As one of the research hotspots of computer vision, visual matching has the preponderance of estimating the 3D structure and appearance information of the scene. The advantages of convenience and low cost of this technology promote the development of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition and machine vision. However, with the development of industrial refinement, people put forward higher requirements for the accuracy and range of measurement information [1, 2]. For example, for accurate identification of workpiece position, precise data are needed to calculate centroid coordinates on this basis, which introduces the need for higher measurement accuracy. At the same time, most of these devices are foreign products, which are expensive, suitable for customisation and detection of specific scenes, and not universal, which severely restricts the development of China's manufacturing industry [3,4,5]. In addition, with the continuous development of visual matching techniques, the single-scale application scenarios represented by mobile phones will greatly increase. At the same time, among the many ways of visual model reconstruction, 3D reconstruction technology, which is based on stereo vision matching, utilises the bionics principle. The acquired images are processed by imitating human visual perception, which makes the effect relatively close to the recognition result of human eyes, and endows it with the capability to flexibly process data information in complex scenes. Therefore, this function cannot be replaced by other computer vision methods, and it is also the general trend of future development.
Extraction and matching of a feature point is an important step in determining whether the result of visual matching is accurate or not, and is also an important cornerstone to ensure the smooth development of the follow-up work. Among the existing 3D reconstruction methods, SIFT fast feature matching algorithm, SURF accelerated robust feature matching algorithm and ORB algorithm are commonly used [6, 7]. But the real-time performance of SIFT is poor, even after the underlying optimisation, through several times improvement, the time performance is not enough to meet the real-time requirements of current application scenarios. In the application scenario of scale-free variation, if SURF algorithm is used, the time cost will increase, while if ORB algorithm is used, the accuracy will decrease [8, 9]. Therefore, for the inherent constraint problem of images in the scale-free variation scene, we need to find a better way to solve the balance between visual matching effect and speed from the extraction, matching and misjudgement point elimination of feature point.
The environment of visual imaging process consists of scene illumination, light propagation, illumination of image plane and signal processing. Natural scenery is ever-changing with different shapes. It is necessary to know the background characteristics of various radiation sources and targets, whether the scenery can be imaged and with what means it is suitable to be converted into an image. First, most of the images used in image processing are collected according to the principle of reflected light imaging. In the design of actual imaging system, it is generally simplified to Lambert model, and the ideal diffuse reflector is the typical Lambert , where the scenery emits light in all directions. Take a point in the scene as an example to analyse the light propagation. Figure 1 is a sectional view of an imaging system, and point P emits spherical waves; when it reaches the lens system, due to the differences between points on the surface of spherical waves and the refractive index of the lens, the light rays converge to point P′ of the image plane. Due to the coaxial sphericity of the imaging system, the object point P corresponds to the only image point P′. When the spherical waves emitted by all points in the field of view can be received by the imaging system, a two-dimensional image of the scene is formed.
As shown in Figure 2, the light received by the human eye reaches the fundus, and passes through the human eye imaging and the eyepiece after reflection, thereby forming an image at plane S behind the eyepiece. Then, the light passes through the reducing glass, and the common objective glass receives light rays where the plane S becomes the common focal plane of the eyepiece and the two lenses behind it. Afterwards, the imaging beam forms two parallel beams after sharing the objective lens, and the distance between the two parallel beams is increased by the reflector group, which provides space for adding mirror of illumination light path and OCT mirror . Through the focusing lens and CCD camera, the images of the two parallel lights are collected, individually. The focusing system can adjust the range of the camera-receiving surface, so as to obtain the appropriate fundus retinal images. The common objective lens and the structure in front of the objective lens of the imaging system are mainly designed by using principle of Kepler telescope system, and the parallax principle of binocular vision is used in the two-way camera shooting after sharing the objective lens.
The physical world is imaged on the photo sensor through the camera model, and is stored on the storage device after analogue–digital conversion. In this process, it involves the transformation of four coordinate systems, including the world coordinate system (X
To transform a point P in space into a point P′ in the image, it is necessary to master the physical meaning and mathematical transformation relationship of the four coordinate systems. Without considering the distortion, that is, under the ideal perspective condition, the principle of transformation of object point into image point is shown in Figure 3. P is located in the real space, and its position relationship can be accurately expressed only by determining the reference frame in the 3D scene . The coordinate system with O
Point P in space is a point of the actual object, and the difference of coordinates is only relative to different reference systems, which shows that reference is very important when determining the position of spatial points. The world coordinate system is transformed into the camera coordinate system through transformation of rotation and translation, and the mathematical expression of coordinate transformation in different reference frames is shown in Eq. (1).
