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Regarding new wave distributions of the non-linear integro-partial Ito differential and fifth-order integrable equations

Published Online: 22 Feb 2021
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Received: 25 Aug 2020
Accepted: 19 Oct 2020
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
01 Jan 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This paper applies a powerful scheme, namely Bernoulli sub-equation function method, to some partial differential equations with high non-linearity. Many new travelling wave solutions, such as mixed dark-bright soliton, exponential and complex domain, are reported. Under a suitable choice of the values of parameters, wave behaviours of the results obtained in the paper – in terms of 2D, 3D and contour surfaces – are observed.

Keywords

Introduction

Mathematical models have been used to explain many real-world problems, in the past decade. In this sense, Qi et al. [1] have investigated some important models describing certain waves in physics. Colucci et al. [2] have introduced a new partial differential equation to define the ice crystal size delivery. Another novel model considered to explain the nucleation of spherical agglomerates using the immersion mechanism has been developed by Tash et al. [3]. Baleanu et al. [4] have presented a new study about people's liver using Caputo–Fabrizio fractional model. Pignotti et al. [5] have given another novel differential model related to the project of extraction in mines. Pompa et al. [6] proposed some important models about gastrointestinal absorption for availability of drugs to biological mechanisms. Compression of main electrocardiography signals using a new genetic programming-based mathematical modelling algorithm has been studied by Feli and Abdali-Mohammadi [7]. With the aim of assessing the Bang-Bang model related to hysteresis influences on heat and mass transmit in spongy building material, another important article has been proposed by Berger et al. [8]. Tsur et al. [9] studied the reaction of melanoma patients to the immune checkpoint surrounding (including understandings collected) in an assessment of a new mathematical mechanistic sample. Camaraza-Medina et al. [10] presented a new study on the mathematical inference of computation of heat transmission by thickenings inside tubes. Another powerful model involving chemical reaction systems has been proposed by Amin et al. [11]. Kortcheva et al. [12] explored new ways and differential equations related to peripheral risk administration in harbours. Aiming to get data using rubrics, Sahin and Baki have developed a new model for measuring mathematical success [13]. Meena et al. [14] composed a new mathematical model about the influencing agent in biofilms under toxic situations to discuss the values of parameters. Hamzehlou et al. have explored a unique way to model and predict the active progress of particle morphology mathematically [15]. There are many other such studies [16,17,18,19,20, 29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,SilambarasanR.BaskonusH.M.BulutH.Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the double dispersive equation in the Murnaghan'srodEuropean Physical Journal Plus13412511222019' href="#j_amns.2021.1.00006_ref_043_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1ab2b2c43Aa">43,44].

The remainder of this current paper is constructed in the following parts. In Section 2, we introduce the Bernoulli sub-equation function method (BSEFM) in detail. In Section 3, as a first application, we apply BSEFM to the (1+1)-dimensional integro-differential Ito equation (ITOE) defined as follows [21]: utt+uxxxt+3(2uxut+uuxt)+3uxxx-1(ut)=0.{u_{tt}} + {u_{xxxt}} + 3\left({2{u_x}{u_t} + u{u_{xt}}} \right) + 3{u_{xx}}\partial _x^{- 1}\left({{u_t}} \right) = 0.

Gepreel et al. [21] have applied the modified simple equation method to Eq. (1) for getting some important properties. Wazwaz has investigated the physical meaning of Eq. (1) [22]. Further, Eq. (1) has been investigated by using meshless discrete collocation method, numerically in another paper [23].

As a second application, we consider the (2+1)-dimensional fifth-order integrable equation (FOIE) given as follows [24]: uttt+utyyyy-utxx-α(uyuyt)y=0,{u_{ttt}} + {u_{tyyyy}} - {u_{txx}} - \alpha {\left({{u_y}{u_{yt}}} \right)_y} = 0, in which α is a real constant and non-zero. Thus, Eq. (2) was first presented by Wazwaz in 2014, along with some analytical solutions for α = 4 by using Hirota's direct method. In Section 4, we introduce some important properties of the results obtained in this paper as the Conclusion.

Basic Characteristics of BSEFM

In this sub-section of the paper, the scheme considered herein is introduced [25,26,27].

Step 1. Let us take the following non-linear partial model, in a general form: P(u,ux,ut,uxt,uxx,u2,)=0,P\left({u,{u_x},{u_t},{u_{xt}},{u_{xx}},{u^2}, \cdots} \right) = 0, with the wave transformation given as follows: u(x,t)=V(ξ),ξ=kx-ct,u\left({x,t} \right) = V\left(\xi \right),{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} \xi = kx - ct, in which α and k are real constants and non-zero. Substituting Eq. (4) into Eq. (3) yields a non-linear ordinary differential equation (NLODE) as follows: N(V,V,V,V2,)=0,N\left({V,V{'},V{''},{V^2}, \cdots} \right) = 0, where V = V (ξ), V=dVdξV{'} = {{dV} \over {d\xi}} , V=d2Vdξ2V{''} = {{{d^2}V} \over {d{\xi ^2}}} , ….

