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2444-8656
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Design of information management system based on wireless communication under the background of Internet of Things

Published Online: 05 Sep 2022
Volume & Issue: AHEAD OF PRINT
Page range: -
Received: 26 Apr 2022
Accepted: 15 Jun 2022
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2444-8656
First Published
01 Jan 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Introduction

Since the middle of the past century, human society has gradually entered the information age, which has brought great changes to global politics, economy and culture, as well as the production, life and working methods of people. Wireless communication technology and Internet technology are two important technologies promoting the development of the information industry, in which wireless communication technology has been rapidly developed because of the large-scale popularisation and application of cellular communication [1, 2]. On the premise of having wireless communication base station information management system, wireless communication has the advantages of high communication speed, high efficiency, good security, high stability and less information loss [3, 4]. The establishment of an information management system can not only bring great convenience to wireless information communication but also bring great challenges to base station management personnel. Therefore, in order to ensure the security and stability of the system, a scientific and effective information management scheme must be designed.

In recent years, researchers have carried out a series of studies on wireless communication technology. Using the application programme development interface provided by Google Map, some authors have flexibly realised the maintenance of base station information through the browser/server (B/S) mode [5, 6]. Combined with the detailed planning of the city, previous works have proposed the planning principle and the location principle of mobile communication base stations, and the requirements for lightning protection and grounding and electromagnetic environment protection in the process of station construction have been considered [7, 8]. In view of the large difference between the actual site and the planned site, Dawei and Dong established a multi-party responsible management system, which proposes to improve the coincidence rate between the actual site and the planned site through site acquisition, equipment selection and antenna beautification [9]. In view of the high complexity and high cost of the multi-base station centralised scheduling cooperative system, Shi et al. proposed a multi-base station distributed cooperative multiple input–multiple output (MIMO) system, which greatly reduced the complexity of the system and the construction cost [10]. Considering the construction and management of wireless communication base stations, Haikong and Saihu proposed corresponding solutions and management methods [11]. Other researchers introduced the fourth-generation mobile communication base station; the planning and construction of wireless communication base station were studied and the corresponding planning scheme was proposed [12, 13]. In summary, the current research on wireless communication mainly focusses on wireless communication technology and the layout planning of communication base stations, while research on the design of wireless communication information management system has been less.

First, this paper introduces the related theories of wireless communication, and the theory of multipath transmission effect and multipath fading are described. Then, the overall design of the wireless communication base station information management system is carried out in this paper, in which the requirements of the system are analysed from six aspects that include basic information management function, construction information management function, fault maintenance information management function, property and electricity information management function, information statistics function and system maintenance management. According to the requirements and functions of the system, the principles of system design and the overall functions of the system are determined. Finally, the overall structure of the system is divided into three modules, which are terminal module, relay module and information centre processing module, and the specific functions of the different modules of the system are analysed and designed.

Wireless communication theory

In a wireless communication system, there will be interference during transmission of a signal due to environmental factors, such as distance, noise, terrain and occlusion in the transmission process, which will inevitably affect the reception of the signal. When designing an information management system based on wireless communication under the context of the Internet of Things (IoT), it is necessary to fully understand the characteristics of wireless channels.

In wireless communication systems, free space loss is a description of the power loss of the signal in the transmission process, which is defined as the ratio of the signal powers between the receiving and the sending ends. The expression of free space loss is shown in Eq. (1), and the path loss model in free space can be expressed by Eq. (2).

PrPt=(4πd)2λ2=(4πfd)2c2 $$\matrix{ {PL(dB) = 10{{\log }_{10}}{{{P_t}} \over {{P_r}}} = 10{{\log }_{10}}{{\left( {{c \over {4\pi fd}}} \right)}^2}} \cr } $$ PL(dB)=10log10PtPr=10log10(c4πfd)2 where f represents the carrier frequency and d represents the distance between the transmitter and the receiver, both of which play an important role in the loss of free space. By changing the carrier frequency and distance, the influence of free space loss on wireless signal propagation can be reasonably controlled.

In the system design, the far-field conditions of the transmitting antenna often need to be met, which means that the distance between the receiving point and the transmitting point is much larger than the Rayleigh distance, as shown in Eq. (3).

d>dR=2L2λ where L represents the maximum physical size of the antenna, d represents the distance between the receiving point and the transmitting point and dR represents the Rayleigh distance.

A signal often experiences a variety of losses and fading during transmission in the environment, and the power of the signal at the receiver can be expressed by Eq. (4).

P(d)=|d|nS(d)R(d) where n represents the space propagation loss factor and R(d) represents the multipath fading. It is very necessary for a wireless communication system to reasonably reduce the influence of multipath transmission on the signal.

