1. bookVolume 61 (2010): Issue 1 (March 2010)
Journal Details
First Published
26 Mar 2007
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Open Access

Surfactants in the Environment

Published Online: 25 Mar 2010
Volume & Issue: Volume 61 (2010) - Issue 1 (March 2010)
Page range: 95 - 110
Journal Details
First Published
26 Mar 2007
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Ying GG. Fate, behaviour and effects of surfactants and their degradation products in the environment. Environ Int 2006;32:417-31.10.1016/j.envint.2005.07.004Search in Google Scholar

Petersson A, Adamsson M, Dave GT. Toxicity and detoxification of Swedish detergents and softener products. Chemosphere 2000;41:1611-20.10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00035-7Search in Google Scholar

Di Corcia A. Characterisation of surfactants and their biointermediates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1998;794:165-85.10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00678-XSearch in Google Scholar

Edser C. Latest market analysis. Focus on Surfactants 2006:5:1-2.10.1016/S1351-4210(06)71142-8Search in Google Scholar

Comite Europeen des Agents de Surface et de Leurs Intermediaires Organiques (CESIO). CESIO surfactants statistics for Western Europe 2007. CESIO News Issue 12/2008.Search in Google Scholar

Holt MS, Fox KK, Burford M, Daniel M, Buckland H. UK monitoring study on the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate in trickling filter type sewage treatment plants Contribution to GREAT-ER project #2. Sci Total Environ 1998; 210/211:255-69.10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00016-3Search in Google Scholar

Berna JL, Ferrer J, Moreno A, Prats D, Bevia FR. The fate of LAS in the environment. Tenside Surf Deterg 1989;26:101-7.10.1515/tsd-1989-260211Search in Google Scholar

Fox K, Holt M, Daniel M, Buckland H, Guymer I. Removal of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate from a small Yorkshire stream: contribution to GREAT-ER project. Sci Total Environ 2000;251/252:265-75.10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00389-2Search in Google Scholar

Haigh SD. A review of the interaction of surfactants with organic contaminants in soil. Sci Total Environ 1996;185:161-70.10.1016/0048-9697(95)05049-3Search in Google Scholar

Cella JA, Harriman LA, Eggenberger DN, Harwood HJ. The relationship of charge density, antibacterial activity and micelle formation of quaternary ammonium salts. J Am Chem Soc 1955;77:4264-6.10.1021/ja01621a030Search in Google Scholar

Lein EJ, Perrin JH. Effect of chain length on critical micelle formation and protein binding of quaternary ammonium compounds. J Med Chem 1976;19:849-50.10.1021/jm00228a025950657Search in Google Scholar

Cserháti T, Forgács E, Oros G. Biological activity and environmental impact of anionic surfactants. Environ Int 2002;28:337-48.10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00032-6Search in Google Scholar

Seedher N. In vitro study of the mechanism of interaction of trifuoperazine dihydrochloride with bovine serum albumin. Indian J Pharm Sci 2000;62:16-20.Search in Google Scholar

Yushmanov VE, Perussi JR, Imasato H, Tabac M. Interaction of papaverine with micelles of surfactants with different charge studied by 1H-NMR. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994;1189:74-80.10.1016/0005-2736(94)90282-8Search in Google Scholar

Peters RW, Shem L, Montemagno CD Lewis BA. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil. Hazard Waste Hazard Mater 1992;9:113-37.10.1089/hwm.1992.9.113Search in Google Scholar

Petrocci AN. Surface active agents: Quaternary ammonium compounds. In: Block SS, editor. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. Philadelphia (PA): Lea & Febiger Pub; 1983. p. 309-29.Search in Google Scholar

Thorsteinsson T, Másson M, Kristinsson KG, Hjálmarsdóttir MA, Hilmarsson H, Loftsson T. Soft antimicrobial agents: synthesis and activity of labile environmentally friendly long chain quaternary ammonium compounds. J Med Chem 2003;46:4173-81.10.1021/jm030829zSearch in Google Scholar