Step 2. Take the trial equation of solution for Eq. (5) below: V(ξ)=i=0naiFi=a0+a1F+a2F2++anFn,V\left(\xi \right) = \sum\limits_{i = 0}^n {a_i}{F^i} = {a_0} + {a_1}F + {a_2}{F^2} + \cdots + {a_n}{F^n}, and F=bF+dFM,b0,d0,MR-{0,1,2},F{'} = bF + d{F^M},{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} b \ne 0,{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} d \ne 0,{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} M \in R - \left\{{0,1,2} \right\}, where F (ξ) is the Bernoulli differential polynomial. Changing Eq. (6) with Eq. (7) in Eq. (5), we obtain an equation of polynomial i=0s(F(ξ))\sum\limits_{i = 0}^s \left({F\left(\xi \right)} \right) of F (ξ) below: i=0s(F(ξ))=ρsF(ξ)s++ρ1F(ξ)+ρ0=0.\sum\limits_{i = 0}^s \left({F\left(\xi \right)} \right) = {\rho _s}F{\left(\xi \right)^s} + \cdots + {\rho _1}F\left(\xi \right) + {\rho _0} = 0.

According to the balance principle, we can obtain a relationship between n and M.

Step 3. Let the factors of i=0s(F(ξ))\sum\limits_{i = 0}^s \left({F\left(\xi \right)} \right) all be zero. It will give the following algebraic equations system: ρi=0,i=0,,s.{\rho _i} = 0,{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} i = 0, \cdots,s.

Solving this system, the values of a0,a1,a2,···, an will be determined later.

Step 4. When we solve Eq. (7), we get two different situations as below according to b and d; F(ξ)=[-db+Eeb(M-1)η]11-M,bd,F(ξ)=[(E-1)+(E+1)tanh(b(1-M)ξ2)1-tanh(b(1-M)ξ2)]11-M,b=d,ER.\matrix{{F\left(\xi \right) = {{\left[ {{{- d} \over b} + {E \over {{e^{b\left({M - 1} \right)\eta}}}}} \right]}^{{1 \over {1 - M}}}},{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} b \ne d,} \cr {F\left(\xi \right) = {{\left[ {{{\left({E - 1} \right) + \left({E + 1} \right)\tanh \left({{{b\left({1 - M} \right)\xi} \over 2}} \right)} \over {1 - \tanh \left({{{b\left({1 - M} \right)\xi} \over 2}} \right)}}} \right]}^{{1 \over {1 - M}}}},{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} b = d,{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} E \in R.} \cr}

When we use a complete discrimination system for polynomial, we get the solutions to Eq. (5) through computational programs and classify certain solutions to Eq. (5). For a better understanding of the results obtained in this manner, we can draw two- and three-dimensional surfaces of solutions by taking into consideration appropriate values of parameters.

Implementations of the BSEFM

This section applies BSEFM to the governing models, such as ITOE and FOIE models, to find new travelling wave solutions.

BSEFM for ITOE

If we take u(x,t) = vx (x,t) in Eq. (1) for simplicity, we can rewrite it again in the following manner: vxtt+vxxxxt+6vxxvxt+3vxvxxt+3vxxxvt=0.{v_{xtt}} + {v_{xxxxt}} + 6{v_{xx}}{v_{xt}} + 3{v_x}{v_{xxt}} + 3{v_{xxx}}{v_t} = 0.

If we consider the travelling wave transformation as v(x,t)=U(ξ),ξ=kx-ct,v\left({x,t} \right) = U\left(\xi \right),\xi = kx - ct, we obtain the following: k3U-cU+3k2(U)2=0.{k^3}U{'''} - cU{'} + 3{k^2}{\left({U{'}} \right)^2} = 0.

When U = w, Eq. (13) may be rewritten as follows: k3w-cw+3k2w2=0.{k^3}w{''} - cw + 3{k^2}{w^2} = 0.

Balancing, n and M can be found as follows: 2M=n+2.2M = n + 2.

From Eq. (15), we can get many entirely new travelling wave solutions to Eq. (1).

Case 1: If n = 4 and M = 3, we can set the trial solution form as follows: w=a0+a1F+a2F2+a3F3+a4F4,w = {a_0} + {a_1}F + {a_2}{F^2} + {a_3}{F^3} + {a_4}{F^4},w=a1bF+a1dF3+2a2bF2+2a2dF4+3a3bF3+3a3dF5+4a4bF4+4a4dF6,\matrix{{w{'} = {a_1}bF + {a_1}d{F^3} + 2{a_2}b{F^2} + 2{a_2}d{F^4} + 3{a_3}b{F^3} + 3{a_3}d{F^5}} \hfill \cr {{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} + 4{a_4}b{F^4} + 4{a_4}d{F^6},} \hfill \cr} and w=a1d2F+4a1bdF3+3a1b2F5+4a2d2F2+12a2bdF4+8a2b2F6+9a3d2F3+24a3bdF5+15a3b2F7+16a4d2F4+40a4bdF6+24a4b2F8,\matrix{{w{''} = {a_1}{d^2}F + 4{a_1}bd{F^3} + 3{a_1}{b^2}{F^5} + 4{a_2}{d^2}{F^2} + 12{a_2}bd{F^4}} \hfill \cr {{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} + 8{a_2}{b^2}{F^6} + 9{a_3}{d^2}{F^3} + 24{a_3}bd{F^5} + 15{a_3}{b^2}{F^7} + 16{a_4}{d^2}{F^4}} \hfill \cr {{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} + 40{a_4}bd{F^6} + 24{a_4}{b^2}{F^8},} \hfill \cr} where a4 ≠ 0, b ≠ 0, d ≠ 0. Substituting Eqs. (16, 18) into Eq. (14), we obtain a system of algebraic equations. Solving this system, we find the following variables and solutions.