When solving the 3D coordinates of an object, as long as the reference object is selected and the position is fixed, a camera corresponds to a certain external parameter. P′ is also at the same point of image coordinates and pixel coordinates, of which the transformation mathematical expression is shown in Eq. (3).
After the image points are collected by the camera, they are projected onto the imaging surface, and the computer stores them in the form of a two-dimensional array, where they are referred to as a pixel point; and each value of the two-dimensional array is called a pixel, which can be converted into matrix form as shown in Eq. (4).
At this point, the conversion relationship between the four different coordinate systems can be connected through the camera coordinate system and the image coordinate system, and the conversion between these two coordinate systems is obtained under the ideal pinhole camera imaging model.
The P point of the object is imaged at the P′ point through the lens, and the actual image is on the plane behind the lens. However, for convenience, we move the focal plane to the front of the lens’ optical centre, and the distance between the camera optical centre and the origin of the image coordinate system is the focal length value, f, of the lens. The conversion formula of the two coordinate systems can be obtained by the principle of geometric knowledge, as shown in Eq. (5).
Combining the above formulas, the conversion formula of point P in spatial coordinates projected to P′ in pixel coordinates is as follows:
The above situation is a pinhole camera imaging model, that is, a linear model, where the imaging coordinates are linearly related to the coordinates of spatial physical points. However, due to the lens process and the installation deviation between sensors and lenses, the lens system will be distorted, which often leads to the non-linear correspondence between points and a distortion in the imaging system [14, 15]. For this distortion problem, in this paper, a distortion coefficient is introduced to correct it, which is transformed into a linear model.
The lens system usually has two forms of distortion, as shown in Figure 4, which are radial variation along the circle diameter direction and tangential variation along the circle circumference direction. When the ideal imaging point is located at point A because of the distortion, the position of the ideal point is shifted, and the actual imaging point is point B. In Figure 4, dr is radial change and dt is tangential change.
The radial distortion of the image not only affects the visual effect of the image but also increases the difficulty of calculation in 3D coordinates after feature point matching . In reality, most lenses are circularly symmetric, and the distortion changes with the distance from the centre of the circle. Generally, Taylor series near the distortion centre is used to expand the first three terms . Thus, the formula of distortion of a point in the radial direction is shown in Eqs (8) and (9).
Eq. (10) shows the change of coordinate position before and after distortion, where (
Assuming that the position of the point in the object space is determined, the coordinate information of the point in the pixel coordinate system has also been determined. From Eq. (10), it can be found that this is a linear equation set consisting of two equations, but it contains three unknowns, and the equation set has no definite solution from the knowledge of mathematical equations. Only by finding another set of equations in the same form can the accurate information be determined, that is, only when two cameras image the same object can the 3D coordinate information of space object points be determined.
The coordinates of the pixel points of the same object point in two images can be found by technical means, and the 3D coordinates of the space point can be determined by mathematical calculation after obtaining two sets of equations. However, as the calculation procedure associated with this method is complicated, we usually calculate the positional deviation of image points, that is, parallax; then the depth information can be obtained by using the similar triangle principle, and finally the above equations are substituted to obtain the 3D coordinate information . It can be seen from Figure 5 that any point in space will be at the intersection of two straight lines, and that this point is unique. Assuming that the two cameras are of the same model, the optical centre distance is T and the focal length is f; so, the depth information Z can be calculated according to the similar triangle principle, and the calculation formula is shown in Eq. (11).
The depth information, namely the vertical distance Z, can be obtained from Eq. (12):
Feature matching is the most important link in the process of 3D reconstruction, which directly determines the accuracy of 3D coordinate points. The coordinates of two correctly matched pixel points can directly calculate
According to the principle of visual imaging mentioned above, the calculation model of images under atmospheric scattering can be obtained as the following:
Figure 6 is an inherently constrained imaging model. From a geometric point of view, in the RGB colour space model, the vectors
According to the idea of linear extrapolation, Eq. (13) is deformed, and the following formula can be derived:
All pixel values of each image have boundary constraints, assuming that the boundary value of each colour channel in the image
As shown in Figure 7, for any pixel in the image
The errors that affect the visual matching effect include the measurement of the distance between optical centres, corner detection position error and feature point detection and matching in camera construction. This paper mainly studies the influence of the distance between cameras and the measured depth information on
Analysis of visual matching error under different test distances
It can be concluded from the table that there is an optimal measuring distance between two cameras, and when the camera distance is about 65 mm, the measuring accuracy is the highest. At the same time, it can also be found that the depth and parallax are inversely proportional and non-linear. When the parallax is very small, the small change can causes a large change in the measurement distance, while when the parallax is very large, the change of small parallax will not cause the change of measurement distance.