Antoni F, Szabo MT. Damaging effect of detergents on human lymphocytes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 1982;28:504-12.10.1007/BF01607720Search in Google Scholar

Grant RL, Yao C, Gabaldon D, Acosta D. Evaluation of surfactant cytotoxicity potential by primary cultures of ocular tissues: I. Characterization of rabbit corneal epithelial cells and initial injury and delayed toxicity studies. Toxicology 1992;76:153-76.10.1016/0300-483X(92)90162-8Search in Google Scholar

Bodor N, Kaminski JJ, Selk S. Soft drugs. 1. Labile quaternary ammonium salts as soft antimicrobials. J Med Chem 1980;23:469-74.10.1021/jm00179a0017381846Search in Google Scholar

Singh KS, Bajpai M, Tyagi VK. Amine oxides: A review. J Oleo Sci 2006;55:99-119.10.5650/jos.55.99Search in Google Scholar

Toney CJ, Fredli FE, Frank PJ. Kinetics and preparation of amine oxides. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1994;71:793-4.10.1007/BF02541441Search in Google Scholar

Burnette LW. Miscellaneous nonionic surfactants. In: Schick MJ, editor. Non-ionic surfactant. Surfactant Science Series Vol 1. New York (NY): Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1966. p. 403-10.Search in Google Scholar

Garcia MT, Campos E, Ribosa I. Biodegradability and ecotoxicity of amine oxide based surfactants. Chemosphere 2007;69:1574-8.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.05.08917631946Search in Google Scholar

Cserháti T. Alkyl ethoxylated and alkylphenol ethoxylated nonionic surfactants: Interaction with bioactive compounds and biological effects. Environ Health Perspect 1995;103:358-64.10.1289/ehp.103-1519097Search in Google Scholar

Seaman D. Trends in the formulation of pesticides-an overview. Pestic Sci 1990;29:437-49.10.1002/ps.2780290408Search in Google Scholar

Tanaka FS, Wien RG, Zaylskie RG. Photolytic degradation of a homogeneous Triton X nonionic surfactant: nonaethoxylated p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol. J Agric Food Chem 1991;39:2046-52.10.1021/jf00011a033Search in Google Scholar

Oros G, Cserháti T, Szejtli J. Cyclodextrins decrease the phytotoxicity of nonionic tensides. Acta Argon Hung 1989;38:211-7.Search in Google Scholar

McDonell G, Russel AD. Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action and resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;12:147-79.10.1128/CMR.12.1.147Search in Google Scholar

Holt MS, Waters J, Comber MHI, Armitage R, Morris G, Newberry C. AIS/CESIO environmental surfactant monitoring programe. SDIA sewage treatment pilot study on linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). Water Res 1995;29:2063-71.10.1016/0043-1354(95)00020-LSearch in Google Scholar

Pravilnik o graničnim vrijednostima pokazatelja, opasnih i drugih tvari u otpadnim vodama. [Croatian regulations on boundary limits of hazardous and other agents in the wastewater, in Croatian]. Narodne novine 40/1999.10.5840/jcroatstud19994021Search in Google Scholar

Warne MStJ, Schifko AD. Toxicity of laundry detergent components to a freshwater cladoceran and their contribution to detergent toxicity. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 1999;44:196-206.10.1006/eesa.1999.182410571467Search in Google Scholar

Ankley GT, Burkhard LP. Identification of surfactants as toxicants in a primary effluent. Environ Toxicol Chem 1992;11:1235-48.10.1002/etc.5620110904Search in Google Scholar

Smith K, Gemmell SG, Hunter IS. The association between biocide tolerance and the presence or absence of qac genes among hospital-acquired and community-acquired MRSA isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008:61:78-84.10.1093/jac/dkm39517981834Search in Google Scholar

Kõljalg S, Naaber P, Mikelsaar M. Antibiotic resistance as an indicator of bacterial chlorhexidine susceptibility. J Hosp Infect 2002:51:106-13.10.1053/jhin.2002.120412090797Search in Google Scholar