Case 1.1. For bd, we can consider the following coefficients: a0=0,a1=0,a2=-8bdk,a3=0,a4=-8b2k,c=4d2k3{a_0} = 0,{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = - 8bdk,{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = - 8{b^2}k,c = 4{d^2}{k^3}

Putting these into Eq. (16) by considering Eq. (10), we get the following new exponential function solution for Eq. (1): u(x,t)=-8bd3e2d(-4d2k3t+kx)k2E(be2d(-4d2k3t+kx)-dE)-2u\left({x,t} \right) = - 8b{d^3}{e^{2d\left({- 4{d^2}{k^3}t + kx} \right)}}{k^2}E{\left({b{e^{2d\left({- 4{d^2}{k^3}t + kx} \right)}} - dE} \right)^{- 2}}

Here, b,d,k,E are non-zero real constants. With the appropriate values of variables, we can plot various singular wave surfaces of Eq. (20) in Figures 1 and 2.

Fig. 1

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (20) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,d = 0.3,k = 0.4.

Fig. 2

The 2D graph of Eq. (20) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,d = 0.3,k = 0.4,t = 0.5.

Case 1.2. For bd, we can consider the following coefficients: a0=0,a1=0,a2=4bck,a3=0,a4=-8b2k,d=-c2k3/2{a_0} = 0,{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = {{4b\sqrt c} \over {\sqrt k}},{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = - 8{b^2}k,d = - {{\sqrt c} \over {2{k^{3/2}}}}

Putting these variables into Eq. (16) by taking into account Eq. (10), we get the following new exponential function solution for Eq. (1): u(x,t)=4bc3/2ec(-ct+kx)k-3/2kE(2bk3/2+cec(-ct+kx)k-3/2E)-2,u\left({x,t} \right) = 4b{c^{3/2}}{e^{\sqrt c {{\left({- ct + kx} \right)}_k} - 3/2}}\sqrt k E{\left({2b{k^{3/2}} + \sqrt c {e^{\sqrt c {{\left({- ct + kx} \right)}_k} - 3/2}}E} \right)^{- 2}}, where b,c,k,E are non-zero real constants. Considering some values of the parameters, a singular wave simulation of Eq. (22) can be presented as in Figures 3 and 4.

Fig. 3

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (22) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,k = 0.4.

Fig. 4

The 2D graph of Eq. (22) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,k = 0.4,t = 0.5.

Case 1.3. For bd, if we consider the following coefficients a0=0,a1=0,a2=-27/3bc1/3d1/3,a3=0,a4=-27/3b2c1/3d2/3,k=c1/322/3d2/3,{a_0} = 0,{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = - {2^{7/3}}b{c^{1/3}}{d^{1/3}},{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = - {{{2^{7/3}}{b^2}{c^{1/3}}} \over {{d^{2/3}}}},k = {{{c^{1/3}}} \over {{2^{2/3}}{d^{2/3}}}}, we get the following different solution for Eq. (1); u(x,t)=-25/3bc2/3d5/3e2d(-ct+c1/3x22/3d2/3)E(be-2dct+2dc1/322/3d2/3x-dE)-2,u\left({x,t} \right) = - {2^{5/3}}b{c^{2/3}}{d^{5/3}}{e^{2d\left({- ct + {{{c^{1/3}}x} \over {{2^{2/3}}{d^{2/3}}}}} \right)}}E{\left({b{e^{- 2dct + {{2d{c^{1/3}}} \over {{2^{2/3}}{d^{2/3}}}}x}} - dE} \right)^{- 2}}, where b,c,k,E are non-zero real constants. Surfaces of Eq. (24) can be observed in Figures 5 and 6.

Fig. 5

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (24) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4.

Fig. 6

The 2D graph of Eq. (24) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,t = 0.5.

Fig. 7

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (26) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.8.

Fig. 8

The 2D graph of Eq. (26) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.8,t = 0.9.

Case 1.4. For bd, when a0=-4d2k3,a1=0,a2=-8bdk,a3=0,a4=-8b2k,c=-4d2k3,{a_0} = - {{4{d^2}k} \over 3},{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = - 8bdk,{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = - 8{b^2}k,c = - 4{d^2}{k^3}, the following exponential results are obtained for Eq. (11): v(x,t)=-163d4k4t-43d2k2x+4d2kE(be2d(4d2k3t+kx)-dE)-1,v\left({x,t} \right) = - {{16} \over 3}{d^4}{k^4}t - {4 \over 3}{d^2}{k^2}x + 4{d^2}kE{\left({b{e^{2d\left({4{d^2}{k^3}t + kx} \right)}} - dE} \right)^{- 1}}, where b,d,k,E are non-zero real constants.

