planning, take into account the needs of the target consumer groups, and make it the basis of supporting the upper level strategy by protecting and activating material culture and intangible culture.

Carry out national reading activities to improve the cultural literacy of residents, so as to produce the ability of cultural innovation: Specific measures can start with promoting good rural, family and folk practices, such as improving historical sites, organising the masses to participate in the reading of relevant documents, opening up channels for the exchange of cultural talents between urban and rural areas, creating a good rural atmosphere, developing appropriate cultural contents in various communities and groups, connecting the three-level cultural platforms of districts, towns and villages, from the ideological basis.

Consolidate the underlying foundation of cultural development in three aspects: service facilities and service means [19]. In general, intangible cultural heritage plays an important role in the community, can stimulate people’s awareness of mutual appreciation, and has sustainable development. However, it should be noted that the development of cultural content should be based on cultural resources and their connotation and extension, pay attention to the innovative inheritance of culture, and lay out rural cultural infrastructure at the village, town and district levels. In general, to create a strong cultural atmosphere, we need to use the party’s advanced theory to occupy the ideological position in rural areas. Second, carry out evaluation activities to actively mobilise the participation enthusiasm of rural residents. Specific measures: Based on the evaluation of rural intangible cultural resources, transform infrastructure, carry out creative transformation activities, and fully activate the value of intangible cultural heritage [20].

Provide high-quality cultural service products and display the material and spiritual forms of local culture: Specifically, social welfare organisations should be attracted to participate in the protection and innovation of rural intangible cultural heritage. It promotes the formation of a strong cultural atmosphere from the two aspects of amateur cultural life and cultural literacy, and then improves the rural cultural heritage with the help of various large-scale cultural activities to benefit the people [21]. This approach is conducive to the fundamental activation of intangible cultural resources. For example, carry out cultural activities, organise urban residents’ agricultural observation, festival experience, handicraft production and folk art performances. This approach can introduce urban economic resources into rural areas and provide basic guarantee for the protection of cultural resources.

Second, promote the cultivation of inheritors of intangible cultural heritage and explore the innovative protection mode of digital and information technology. Immaterial culture is immaterial, but it cannot exist in a completely immaterial way. The inheritance of intangible cultural heritage, especially the human-oriented inheritance model, has faced the talent bottleneck problem [22]. Therefore, it is urgent to scientifically summarise and refine the intangible cultural heritage, so as to provide a scientific basis for the cultivation of intangible cultural heritage inheritors. At the same time, we can effectively enhance the cultural cohesion of intangible cultural heritage from the aspect of ability elements, so as to enable more young people to participate in its protection activities. On the other hand, for the needs of discussion or research, the industrialisation of cultural resources should be realised as soon as possible. The protection and innovation of intangible culture need material conditions to support its continued existence, and industrialisation can provide necessary funds and technology for this purpose. Special attention should be paid to the role of new technologies, such as digital technology and information technology, which can provide technical advantages that traditional protection does not have, and is conducive to the innovation of protection mode and utilisation mode.

Final, carry out ‘public publicity’ activities to create a public opinion environment suitable for the protection and innovation of intangible cultural heritage. After determining the orientation of local culture, we should actively carry out public opinion publicity to create strong conditions for resource introduction and ideological innovation. Specifically, build village-level comprehensive cultural service centres and cultural centres to make culture become the lifestyle of rural residents. At the same time, fully integrate the foundation and support of tangible assets and intangible assets, highlight the historical and cultural heritage, make each community and group adapt to the surrounding environment, make it a benign interaction between nature and history, and make the positive interaction between culture and society. As the organiser and leader of intangible cultural heritage protection, we should provide these communities and groups with a sense of identity and sustainability. For example, we should carry out rural art creation activities and cultural exhibitions to make intangible cultural heritage known to the public. Generally speaking, starting from promoting grass-roots cultural services, the hierarchical structure of combining up and down, supplemented by town (street) public cultural and sports centres. In terms of intangible cultural heritage, we should actively develop and utilise it to become the driving force of the current rural cultural revitalisation.

Conclusion

The protection of intangible cultural heritage should follow the mode of cultural innovation. Carrying out comprehensive intangible cultural activities is the most effective means. Cultural innovation is not only conducive to the protection of intangible cultural heritage, but also to improve the quality of spiritual and cultural life of local people. In this process, we should pay attention to the leading role of leaders. For non-material culture, it is an important factor for protection and innovation to promote the establishment of good family customs and enable more young people to participate in their protection activities. As the organiser and leader of intangible cultural heritage protection, we should actively play our role and take strategic development as the core, and fully recognise the fundamental role of modern science and technology in the field of innovation. The implementation of cultural innovation strategy should take into account the development of cultural industry, pay attention to the inheritance and protection of history and culture, pay attention to the construction of cultural atmosphere, and pay attention to the introduction and training of cultural talents. By providing high-quality cultural service products and carrying out creative transformation activities, we will finally realise the all-round revitalisation of rural economy, politics and culture.

Rural intangible cultural value

Rural intangible cultural resources Index Degree of importance
Resource elements Rural human resources (ancient sites, modern historical events, villages, lifestyles, agricultural culture) Important
Location factors Accessibility More important
Peripheral attraction Commonly
Environmental elements economic environment Important
social environment More important
environmental quality Commonly
Policy environment Important

Classification and examples of rural intangible culture

Folk custom Concrete content Give an example
Belief intangible culture Nature worship, totem worship, ancestor worship and ghost worship Taiwan aborigines use snakes as their totem
Living intangible culture Diet, language, architecture, clothing and marriage customs, etc. Cantonese cuisine, Cantonese, arcade, cheongsam
Social intangible culture Including folk crafts, legislation, etc. Woodcut
Economic intangible culture Economic production and consumption Agricultural solar terms proverb
Folklore intangible culture Folk songs, folk tales
Entertainment intangible culture Quyi performance, sports, etc. Folk love songs and dances

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