Multipath transmission effect

In wireless communication systems, the multipath effect shows that the signal on each path will experience attenuation and delay, and the time and amplitude of the signal’s transmission to the receiver will also change. The impulse response of a wireless channel can be expressed by Eqs (5)–(6).

h(t)=i=0K1hi(t)δ(ττi) y(t)=i=0K1hi(t)x(tτi) where h(t) represents the impulse response, y(t) represents the signal of the receiving end and hi(t) represents the fading coefficient on the corresponding path.

Multipath fading

The branch signal will experience attenuation and delay during the transmission, so the corresponding signal amplitude and phase will also change. Taking amplitude as an example, if the signal amplitude at the receiving end decreases after multipath transmission, the signal is said to have experienced multipath fading. In order to quantitatively analyse the extension of time delay, the time difference between the first signal and the end signal arriving at the receiver is called the maximum time delay τm, and its calculation is shown in Eq. (7).

Bch=1τm where Bch represents the coherence bandwidth and τm represents the time difference between the first and last signals to the receiving end.

The multipath transmission effect will generate spectrum expansion in the frequency domain, which will result in time-selective fading. Doppler frequency shift refers to the phenomenon that the frequency of the receiving signal is different because of the relative movement of the transceiver, whose calculation formula is shown in Eq. (8).

fd=νλcosθ=fmcosθ where fd represents the Doppler frequency shift, θ represents the incident angle of the signal and ν represents the relative moving speed of the transceiver equipment.

The formula in Eq. (9) is obtained by defining the reciprocal of fm in Eq. (6) as the coherent time Tc.

Tc=1fm where Tc represents the coherence time. When the signal transmission period is longer than Tc, the fading type is fast fading; otherwise, it is slow fading.

Overall design of wireless communication information management system
System requirement analysis

With the increasing demand of wireless communication system for base stations, the relevant basic information will also increase, which brings great challenges to managers. In order to ensure the stability of system management, a set of information management systems that meet the management needs must be designed. When designing the system, the requirements of the system should be analysed first. A complete system should have six functions, which are basic information management function, construction information management function, fault maintenance information management function, property and electricity information management function, information statistics function and system maintenance management. The system requirements and basic functions are shown in Figure 1.

Fig. 1

System requirements and basic functions

Basic principles of system design

The main work of the information management system is to analyse and process the information transmitted from each sensor through wired or wireless networks; then, the analysis results are fed back to the terminal equipment so as to achieve the purpose of efficient use of various resources. A good control system needs to meet the following three requirements in design.

First, the system should have simplicity of operation. On the premise of meeting the predetermined goals and requirements, the system should be as simple as possible, which can reduce development costs, improve system efficiency and simplify implementation and management.

Secondly, the system should have flexibility and adaptability to adapt to changes in the environment. The variability of the system refers to the ease of allowing the system to be modified and maintained.

Finally, the system should have two aspects, one is consistency (which refers to the consistency of system information coding, acquisition and information communication), and the other hand is integrity (which refers to the system existing as a unified whole and the system functioning being as complete as possible). Most importantly, the system should have the characteristic of reliability; only when the system has the characteristic of reliability can the system get the trust of users; otherwise, it does not have use value.

Overall function of the system

The function of the system is mainly divided into three parts: the first part is the collection of front-end data, the second part is the transmission of intermediate data and the last part is the processing of collected data and feedback to users. Since the research object of this paper is relatively large, this paper mainly studies the transmission and processing of intermediate data.

The collection of front-end data includes four parts: the first part is the maintenance of electronic tag data, the second part is the maintenance of infrared sensor status, the third part is to send data to the information processing centre when any abnormal event occurs and the fourth part is the measurement of temperature of the environment. The ZigBee module is used as the intermediate transmission unit in data transmission, which is divided into three modes, which are terminal, relay and central points. The main function of the terminal is to collect terminal data and send them to the centre or relay point; the main function of relay is to transmit to the centre the surrounding data that cannot directly reach the centre. The function of the centre is to transmit the gathered data to the information processing platform and transmit the processing results of the information platform to the terminal node.

The B/S structure is used in the back end, and J2EE and AJAX are used to build the information management system whose specific functions are mainly divided into the following three points.

The rights of users should be controlled to prevent unauthorised user login.

Each sensor needs to be managed and maintained so that the working condition of the sensor can be understood at all times.

The platform can obtain the state information of the terminal sensor by sending detection commands periodically, which can find and solve the problem in time.

Wireless communication information management system function realisation
Overall structure of the system

According to the functional requirements of the system, the system structure can be divided into three modules, which are the terminal module, the relay module with router function and the information centre processing module.

The terminal module mainly detects the ambient temperature and carries out real-time monitoring of the infrared sensor, which can send commands to the sensor and configure the working state of the sensor. When the temperature is abnormal, the temperature and other parameters are sent to the information processing centre. When the infrared sensor is triggered in illegal time, the alarm information is sent to the information centre and the loudspeaker installed at the terminal is triggered.

In addition to all the functions of the terminal module, the relay module also adds the data routing function, which is mainly for the data forwarding of the terminals that cannot exchange data directly. The relay node can determine whether the data need to be forwarded according to the destination ID.