Case 1.5. When a0=c3k2,a1=0,a2=4ibck,a3=0,a4=-8b2k,d=-ic2k3/2,bd,{a_0} = {c \over {3{k^2}}},{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = {{4ib\sqrt c} \over {\sqrt k}},{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = - 8{b^2}k,d = - {{i\sqrt c} \over {2{k^{3/2}}}}{\kern 1pt},b \ne d, the following new complex periodic solution for the governing model of Eq. (11) is obtained: v(x,t)=-13c2tk-2+13cxk-1+4bck(2ibck3/2-ceic(-ct+kx)k-3/2E)-1,v\left({x,t} \right) = - {1 \over 3}{c^2}t{k^{- 2}} + {1 \over 3}cx{k^{- 1}} + 4bck{\left({2ib\sqrt c {k^{3/2}} - c{e^{i\sqrt c \left({- ct + kx} \right){k^{- 3/2}}}}E} \right)^{- 1}}, where b,c,k,E are non-zero real constants. The wave simulations of Eq. (28) may be observed in Figures 9 and 10 with some suitable values of parameters.

Fig. 9

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (28) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.8,c = 0.4,k = 0.5.

Fig. 10

The 2D graph of Eq. (28) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.8,c = 0.4,k = 0.5,t = 0.01.

Case 1.6. Once a0=23(-1)2/321/3c1/3d4/3,a1=0,a2=4(-1)2/321/3bc1/3d1/3,a3=0,bd,a4=4(-1)2/321/3b2c1/3d2/3,k=-(-12)2/3c1/3d2/3,\matrix{{{a_0} = {2 \over 3}{{\left({- 1} \right)}^{2/3}}{2^{1/3}}{c^{1/3}}{d^{4/3}},{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = 4{{\left({- 1} \right)}^{2/3}}{2^{1/3}}b{c^{1/3}}{d^{1/3}}{\kern 1pt},{a_3} = 0,b \ne d,} \hfill \cr {{a_4} = {{4{{\left({- 1} \right)}^{2/3}}{2^{1/3}}{b^2}{c^{1/3}}} \over {{d^{2/3}}}},{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} k = - {{\left({- {1 \over 2}} \right)}^{2/3}}{{{c^{1/3}}} \over {{d^{2/3}}}},} \hfill \cr} we find the following complex travelling wave solution for Eq. (11); v=23c1/3(-1)2/321/3d4/3τ-2cE(ψ)-1/2(2bψ3/2eicτψ-3/2-icE)-1,v = {2 \over 3}{c^{1/3}}{\left({- 1} \right)^{2/3}}{2^{1/3}}{d^{4/3}}\tau - 2cE{\left(\psi \right)^{- 1/2}}{\left({2b{\psi ^{3/2}}{e^{i\sqrt c \tau {\psi ^{- 3/2}}}} - i\sqrt c E} \right)^{- 1}}{\kern 1pt}, where τ = −ct −(−1/2)2/3c1/3xd−2/3, ψ = −(−1/2)2/3c1/3d−2/3, and b,c,d,E are non-zero real constants. By considering some suitable values of parameters, one can observe the simulations in Figures 11 and 12.

Fig. 11

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (30) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.5.

Fig. 12

The 2D graph of Eq. (30) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.5,t = 0.6.

BSEFM for FOIE Model

This sub-section applies BSEFM to the FOIE model for finding some new travelling wave solutions. First of all, considering the travelling wave transformation as u(x,y,t)=U(ξ),ξ=kx+wy-ctu\left({x,y,t} \right) = U\left(\xi \right),\xi = kx + wy - ct where k,w,c are real stables and non-zero, we get the following non-linear ordinary differential equation: 2c2U+2w4U-2k2U-αw3(U)2=0.2{c^2}U{'} + 2{w^4}U{'''} - 2{k^2}U{'} - \alpha {w^3}{\left({U{'}} \right)^2} = 0.

For simplicity, if we take V = U, then, we can rewrite Eq. (32) as follows: 2w4V-2(k2+c2)V-αw3V2=0.2{w^4}V{''} - 2\left({{k^2} + {c^2}} \right)V - \alpha {w^3}{V^2} = 0.

With the help of the balance principle, we obtain the following: 2M=n+2.2M = n + 2.

This gives many new travelling wave solutions to Eq. (2).