Walsh SE, Maillard JY, Rusell AD, Catrenich CE, Charbonneau DL, Bartolo RG. Development of bacterial resistance to several biocides and effects on antibiotic susceptibility. J Hosp Infect 2003:55:98-107.10.1016/S0195-6701(03)00240-8Search in Google Scholar

Sidhu MS, Sørum H, Holck A. Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds in food-related bacteria. Microb Drug Resist 2002:8:393-9.10.1089/10766290260469679Search in Google Scholar

Augustin H, Bauer U, Bessens E, Bestmann G, Botzenhart K, Dietz F, Genth H, Gerike P, Jung KD, Kettrup A, Robra KH, Zullei N. Mikrozide Wirkstoffe als belastende Verbindungen im Wasser [Microbiocidal compounds as environmental pollutants in water, in German]. Vom Wasser 1992;58:297-335.Search in Google Scholar

Hingst V, Klippel KM, Sonntag HG. Untersuchungen zur Epidemiologie mikrobieller Biozidresistenzen [Investigations concerning the epidemiology of microbial resistance to biocides, in German]. Zbl Hyg Umweltmed 1995;197:232-51.Search in Google Scholar

Wagner R, Kayser G. Laboruntersuchungen zum Einfuß von mikrobiziden Stoffen in Verbindung mit Waschund Reinigungsmitelrelevanten Substanzen sowie von Tensidabbauprodukten auf die Nitrifikation [Laboratory investigations on the impact of microbicide compounds of washing and cleaning agents and of surfactant metabolites on nitrification, in German]. Förderkennzeichen 88 068. Abschlußbericht Projekt Wasser-Abfall-Boden. Baden Württemberg 1991.Search in Google Scholar

Mariani L, De Pascale D, Faraponova O, Tornambè A, Sarni A, Giuliani S, Ruggiero G, Onorati F, Magaletti E. The use of a test battery in marine ecotoxicology: the acute toxicity of sodium dodecil sulfate. Environ Toxicol 2006;21:373-9.10.1002/tox.20204Search in Google Scholar

Tözüm-Calgan SRD, Atay-Güneyman NZ. The effects of an anionic and a non-ionic surfactant on growth and nitrogen fixing ability of a cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa.J Environ Sci Health Part A 1994;29:355-70.10.1080/10934529409376041Search in Google Scholar

Malik A, Kimchhayarasy P, Kakii K. Effect of surfactants on stability of Acinetobacter johnsonii S35 and Oligotropha carboxidovorans S23 coaggregates. FEMS Microb Ecol 2005;51:313-21.10.1016/j.femsec.2004.09.005Search in Google Scholar

Cho HY, Tsuchido T, Ono H, Takano M. Cell death of Bacillus subtilis caused by surfactants at low concentrations results from induced cell autolysis. J Ferment Bioeng 1990;70:11-4.10.1016/0922-338X(90)90022-OSearch in Google Scholar

Tsuchido T, Svarachorn A, Soga H, Takano M. Lysis and aberrant morphology of Bacillus subtilis cells caused by surfactants and their relation to autolysin activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1990:34:781-5.10.1128/AAC.34.5.781Search in Google Scholar

Birnie CR, Malamud D, Schnaare RL. Antimicrobial evaluation of N-alkyl betaines and N-alkyl N, Ndimethylamine oxides with variations in chain length. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:2514-17.10.1128/AAC.44.9.2514-2517.2000Search in Google Scholar

Sibila MA, Garrido MC, Perales JA, Quiroga JM. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability of an alkyl ethoxysulphate surfactant in coastal waters. Sci Total Environ 2008;394:265-74.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.01.043Search in Google Scholar

Dirilngen N, Ince N. Inhibition effect of the anionic surfactant SDS on duckweed, Lemna minor with consideration of growth and accumulation. Chemosphere 1995;31:4185-97.10.1016/0045-6535(95)80017-FSearch in Google Scholar

Utsunomiya A, Watanuki T, Matsushita K, Nishina M, Tomita I. Assessment of the toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate and quaternary alkylammonium chloride by measuring 13C-glycerol in Dunaliella sp.Chemosphere 1997;35:2479-90.10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00316-0Search in Google Scholar

