Aiming to address the shortage of experimental resources, the high cost of large-scale deployment of hardware experimental environment and the difficulty for students to get started in the software-defined network (SDN) course, this article proposes an SDN experimental teaching scheme based on the virtualised environment, and gives a specific experimental scheme design. The scheme utilises virtualisation technology to build a SDN experimental environment quickly, uses a lightweight network simulation platform – that goes by the name of Mininet – to build the SDN network and uses open-source controller Floodlight for centralised control of the SDN network. The scheme is mainly divided into three phases: basic, improvement and synthesis. In the basic phase, experimental projects mainly include the study of SDN basic concepts and the use of relevant tools; in the improvement phase, experimental projects mainly include the use of SDN flow table, group table, etc; in the synthetic phase, we design two innovative experimental projects that use computational intelligence technology to achieve efficient load balancing and accurate malicious attack detection. The difficulty of each phase is increasing. The constantly evolving levels of difficulty allow the individual needs of students with different levels to be met, thereby improving the effect of SDN experimental teaching and cultivating innovative SDN talents.

#### Keywords

- software-defined network
- virtualization
- experimental teaching
- computational intelligence
- Floodlight
- Mininet

#### MSC 2010

- 68M10
- 90B18

Software-defined network (SDN) is an emerging network innovation architecture proposed by Professor Nick Mckeown based on SANE and Ethane [1]. In 2011, the Open Networking Foundation (ONF), as the leader and standard-setter, promoted SDN to gradually become an important topic in the research of new network architectures in recent years [2]. The core concept of SDN is to abstract the underlying network infrastructure from the application and adopt a new architecture that separates the control plane from the data plane. Further, SDN realises flexible scheduling of network traffic through open programmable interfaces, which provide a good platform for the innovation of SDN [3,4,5,6].

ONF proposes a typical logical SDN architecture. As shown in Figure 1, the tightly coupled network architecture in the logic of traditional network devices is divided into three planes: the data plane, the control plane and the application plane. The data plane contains various underlying network devices, and these are responsible for data storage and forwarding; in the control plane, the software-based centralised controller is deployed. The SDN controller is responsible for data forwarding, traffic scheduling, link bandwidth statistics and other functions of the basic plane by the OpenFlow protocol. The SDN controller also provides a unified network service to the application plane through the northbound interface; the application plane contains various software and realises the control and management of the network through the northbound interface.

Compared with traditional networks, SDN has the following advantages:

SDN uses the separation of control and forwarding to break the closed model of traditional equipment suppliers’ software and hardware integration, which is conducive to optimisation at the global network.

SDN provides developers with a convenient programming interface, so that developers can create or use the corresponding SDN network according to actual needs and are no longer restricted by the traditional network.

SDN abstracts the actual physical network into multiple logical networks based on virtualisation technology, meeting the needs of different business scenarios flexibly.

SDN is an important application in the field of computational intelligence, monitoring network topology, link utilisation, traffic and other information in real time and optimising network quality through centralised mathematical statistical computation and simulation with the goal of discovering a better forwarding path for the traffic to be adjusted.

In recent years, SDN has been introduced into the teaching of computer-related majors by an increasing number of colleges and universities [7, 8]. Princeton University, Columbia University and ETH Zurich have successively opened SDN courses. Some Chinese universities have also paid attention to the development of the future network field, but mainly through the establishment of relevant SDN laboratories. Therefore, related experimental resources are still characterised by a scarcity in supply, and the early stage construction of the course is difficult. Further, compared with the small-scale environment configuration of the laboratory, setting up a SDN course requires large-scale experimental deployment, and the cost of using hardware equipment is higher. Finally, as an emerging technology, the SDN course needs to combine various programming languages such as Java, Python and C in the experimental teaching methodology, and students need to be familiar with basic aspects of knowledge concerning Linux and the related networking functions. Therefore, it is difficult for students to commence their training [9,10,11,12]. Aiming at the above problems, this article proposes a SDN experimental teaching scheme based on the virtualised environment. Open-source virtualisation software such as Mininet and Open vSwitch is used to quickly and flexibly deploy an SDN experimental environment on a large scale. The scheme is divided into three phases: basic, improvement and synthesis. In the basic phase, experimental projects mainly include the study of SDN basic concepts and the use of relevant tools; in the improvement phase, experimental projects mainly include the use of SDN flow table, group table etc; in the synthetic phase, we design two innovative experimental projects which use computational intelligence to achieve efficient load balancing and accurate malicious traffic detection. Therefore, the scheme reduces the difficulty that students face in commencing their training with SDN and thereby increases their enthusiasm for learning SDN.