Case 1: If n = 4 and M = 3, we obtain the following: V=a0+a1F+a2F2+a3F3+a4F4,V = {a_0} + {a_1}F + {a_2}{F^2} + {a_3}{F^3} + {a_4}{F^4},V=a1bF+a1dF3+2a2bF2+2a2dF4+3a3bF3+3a3dF5+4a4bF4+4a4dF6,\matrix{{V{'} = {a_1}bF + {a_1}d{F^3} + 2{a_2}b{F^2} + 2{a_2}d{F^4} + 3{a_3}b{F^3} + 3{a_3}d{F^5}} \hfill \cr {{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} + 4{a_4}b{F^4} + 4{a_4}d{F^6},} \hfill \cr} and V=a1d2F+4a1bdF3+3a1b2F5+4a2d2F2+12a2bdF4+8a2b2F6+9a3d2F3+24a3bdF5+15a3b2F7+16a4d2F4+40a4bdF6+24a4b2F8,\matrix{{V{''} = {a_1}{d^2}F + 4{a_1}bd{F^3} + 3{a_1}{b^2}{F^5} + 4{a_2}{d^2}{F^2} + 12{a_2}bd{F^4}} \hfill \cr {{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} + 8{a_2}{b^2}{F^6} + 9{a_3}{d^2}{F^3} + 24{a_3}bd{F^5} + 15{a_3}{b^2}{F^7} + 16{a_4}{d^2}{F^4}} \hfill \cr {{\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} {\kern 1pt} + 40{a_4}bd{F^6} + 24{a_4}{b^2}{F^8},} \hfill \cr} where a4 ≠ 0, b ≠ 0, d ≠ 0. Putting Eqs. (35, 37) into Eq. (33), we get the following results.

Case 1.1. When a0=8d2wα-1,a1=0,a2=48bdwα-1,a3=0,bd,k=c2-4d2w4,a4=48b2wα-1,{a_0} = 8{d^2}w{\alpha ^{- 1}},{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = 48bdw{\alpha ^{- 1}},{a_3} = 0,b \ne d,k = \sqrt {{c^2} - 4{d^2}{w^4}},{a_4} = 48{b^2}w{\alpha ^{- 1}}, we get the following solution for the governing model of Eq. (2): u(x,y,t)=8d2wα-1(-ct+τx+wy+3E(-be2d(-ct+τx+wy)+dE)-1),u\left({x,y,t} \right) = 8{d^2}w{\alpha ^{- 1}}\left({- ct + \tau x + wy + 3E{{\left({- b{e^{2d\left({- ct + \tau x + wy} \right)}} + dE} \right)}^{- 1}}} \right), where τ=c2-4d2w4\tau = \sqrt {{c^2} - 4{d^2}{w^4}} ; α,b,c,d,w,E are non-zero real constants here. It is possible to plot the surfaces of Eq. (39) using appropriate values of variables, as in Figures 13 and 14.

Fig. 13

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (39) when the values are E = 1,w = 0.2,b = 0.3,c = 0.8,d = 0.04,α = 0.6,y = 0.01.

Fig. 14

The 2D graph of Eq. (39) when the values are E = 1,w = 0.2,b = 0.3,c = 0.8,d = 0.04,α = 0.6,y = 0.01,t = 0.02.

Case 2.2.When we consider the following coefficients, a0=2(c-k)(c+k)w3α,a1=0,a3=0,a4=w3α(a2)212(c2-k2),d=-i-c2+k22w2,bd,b=iwαa224-c2+k2.\matrix{{{a_0} = {{2\left({c - k} \right)\left({c + k} \right)} \over {{w^3}\alpha}},{a_1} = 0,{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = {{{w^3}\alpha {{\left({{a_2}} \right)}^2}} \over {12\left({{c^2} - {k^2}} \right)}},d = - {{i\sqrt {- {c^2} + {k^2}}} \over {2{w^2}}},b \ne d,} \hfill \cr {b = {{iw\alpha {a_2}} \over {24\sqrt {- {c^2} + {k^2}}}}.} \hfill \cr} we obtain the following complex travelling wave solution for Eq. (2): u=2ψτw3α-12i-ψw2a2(12ei-ψ(-ct+kx+wy)w-2ψE-w3αa2)-1u = 2\psi \tau {w^3}\alpha - 12i\sqrt {- \psi} {w^2}{a_2}{\left({12{e^{i\sqrt {- \psi} \left({- ct + kx + wy} \right){w^{- 2}}}}\psi E - {w^3}\alpha {a_2}} \right)^{- 1}} in which τ = −ct + kx + wy, ψ = c2k2 and k2c2>0; α,a2,c,k,w,E are non-zero real constants. Figures 15 and 16 show how to plot the surfaces of Eq. (41) with some values of parameters.

Fig. 15

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (41) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 16

The 2D graph of Eq. (41) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Case 2.3. For bd, we select the following coefficients: a0=0,a1=0,a3=0,a4=-w3α(a2)212(c2-k2),b=-wαa224-c2+k2,d=--c2+k22w2.{a_0} = 0,{a_1} = 0,{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = - {{{w^3}\alpha {{\left({{a_2}} \right)}^2}} \over {12\left({{c^2} - {k^2}} \right)}},b = - {{w\alpha {a_2}} \over {24\sqrt {- {c^2} + {k^2}}}},d = - {{\sqrt {- {c^2} + {k^2}}} \over {2{w^2}}}.