Singer MM, George S, Jacobson S, Lee I, Tjeerdema RS, Sowny ML. Comparative effects of oil dispersants to the early life stages of topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Environ Toxicol Chem 1994;13:649-56.10.1002/etc.5620130415Search in Google Scholar

Belanger SE, Dorn PB, Toy R, Boeije G, Marshall SJ, Wind T, Van Compernolle R Zeller D. Aquatic risk assessment of alcohol ethoxylates in North America and Europe. Exotoxicol Environ Saf 2006;64:85-99.10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.11.003Search in Google Scholar

Hennes-Morgan EC, de Oude NT. Detergents. In: Calow P, editor. Handbook of ecotoxicology. Vol. 2. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1994. p. 120-54.Search in Google Scholar

Boeije GM, Cano ML, Marshall SJ, Belanger SE, Van Compernolle R, Dorn PB, Gümbel H, Toy R, Wind T. Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2006;64:75-84.10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.08.009Search in Google Scholar

Dorn PB, Rodgers JH, Bubey ST, Gillespie WB, Lizotte RE. An assessment of ecological effects of a C9-11 linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactant in stream mesocosm experiments. Ecotoxicology 1997;6:275-92.10.1023/A:1018687029748Search in Google Scholar

Mann RM, Bidwell JR. The acute toxicity of agricultural surfactants to the tadpoles of four Australian and two exotic frogs. Environ Pollut 2001;114:195-205.10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00216-5Search in Google Scholar

Tolls J, Haller M, Seinen W, Sijm DTHM. LAS bioconcentration: tissue distribution and effect of hardnessimplications for processes. Environ Sci Technol 2000;34:304-10.10.1021/es990296cSearch in Google Scholar

Ferreira-Leach AMR, Hill EM. Bioconcentration and distribution of 4-tert-octylphenol residues in tissues of the rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss). Mar Environ Res 2001;51:75-98.10.1016/S0141-1136(00)00256-7Search in Google Scholar

Pedersen SN, Christiansen LB, Pedersen KL, Korsgaard B, Bjerregaard P. In vivo estrogenic activity of branched and linear alkylphenols in rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss). Sci Total Environ 1999;233:89-96.10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00182-5Search in Google Scholar

Endo RM, Letey J, Valoras N, Osborn JF. Effects of nonionic surfactants on monocots. Agron J 1969;61:850-4.10.2134/agronj1969.00021962006100060007xSearch in Google Scholar

Luxmoore RJ, Valoras N, Letey J. Nonionic surfactant effects on growth and porosity of barley roots. Agron J 1974;66:673-5.10.2134/agronj1974.00021962006600050020xSearch in Google Scholar

Günther P, Pestemer W. Phytotoxicity of surfactants to higher plants. Proceedings of the conference: Effects of organic contaminants in sewage sludge on soil fertility, plants and animals, Braunschweig, (J. E. Hall, D. R. Sauerbeck and P. L'Hermite, eds.), Commission of the European Communities. 1992. str. 103-11.Search in Google Scholar

Traina SJ, AcAvoy DC, Versteeg DJ. Association of linear alkylbenzenesulfonates with dissolved humic substances and its effect on bioavailability. Environ Sci Technol 1996;30:1300-9.10.1021/es950512rSearch in Google Scholar

Cano ML, Dyer SD, DeCarvalho AJ. Effect of sediment organic carbon on the toxicity of a surfactant to Hyalella azteca.Environ Toxicol Chem 1996;15:1411-7.10.1002/etc.5620150821Search in Google Scholar

Topping BW, Waters J. The monitoring of cationic surfactants in sewage treatment plants. Tenside Surfactant Deterg 1982:19:164-9.10.1515/tsd-1982-190315Search in Google Scholar

Whiting VK, Cripe GM, Lepo JE. Effects of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecil sulphate, on newly hatched blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, and other routinely tested estuarine crustaceans. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1996;31:293-6.10.1007/BF00212380Search in Google Scholar