The main function of the information centre processing module is to analyse the data returned by the terminals at all levels and carry out relevant processing. Customers can also send data to the terminal node through the information centre according to their own needs, and the overall structure is shown in Figure 2.

Fig. 2

System structure diagram

Design of terminal module

The terminal module is mainly composed of three parts: the microcontroller unit (MCU), different sensors and ZigBee modules. The main function of the infrared sensor is to judge whether someone is close to the device. The infrared sensor will send a signal to the single-chip microcomputer (SCM) when people are close to the infrared sensor in illegal time. The signal processed by the SCM is transmitted to the information centre module through the ZigBee module; the data are processed by the information centre and the processing results are transmitted to the terminal to take corresponding measures. The temperature sensor is used to measure the ambient temperature; the control terminal sends out alarm information when the ambient temperature is abnormal, and the information is fed back to the information centre for further processing. The overall structure of the terminal module is shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 3

Terminal module flow chart.CPU, central processing unit

The system controls and monitors the state of each sensor, which will be sent to the information processing centre through the wireless module when an abnormal state occurs. The front end can add or delete the corresponding sensors according to the actual needs, and the temperature and infrared sensors are mainly used in this system. Terminal central processing unit (CPU) information processing system can also choose different processing chips according to the system’s own needs, such as digital signal processor (DSP), MCU and field programmable gate array (FPGA). In addition, wireless modules can make special choices according to their needs. The workflow of the terminal device is shown in Figure 4.

Fig. 4

Terminal operation flow chart.MCU, microcontroller unit; SCM, single-chip microcomputer

Relay module design

The main function of the relay module is to forward data, and this paper mainly adopts SZ05-ZBEE module and SZ05 series embedded module, which have the advantages of long communication distance, strong anti-interference ability, flexible networking as well as reliable and stable performance. It not only can realise the transparent transmission of device data in point-to-point, point-to-multi-point and multi-point-to-multi-point modes but also can form star, tree and honeycomb network structures.

The data interface of this module includes the time-to-live (TTL)-level transceiver interface and the RS232 data interface, which can send data by broadcasting according to the target address. In addition to the general point-to-point data communication function, the module can also realise data communication between multiple points. The use of serial communication is simple and convenient, which can greatly shorten the embedded matching time process of the module. The wireless communication module is divided into three parts, and these three types of equipment have different network functions. The first part is the central coordinator, which is the central node of the network and is responsible for network organisation, network maintenance and management functions. The second part is the router, which is responsible for the routing relay forwarding of data. The third part is the terminal node, which only sends and receives the data of this node. The hardware structure of the three types is completely consistent while the device is embedded in different software, and different device functions can be realised by skip setting or software configuration.

Design of information centre processing module

This module is the core management module of the system, which processes the data collected by wireless or wired networks comprehensively. Then, the analysis results are fed back to the user, which can have a better understanding of the whole system through the personal computer (PC). The information processing centre can send relevant instructions to control each terminal, and the module is divided into four sub-modules.

System user management module

The information management system needs strict security requirements, so the authority management of users should be strictly limited to prevent illegal user intrusion into the system.

Sensor management module

In this sub-module, the staff conducts related operations on the temperature and infrared sensors whose current state can be displayed. The sensor can be added or deleted, and different working states can be set for different sensors.

System map display module

This module can display the installation position of the sensor in the system; the relevant information of the sensor can be displayed by clicking on different icons and the map can be enlarged and narrowed.

Serial port module

The main function of this module is to design the serial port in which different serial ports can be selected and different band rates can be set to meet the requirements of communication.

The overall design of the information centre processing module is shown in Figure 5.

Fig. 5

System function flow

Conclusion

First, this paper introduces the related theories of wireless communication, and the multipath transmission effect and multipath fading are described. Then, the overall design of the wireless communication base station information management system is carried out in this paper, in which the requirements of the system are analysed from six aspects, which include basic information management function, construction information management function, fault maintenance information management function, property and electricity information management function, information statistics function and system maintenance management. Next, the system design principles and overall functions are determined according to the system requirements and functions. Finally, the overall structure of the system is divided into three modules, which are terminal module, relay module and information centre processing module, and the specific functions of the different modules are analysed and designed. The system designed in this paper has the advantages of flexibility, simplicity and strong applicability, which can provide reference for the development of information management system.

Fig. 1

System requirements and basic functions
System requirements and basic functions

Fig. 2

System structure diagram
System structure diagram

Fig. 3

Terminal module flow chart.CPU, central processing unit
Terminal module flow chart.CPU, central processing unit

Fig. 4

Terminal operation flow chart.MCU, microcontroller unit; SCM, single-chip microcomputer
Terminal operation flow chart.MCU, microcontroller unit; SCM, single-chip microcomputer

Fig. 5

System function flow
System function flow

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