Mininet is a lightweight network simulation platform developed by Professor Nick Meckown and his team based on the virtualisation technology of the Linux Container kernel. This platform can simulate an SDN experimental environment, and can also migrate the code of the virtualised experimental environment to the real network environment [13, 14]. Students can quickly build an SDN network on their own computers and perform related development tests. Compared with the hardware experimental environment, Mininet not only avoids the cost of expensive OpenFlow switches and other hardware equipment but also reduces the difficulty of large-scale deployment of SDN experimental environment; thus, this attenuation of the difficulty of using SDN networks – that is caused by Mininet – encourages the opening SDN courses in universities.

To effectively demonstrate the control process of the SDN controller to the network, the experiment can use Mininet to connect the remote controller, and then display the experimental effect through Mininet terminal commands or the visual management interface of the SDN controller. This article uses Floodlight as the remote controller. Floodlight is a Java-based open-source SDN controller authorised by Apache. Similar to NOX, POX and other controllers, Floodlight also adopts a hierarchical architecture and provides a wealth of application programming interfaces (APIs) that are the same as the commercial version, allowing developers to quickly migrate the code on Floodlight to other commercial versions of controllers. Floodlight is widely used in academic research and commercial projects owing to its good characteristics [15]. Also, Floodlight provides a visual management interface for the controller, through which students can view the switch information, the host information and the real-time network topology.

To summarise, the virtualised experimental platform used in the SDN teaching scheme consists of the Floodlight controller and the Mininet network simulation platform.

The SDN experiment teaching scheme can be divided into 3 experimental phases and 10 experimental projects. As shown in Figure 2, modular experiments can be carried out according to the actual situation faced by students. In the basic phase, the experimental projects include the use of basic tools such as Wireshark and Postman, as well as the installation and use of virtualised software such as Mininet and Floodlight; in the improvement phase, the experimental projects mainly include using Mininet command to create customised topologies, the analysis of OpenFlow packets through Wireshark and the learning of flow table and group table; in the synthetic phase, the experimental projects implement specific functions or mathematical models by the characteristics of SDN, such as SDN-based network load balancing and SDN-based malicious attack detection.

Basic experimental projects.

Use of Wireshark, a packet capture analysis tool | Grasp the basic use of Wireshark. |

Use of HTTP request testing tool Postman | Grasp the basic functions and usage of Postman. |

Installation and commonly used commands of Mininet | Grasp the basic concepts and functions of Mininet. |

Installation and use of Floodlight | Grasp the background and basic architecture of Floodlight. |

Improvement experimental projects

Use Mininet to create a custom topology network | Master the method of using Mininet command to create minimal, linear and tree topologies. |

Use Wireshark to analyse OpenFlow packets | Grasp the process of establishing a TCP connection between the OpenFlow switch and the controller. |

OpenFlow flow table, group table, meter table learning | Master the basic knowledge of OpenFlow flow tables and flow table entries, matching rules and actions performed. |

Use flow tables for simple access control | Master the use of Mininet to create custom network topologies and connect to the remote controller Floodlight. |

Synthesis experimental projects.

SDN-based network load balancing | Grasp the SDN load balancing method. |

SDN-based malicious attack detection | Grasp the malicious attack detection mechanism. |

We design two innovative experimental projects in the synthesis phase: SDN-based network load balancing and SDN-based malicious attack detection. These projects mainly include grasping the mechanism of SDN load balancing and the malicious attack detection, the installation and commonly used commands of Mininet, the use of Mininet to create a custom network topology, the installation and use of Floodlight, the use of Wireshark, the coding of Java programs to deliver OpenFlow flow tables etc.