Hrenovic J, Ivankovic T. Toxicity of anionic and cationic surfactant to Acinetobacter junii in pure culture. Cent Eur J Biol 2007;2:405-14.10.2478/s11535-007-0029-7Search in Google Scholar

Hrenovic J, Ivankovic T, Sekovanic L, Rozic M. Toxicity of dodecylpyridinium and cetylpyridinium chlorides against phosphate-accumulating bacterium. Cent Eur J Biol 2008;3:143-8.Search in Google Scholar

LoCicero JC, Frear DEH, Miller HJ. The relation between chemical structure and fungicidal action in a series of substituted and unsubstituted pyridinium halides. J Biol Chem 1948;172:689-93.10.1016/S0021-9258(19)52755-7Search in Google Scholar

Verge C, Moreno A, Bravo J, Berna JL. Influence of water hardness on the bioavailability and toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). Chemosphere 2000;44:1749-57.10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00574-9Search in Google Scholar

Versteeg DJ, Stanton DT, Pence MA, Cowan C. Effects of surfactants on the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, in a chronic toxicity test and in the development of QSARs. Environ Toxicol Chem 1997;16:1051-9.10.1002/etc.5620160527Search in Google Scholar

Painter HA. Anionic surfactants. In: De Oude NT, editor. Handbook of environmental chemistry. Vol. 3. Part F. Anthropogenic Compounds Detrgents. Berlin: Springer Ferlag; 1992. p. 1-88.10.1007/978-3-540-47108-0_1Search in Google Scholar

Feijtal TCF, Van de Plasche EJ. Environmental risk characterization of 4 major surfactants used in The Netherlands 1995 [displayed 15 July 2009]. Available at http://www.erasm.org/study/rivm-report.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

Garcia MT, Ribosa I, Guindulain T, Sanchez-Leal J, Vives- Rego J. Fate and effect of monoalkyl quaternary ammonium surfactants in the aquatic environment. Environ Pollut 2001;111:169-75.10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00322-XSearch in Google Scholar

Quiroga JM, Sales D, Gomez-Parra A. Experimental evaluation of pollution potential of anionic surfactants in the marine environment. Water Res 1989;23:801-8.10.1016/0043-1354(89)90002-XSearch in Google Scholar

Manzano MA, Perales JA, Sales D, Quiroga JM. The effect of temperature on the biodegradation of a nonylphenol polyethoxylate in river water. Water Res 1999;33:2593-600.10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00480-1Search in Google Scholar

Mann RM, Boddy MR. Biodegradation of a nonylphenol ethoxylate by the autochthonous microflora in lake water with observations on the influence of light. Chemosphere 2000;41:1361-9.10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00002-3Search in Google Scholar

Yadav JS, Lawrence DL, Nuck BA, Federle TW, Reddy CA. Biotransformation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: oxidation of alkyl side-chain. Biodegradation 2001;12:443-53.10.1023/A:1015056530264Search in Google Scholar

De Wolf W, Feijtel T. Terrestrial risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) in sludge-amended soils. Chemosphere 1998;36:1319-43.10.1016/S0045-6535(97)10021-2Search in Google Scholar

Jensen J. Fate and effects of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) in the terrestrial environment. Sci Total Environ 1999;226:93-111.10.1016/S0048-9697(98)00395-7Search in Google Scholar

Hršak D, Begonja A. Growth characteristics and metabolic activities of the methanotrophic-heterotrophic groundwater community. J Appl Microbiol 1998;85:448-56.10.1046/j.1365-2672.1998.853505.x9750275Search in Google Scholar

Jimenez G, Breen A, Thomas NT, Federle W, Sayler GS. Mineralization of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate by a four-member aerobic bacterial consortium. Appl Environ Microbiol 1991;57:1566-9.10.1128/aem.57.5.1566-1569.199118298716348496Search in Google Scholar

Sigoillot JC, Nguyen MH. Complete oxidation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by bacterial communities selected from coastal seawater. Appl Environ Microbiol 1992;58:1308-12.10.1128/aem.58.4.1308-1312.19921955911599249Search in Google Scholar