Under the constraint of inherent conditions, the error of corner detection position mainly lies in the error of pixel position during detection. Since the corner has a certain size, and the number of pixels in the digital image is large and the actual length is small, it may not be the central position when the position is determined, and the actual length corresponds to an offset. Therefore, the error of the calculated internal and external parameters can be effectively analysed.
Corner test is implemented by matching algorithm. First, the 9 × 9 window is used to select the pixel value of the left image, and the pixel value of the right image is calculated by the same calculation method, so as to further compare the sizes of two pixel values. First, when the difference between the two values is less than a certain threshold, it is considered that the initial matching point has been found, the pixel coordinates of the centre point are recorded and all pixel points are matched in turn. Then, we calculate the sum of all pixel values of the matching points of the two images, and take the sum and difference of the pixels of the two images as a cost function. Finally, according to the value of the cost function, we determine whether the next re-matching calculation is needed and if the matching points need to be polished, re-select the starting position of the window according to the form of genetic mutation learning and then determine the centre point to start the next cycle until the matching cost function meets the requirements to finish the calculation and output the best matching result.
The selection of the initial window starts with the origin of the left image, and the matching of the right image also starts with the origin, except that each movement of the left image corresponds to six window movements of the right image. That is, every time the left image moves, the right image moves 2, 6 and 12 pixels in the right and down directions, respectively. Afterwards, the sum of pixel values in the window is calculated, and the threshold value is compared to determine the centre position of the matching start. Similarly, after the right image is moved for six times, the left image is moved for the next round, and the moving mode is to move 2 pixels to the right and down each time.
From Figure 8, we can see that the detection results based on ordinary visual matching have a high degree of confusion and many error points are detected. In contrast, the detection results after considering inherent constraints are very accurate, the accuracy rate is increased from 60.1% to 85.7% and almost all the detected points are corner points. Further statistics are computed based on the test results indicated in Table 2, where the experimental results are analysed and explained in detail using specific data.
Corner extraction results
|General visual matching||52||26||8||60.1|
|Considering inherent constraints||54||3||6||85.7|
Visual matching under inherent constraints filters out most pixels that are not corners through pre-screening, thus reducing the probability of errors and effectively controlling the number of detected wrong corners. The original model can also detect 54 correct corners, and the performance of the two algorithms is similar in detecting correct corners. However, in terms of the detected wrong corners, by considering the inherent constraints, only three wrong corners were detected, while the original model detected 26 wrong corners, which was about nine times that of the improved algorithm.
Making research on the precise error control of visual matching in geometric calculation can realise high-precision measurement. In order to solve the shortcomings of the visual matching model, such as large error of camera internal and external parameters, low-matching accuracy of feature points and long running time, etc. in this paper, the inherent constraints of images are introduced, and a non-linear visual matching model considering the constraints is established. Test results show that under the inherent constraints, there is an optimal measuring distance between two cameras, and the relationship between depth and parallax is inversely proportional, but non-linear. In visual matching under inherent constraints, most pixels that are not corners are screened out, thus reducing the probability of error, and its matching accuracy rate is increased from 60.1% to 85.7%.
Analysis of visual matching error under different test distances
Corner extraction results
|General visual matching||52||26||8||60.1|
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management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Study on the influence of adolescent smoking on physical training vital capacity in eastern coastal areas Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G) on the set of maximal subgroups of p-groups The internal mechanism of corporate social responsibility fulfillment affecting debt risk in China: analysis of intermediary transmission effect based on degree of debt concentration and product market competitive advantage Study on transmission characteristics in three kinds of deformed finlines based on edge-based finite element method Asymptotic stability problem of predator–prey system with linear diffusion Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long short-term memory networks A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Computational Algorithm to Solve Two–Body Problem Using Power Series in Geocentric System Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training Nonlinear Channel Estimation for Internet of Vehicles Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model An empirical research on economic growth from industrial structure optimisation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Study of agricultural finance policy information extraction based on ELECTRA-BiLSTM-CRF Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Innovative research of vertical video creation under the background of mobile communication Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model Genetic algorithm-based congestion control optimisation for mobile data network