Load balancing refers to processing the load received from the outside and distributing it to multiple servers to maximise the use of servers, improve data transmission efficiency and enhance network stability [16]. Malicious attack detection is an important part of network supervision. The basic idea is to use mathematical metrics to describe the network traffic pattern. If there is a deviation from the normal pattern far or close to the abnormal pattern, the network is considered to be under malicious attack [17]. The difference between SDN and traditional networks is that SDN separates the data plane from the control plane of the network, thereby achieving flexible and effective control of network traffic. The typical functions in the SDN architecture are load balancing and malicious attack detection, which are closely related to the stability of the entire network. Therefore, this scheme designs an SDN load balancing experiment based on dynamic forwarding rules and an SDN malicious attack detection based on the confidence-based filtering (CBF) method. The network topology of this experiment is shown in Figure 3; the two hosts – H1, H2 – and the five switches – S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 – constitute the network topology. H1 and H2 can communicate through three different paths: S1-S2-S5, S1-S3-S5, S1-S4-S5. The experiment develops a lightweight routing control application based on the northbound API to achieve SDN load balancing efficiently, based on dynamic forwarding path rules. Further, the experiment can accurately implement the malicious attack detection and defence base through the CBF method. These projects demonstrate the complete process of the SDN experimental teaching scheme.

In the experiment, Mininet is used to simulate the hosts and OpenFlow switches and to create the experiment network topology. The memory of Mininet is 1GB. Floodlight is used as a remote controller to communicate with the switches. Floodlight1.2 and Mininet2.3.0 are both mature and stable versions, which have abundant functions. They are deployed on an Ubuntu 16.04 version host with 8G memory. The specific environment is shown in Table 4.

Experimental environment.

Controller | Floodlight1.2 | System: Ubuntu16.04 |

Switches (S1∼S5) | Mininet2.3.0 | CPU: 4core Memory: 8G |

Hosts (H1, H2) | Mininet2.3.0 | Disk storage: 40GB |

There are three main methods to install Mininet. One is to directly download and install the Mininet VM image, and then open the Mininet virtual machine on VMware or VirtualBox. The second is to install the Mininet file package, then enter the command

Obtain the source code by the command

Find the installation directory by the command

Install by the command

In the command

Before installing Floodlight, the experiment requires the installation of the JDK. Floodlight1.2 version requires JDK version 1.8 or higher. First, we download the JDK8 compressed package file corresponding to the Linux version on the Oracle official website and decompress it; then, we set the JDK environment variables and update the profile file; finally, we need to check whether the installation is successful using the command

Floodlight is downloaded and compiled mainly by the command

The flow table is an abstraction of the data forwarding function of the network device, and integrates the configuration information of each plane in the network. Therefore, rich data forwarding rules can be used. OpenFlow flow table delivery is divided into active delivery and passive delivery. Passive delivery means that when the switch receives a message that does not match the flow table record, it will forward the message to the controller, and the controller will make the decision. Active delivery means that the controller actively delivers the flow table information to the switches. There are four main methods of delivery:

Use Floodlight visual interface to operate experiments through web pages.

Use the REST API, through the command

Use the REST API, through writing application programs (Java and Python).

Use local API to implement Floodlight module programs (Java).

This experiment uses the OpenFlow flow table module provided by Floodlight REST API to write a Java program to actively deliver the flow table and dynamically change the forwarding rules by sending a custom flow table to the switches S1 and S5. The experimental process is shown in Figure 4. In the first

Dou et al. [18] proposed the CBF method based on packet filtering to detect malicious attack packets. The CBF method selects six attributes: Total Length, TTL, Protocol Type, Source IP Address in the IP header and Flag and Destination Port Number in the TCP header, which make up a total of 15 attribute pairs in 2 pairs. The higher frequency of the attribute pairs’ value indicates the corresponding high confidence level. Malicious attack packets are filtered by calculating the CBF score of the packet to determine the legitimacy of the packet.