Putting these variables into Eq. (35) by taking into account Eq. (10), we get the following exponential function solution for Eq. (2): u(x,y,t)=12ψ2w2a2(-ψ)-3/2(12e-ψ(-ct+kx+wy)w2ψE+w3αa2)-1,u\left({x,y,t} \right) = 12{\psi ^2}{w^2}{a_2}{\left({- \psi} \right)^{- 3/2}}{\left({12{e^{{{\sqrt {- \psi} \left({- ct + kx + wy} \right)} \over {{w^2}}}}}\psi E + {w^3}\alpha {a_2}} \right)^{- 1}}, where the strain conditions are ψ = c2k2 and k2c2>0; α,a2,c,k,w,E are non-zero real constants. In Figures 17 and 18, the 2D and 3D graphics can be seen easily.

Fig. 17

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (43) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 18

The 2D graph of Eq. (43) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Case 2.4.For bd, when we take the following values, a0=0,a1=0,a2=-24i2bd(-c2+k2)1/4α,a3=0,w=-i(-c2+k2)1/42d,a4=-24i2b2(-c2+k2)1/4dα,\matrix{{{a_0} = 0,{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = - {{24i\sqrt 2 b\sqrt d {{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over \alpha},{a_3} = 0,w = - {{i{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over {\sqrt 2 \sqrt d}},} \hfill \cr {{a_4} = - {{24i\sqrt 2 {b^2}{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over {\sqrt d \alpha}},} \hfill \cr} we find the following complex travelling wave solution for the governing model of Eq. (2): u=-4i2d3/2(c2τ-k2τ-3iψ3/2E(ibe-2idτψd-1+ψE)d-1(b2e-4idτψd-1-c2E2+k2E2)-1)ψ-3/4α-1,\matrix{{u =} \hfill \cr {- 4i\sqrt 2 {d^{3/2}}\left({{c^2}\tau - {k^2}\tau - 3i{\psi ^{3/2}}E\left({ib{e^{- 2id\tau}}\sqrt \psi {d^{- 1}} + \sqrt \psi E} \right){d^{- 1}}{{\left({{b^2}{e^{- 4id\tau}}\psi {d^{- 1}} - {c^2}{E^2} + {k^2}{E^2}} \right)}^{- 1}}} \right){\psi ^{- 3/4}}{\alpha ^{- 1}}{\kern 1pt},} \hfill \cr} for the strain conditions τ = −ct + kx1/4y2−1/2d−1/2, ψ = −c2 + k2 and k2c2>0; here, α,b,c,d,k,E are non-zero real constants. With the appropriate values of variables, we can plot the various surfaces of Eq. (45) as in Figures 19 and 20.

Fig. 19

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (45) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 20

The 2D graph of Eq. (45) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Case 2.5.When the parameters are chosen as follows, a0=-(4+4i)d3/2(-c2+k2)1/4α,a1=0,a2=-(24+24i)bd(-c2+k2)1/4α,a3=0,a4=-(24+24i)b2(-c2+k2)1/4dα,w=-(12+i2)(-c2+k2)1/4d,\matrix{{{a_0} = - {{\left({4 + 4i} \right){d^{3/2}}{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over \alpha},{a_1} = 0,{a_2} = - {{\left({24 + 24i} \right)b\sqrt d {{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over \alpha},{a_3} = 0,} \hfill \cr {{a_4} = - {{\left({24 + 24i} \right){b^2}{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over {\sqrt d \alpha}},w = - {{\left({{1 \over 2} + {i \over 2}} \right){{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over {\sqrt d}},} \hfill \cr} the following another complex new exponential function solution for Eq. (2) is obtained: u(x,y,t)=-(4+4i)d3/2(-c2+k2)1/4(τ-3Ebe2dτ-dE)α-1,u\left({x,y,t} \right) = - \left({4 + 4i} \right){d^{3/2}}{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}{\kern 1pt}} \right)^{1/4}}\left({\tau - {{3E} \over {b{e^{2d\tau}} - dE}}} \right){\alpha ^{- 1}}, in which the strain conditions are τ=-ct+kx-(12+i2)(-c2+k2)1/4yd-1/2\tau = - ct + kx - \left({{1 \over 2} + {i \over 2}} \right){\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)^{1/4}}y{d^{- 1/2}} , b ≠ d, and k2c2>0.

Here, α,b,c,d,k,E are non-zero real constants. Considering some values of parameters, the various figures of Eq. (47) may be seen in Figures 21 and 22.

Fig. 21

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (47) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 22

The 2D graph of Eq. (47) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Case 2.6. For bd, we can consider the coefficients a0=0,a1=0,a3=0,a4=-α(a2)2242d3/2(-c2+k2)1/4,b=-αa2242d(-c2+k2)1/4,w=-(-c2+k2)1/42d.\matrix{{{a_0} = 0,{a_1} = 0,{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = - {{\alpha {{\left({{a_2}} \right)}^2}} \over {24\sqrt 2 {d^{3/2}}{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}}},b = - {{\alpha {a_2}} \over {24\sqrt 2 \sqrt d {{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}}},} \hfill \cr {w = - {{{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over {\sqrt 2 \sqrt d}}.} \hfill \cr}

Putting these variables into Eq. (35) by considering Eq. (10), we get the following exponential function solution for Eq. (2): u(x,y,t)=576d2ψE(242d3/2(ψ)1/4E-e2dταa2)(1152d3ψE2+e4dτα2a22)α(-1327104d6ψE4+e8dτα4a24),u\left({x,y,t} \right) = {{576{d^2}\sqrt \psi E\left({24\sqrt 2 {d^{3/2}}{{\left(\psi \right)}^{1/4}}E - {e^{2d\tau}}\alpha {a_2}} \right)\left({1152{d^3}\sqrt \psi {E^2} + {e^{4d\tau}}{\alpha ^2}a_2^2} \right)} \over {\alpha \left({- 1{\kern 1pt} 327{\kern 1pt} 104{d^6}\psi {E^4} + {e^{8d\tau}}{\alpha ^4}a_2^4} \right)}}, where τ = −ct + kx −(−c2 + k2)1/4y2−1/2d−1/2, ψ = −c2 + k2 and k2c2>0 are the strain conditions.

Here, α,a2,c,d,k,E are non-zero real constants. The surfaces of Eq. (49) can be observed in Figures 23 and 24 with the appropriate values of parameters.

Fig. 23

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (49) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 24

The 2D graph of Eq. (49) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Fig. 25

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (51) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 26

The 2D graph of Eq. (51) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Case 2.7. For bd, if we take the following values, a0=0,a1=0,a3=0,a4=iα(a2)2242d3/2(-c2+k2)1/4,b=iαa2242d(-c2+k2)1/4,w=-i(-c2+k2)1/42d,\matrix{{{a_0} = 0,{a_1} = 0,{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = {{i\alpha {{\left({{a_2}} \right)}^2}} \over {24\sqrt 2 {d^{3/2}}{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}}},b = {{i\alpha {a_2}} \over {24\sqrt 2 \sqrt d {{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}}},} \hfill \cr {w = - {{i{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over {\sqrt 2 \sqrt d}},} \hfill \cr} we find another complex function solution to Eq. (2) as follows: u(x,y,t)=576id2ψE(242d3/2(ψ)3/2E+ie2dταa2)(1152d3ψE2-e4dτα2a22)α(-1327104d6ψE4+e8dτα4a24),u\left({x,y,t} \right) = {{576i{d^2}\sqrt \psi E\left({24\sqrt 2 {d^{3/2}}{{\left(\psi \right)}^{3/2}}E + i{e^{2d\tau}}\alpha {a_2}} \right)\left({1152{d^3}\sqrt \psi {E^2} - {e^{4d\tau}}{\alpha ^2}a_2^2} \right)} \over {\alpha \left({- 1{\kern 1pt} 327{\kern 1pt} 104{d^6}\psi {E^4} + {e^{8d\tau}}{\alpha ^4}a_2^4} \right)}}, where τ = −ct + kxi (−c2 + k2)1/4y2−1/2d−1/2, ψ = −c2 + k2 and k2c2>0 are the strain conditions. Here, α,a2,c,d,k,E are non-zero real constants. The wave simulations may be seen by using appropriate values of variables.

Case 2.8. If a0=-(4+4i)d3/2(-c2+k2)1/4α,a1=0,a3=0,a4=-(1/48-i/48)α(a2)2d3/2(-c2+k2)1/4,b=-(1/48-i/48)αa2d(-c2+k2)1/4,w=-(1/2+i/2)(-c2+k2)1/4d,bd,\matrix{{{a_0} = - {{\left({4 + 4i} \right){d^{3/2}}{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over \alpha},{a_1} = 0,{a_3} = 0,{a_4} = - {{\left({1/48 - i/48} \right)\alpha {{\left({{a_2}} \right)}^2}} \over {{d^{3/2}}{{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}}},} \hfill \cr {b = - {{\left({1/48 - i/48} \right)\alpha {a_2}} \over {\sqrt d {{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}}},w = - {{\left({1/2 + i/2} \right){{\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)}^{1/4}}} \over {\sqrt d}},b \ne d,} \hfill \cr} we obtain the following complex solution for Eq. (2): u=(4+4i)d3/2ψ1/4(τ+((72+72i)dE(-(27648-27648i)ψd9/2E3-ϖ+κ-e6dτψ1/4α3(a2)3)))α(1327104ψd6E4+e8dτα4(a2)4)u = {{\left({4 + 4i} \right){d^{3/2}}{\psi ^{1/4}}\left({\tau + \left({\left({72 + 72i} \right)\sqrt d E\left({- \left({27648 - 27648i} \right)\psi {d^{9/2}}{E^3} - \varpi + \kappa - {e^{6d\tau}}{\psi ^{1/4}}{\alpha ^3}{{\left({{a_2}} \right)}^3}} \right)} \right)} \right)} \over {\alpha \left({1{\kern 1pt} 327{\kern 1pt} 104\psi {d^6}{E^4} + {e^{8d\tau}}{\alpha ^4}{{\left({{a_2}} \right)}^4}} \right)}} in which τ=ct-kx+(12+i2)(-c2+k2)1/4yd-1/2\tau = ct - kx + \left({{1 \over 2} + {i \over 2}} \right){\left({- {c^2} + {k^2}} \right)^{1/4}}y{d^{- 1/2}}ψ = −c2 + k2, ɷ = 1152id3e2ψ3/4αE2a2, κ=(24+24i)d3/2e4dτψα2E(a2)2\kappa = \left({24 + 24i} \right){d^{{\kern 1pt} 3{\kern 1pt} /{\kern 1pt} 2{\kern 1pt}}}{e^{4d\tau}}\sqrt \psi {\alpha ^2}E{\left({{a_2}} \right)^2} and k2c2>0 are the strain conditions. Here, α,a2,c,d,k,E and α,a2,c,d,k,E are non-zero real constants. The following graphics show the surfaces of Eq. (53) with some values of parameters in Figures 27 and 28.