Confidence values for single attributes are calculated as:
_{i}

Confidence values for attribute pairs are calculated as:
_{1} = 1,2,3,...,_{2} = 1,2,3,...,_{1} = 1,2,3,...,_{1}, _{2} = 1,2,3,...,_{2}.

In Eqs (1) and (2), _{i}_{i}_{i}_{i,j}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{i,j}_{i}_{i,j}_{r}_{r,x},B_{s}_{s,y}_{r}_{r,x}_{s}_{s,y}

The CBF score is calculated as:

In formula 3, _{k1},_{k2}) is the weight of the attribute pair (_{k1}, _{k2}), _{1}) is the value of _{k1} in the data packet and _{k1} = _{1}), _{k2} = _{2})) is the _{k1} = _{1}), _{k2} = _{2})).

In this experiment, H1 sends TCP data packets through the hping3 tool to H2, to simulate malicious attacks. The hping3 is a packet generation and analysis tool for the TCP/IP protocol, which can be used to simulate SYN flood attacks, ICMP flood attacks and UDP flood attacks etc. [19] The attack density refers to the number of attack packets sent per second. We design the low-rate malicious attack experiment by the density of 100 packets per second and high-rate malicious attack experiment by the density of 10^{6} packets per second. The specific function is realised by writing the Java program to monitoring network topology, link utilisation, traffic and other information in real time. In the experiment of low-rate malicious attacks, H1 sends a large number of attack packets to S1 from the 3rd second, as shown in Figure 7. At the 5th second, the traffic in port 1 exceeds the attack threshold. The system detects malicious attacks and enters the defence state, and the attack packets sent by H1 will be intercepted. In the experiment of high-rate malicious attacks, H1 also sends a large number of attack packets to S1 from the 3rd second, as shown in Figure 8. At the 14th second, the traffic in port 1 exceeds the attack threshold. The system detects malicious attacks accurately and enters the defence state, and the attack packets sent by H1 will be intercepted.

Endeavouring to address the scarcity in experimental resources, the high cost of large-scale deployment of hardware experimental environments and the difficulty that students face in commencing work on the SDN course, this article proposes the design of an SDN experimental teaching scheme that is based on the virtualised environment. The scheme that is studied in this article uses virtualised experimental platforms, such as Mininet simulation platform and Floodlight controller, to design basic, improvement and synthesis phases’ experimental programs and describe the experimental process of SDN-based network load balancing and SDN-based malicious attack detection, thereby enriching the experimental resources of SDN courses and reducing the deployment cost of the experimental environment; further, the individual needs of different students are fully considered in this article. As a result of the continuous improvement of the SDN course system, we will, in future, consider relying on the cloud platform to meet the needs of more complex experimental environments.

#### Improvement experimental projects

Use Mininet to create a custom topology network | Master the method of using Mininet command to create minimal, linear and tree topologies. |

Use Wireshark to analyse OpenFlow packets | Grasp the process of establishing a TCP connection between the OpenFlow switch and the controller. |

OpenFlow flow table, group table, meter table learning | Master the basic knowledge of OpenFlow flow tables and flow table entries, matching rules and actions performed. |

Use flow tables for simple access control | Master the use of Mininet to create custom network topologies and connect to the remote controller Floodlight. |

#### Basic experimental projects.

Use of Wireshark, a packet capture analysis tool | Grasp the basic use of Wireshark. |

Use of HTTP request testing tool Postman | Grasp the basic functions and usage of Postman. |

Installation and commonly used commands of Mininet | Grasp the basic concepts and functions of Mininet. |

Installation and use of Floodlight | Grasp the background and basic architecture of Floodlight. |

#### Experimental environment.

Controller | Floodlight1.2 | System: Ubuntu16.04 |

Switches (S1∼S5) | Mininet2.3.0 | CPU: 4core Memory: 8G |

Hosts (H1, H2) | Mininet2.3.0 | Disk storage: 40GB |

#### Synthesis experimental projects.

SDN-based network load balancing | Grasp the SDN load balancing method. |

SDN-based malicious attack detection | Grasp the malicious attack detection mechanism. |

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