Fig. 27

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (53) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 28

The 2D graph of Eq. (53) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Conclusions

In this paper, we have successfully applied BSEFM to some powerful non-linear models, such as the integro-partial differential equation and fifth-order integrable model. We have reported some strain conditions for the validity of the obtained results. Moreover, the travelling wave solutions, such as Eqs. (16, 18, 20, 29), obtained by using BSEFM are the new exponential function solutions for Eq. (1), compared with the paper previously found in literature [28]. Using powerful computational package programs, we observe that all solutions verify Eqs. (1, 2). Under specific values of parameters, we revise our results into existing solutions. Moreover, we have found many other entirely new analytical and complex travelling wave solutions for governing models. As far as we know, BSEFM has not been applied to Eq. (1) earlier. The projected method in this paper may be used to seek more travelling wave solutions of non-linear evolution equations for some applications, such as easy calculations, writing programs for obtaining variables, and so on.

Fig. 1

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (20) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,d = 0.3,k = 0.4.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (20) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,d = 0.3,k = 0.4.

Fig. 2

The 2D graph of Eq. (20) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,d = 0.3,k = 0.4,t = 0.5.
The 2D graph of Eq. (20) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,d = 0.3,k = 0.4,t = 0.5.

Fig. 3

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (22) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,k = 0.4.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (22) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,k = 0.4.

Fig. 4

The 2D graph of Eq. (22) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,k = 0.4,t = 0.5.
The 2D graph of Eq. (22) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,k = 0.4,t = 0.5.

Fig. 5

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (24) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (24) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4.

Fig. 6

The 2D graph of Eq. (24) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,t = 0.5.
The 2D graph of Eq. (24) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,t = 0.5.

Fig. 7

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (26) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.8.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (26) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.8.

Fig. 8

The 2D graph of Eq. (26) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.8,t = 0.9.
The 2D graph of Eq. (26) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.8,t = 0.9.

Fig. 9

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (28) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.8,c = 0.4,k = 0.5.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (28) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.8,c = 0.4,k = 0.5.

Fig. 10

The 2D graph of Eq. (28) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.8,c = 0.4,k = 0.5,t = 0.01.
The 2D graph of Eq. (28) when the values are E = 1,b = 0.8,c = 0.4,k = 0.5,t = 0.01.

Fig. 11

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (30) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.5.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (30) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.5.

Fig. 12

The 2D graph of Eq. (30) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.5,t = 0.6.
The 2D graph of Eq. (30) when the values are E = 0.1,b = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,k = 0.5,t = 0.6.

Fig. 13

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (39) when the values are E = 1,w = 0.2,b = 0.3,c = 0.8,d = 0.04,α = 0.6,y = 0.01.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (39) when the values are E = 1,w = 0.2,b = 0.3,c = 0.8,d = 0.04,α = 0.6,y = 0.01.

Fig. 14

The 2D graph of Eq. (39) when the values are E = 1,w = 0.2,b = 0.3,c = 0.8,d = 0.04,α = 0.6,y = 0.01,t = 0.02.
The 2D graph of Eq. (39) when the values are E = 1,w = 0.2,b = 0.3,c = 0.8,d = 0.04,α = 0.6,y = 0.01,t = 0.02.

Fig. 15

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (41) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (41) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 16

The 2D graph of Eq. (41) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.
The 2D graph of Eq. (41) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Fig. 17

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (43) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (43) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 18

The 2D graph of Eq. (43) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.
The 2D graph of Eq. (43) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,a2 = 0.4,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Fig. 19

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (45) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (45) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 20

The 2D graph of Eq. (45) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.
The 2D graph of Eq. (45) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Fig. 21

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (47) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (47) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 22

The 2D graph of Eq. (47) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.
The 2D graph of Eq. (47) for E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,b = 0.4,d = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Fig. 23

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (49) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (49) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 24

The 2D graph of Eq. (49) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.
The 2D graph of Eq. (49) when the values are E = 0.1,w = 0.2,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Fig. 25

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (51) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (51) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 26

The 2D graph of Eq. (51) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.
The 2D graph of Eq. (51) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

Fig. 27

The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (53) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.
The 3D and contour surfaces of Eq. (53) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03.

Fig. 28

The 2D graph of Eq. (53) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.
The 2D graph of Eq. (53) when the values are E = 0.1,c = 0.3,d = 0.4,a2 = 0.5,α = 0.6,k = 0.8,y = 0.03,t = 0.01.

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