Abboud MM, Khleifat KM, Batarseh M, Tarawneh KA, Al-Mustafa A, Al-Madadhah M. Different optimization conditions required for enhancing the biodegradation of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactants by novel consortium of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pantoea agglomerans.Enzyme Microbiol Technol 2007;41:432-9.10.1016/j.enzmictec.2007.03.011Search in Google Scholar

Nye JV, Guerin WF, Boyd AS. Heterotrophic activity of microorganisms in soils treated with quaternary ammonium compounds. Environ Sci Technol 1994;28:944-51.10.1021/es00054a029Search in Google Scholar

Nishiyama N, Toshima Y, Ikeda Y. Biodegradation of alkyltrimethylammonium salts in activated sludge. Chemosphere 1995;30:593-603.10.1016/0045-6535(94)00406-KSearch in Google Scholar

Giolando St, Rapaport RA, Larson RJ, Federle TW, Stalmans M, Masscheleyn P. Environmental fate and effects of DEEDMAC: a new rapidly biodegradable cationic surfactant for use in fabric softeners. Chemosphere 1995;30:1067-83.10.1016/0045-6535(95)00005-SSearch in Google Scholar

Scott MJ, Jones MN. The biodegradation of surfactants in the environment. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000;1508:235-51.10.1016/S0304-4157(00)00013-7Search in Google Scholar

Talmage SS. Environmental and human safety of major surfactants: alcohol ethoxylates and alkylphenol ethoxylates. A Report to the Soap and Detergent Association. Boca Raton (FL): Lewis Publishers; 1994.Search in Google Scholar

Szymański A, Bubien E, Kurosz T, Wolniewicz A, Łukaszewski Z. Biodegradation of fatty alcohol ethoxylates under the conditions of the Die-Away Test. Pol J Environ Stud 2002;11:429-33.Search in Google Scholar

Reznickova I, Hoffmann J, Komarck K. Biodegradation of technical mixtures of oxyethylenated aliphatic alcohols in an aqueous environment. Chemosphere 2002;48:83-7.10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00039-5Search in Google Scholar

Huber M, Meyer U, Rys P. Biodegradation mechanisms of linear alcohol ethoxylates under anaerobic conditions. Environ Sci Technol 2000;34:1737-41.10.1021/es9903680Search in Google Scholar

HERA. Human & Environmental Risk Assessment on Ingredients of Household Cleaning Products, 2- (2-Butoxyethoxy)ethanol [displayed 15 July 2009]. Available at http://www.heraproject.com/files/40-FDEGBE%20Sept%202005.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

van de Plassche EJ, de Bruijn JHM, Stephenson RR, Marshall SJ, Feijtel TCJ, Belanger SE. Predicted no-effect concentrations and risk characterization of four surfactants: linear alkyl benzene sulfonate, alcohol ethoxylates, alcohol ethoxylated sulfates, and soap. Environ Toxicol Chem 1999:18:2653-63.10.1002/etc.5620181135Search in Google Scholar

Grillitsch B, Gans O, Kreuzinger N, Scharf S, Uhl M, Fuerhacker M. Environmental risk assessment for quaternary ammonium compounds; a case study from Austria. Water Sci Technol 2006:54:111-8.10.2166/wst.2006.84017302311Search in Google Scholar

Kreuzinger N, Fuerhacker M, Scharf S, Uhl M, Gans O, Grillitsch B. Methodological approach towards the environmental significance of uncharacterized substances - quaternary ammonium compounds as an example. Desalination 2007:215:209-22.10.1016/j.desal.2006.10.036Search in Google Scholar

Tabor CF, Barber LB. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate in the Mississipi River. Environ Sci Technol 1996;30:161-71.10.1021/es950210pSearch in Google Scholar

Fernandez P, Alder AC, Suter MJF, Giger W. Determination of the quaternary ammonium surfactant ditallowdimethylammonium in digested sludges and marine sediments by supercritical fluid extraction and liquid chromatography with postcolumn ion-pair formation. Anal Chem 1996;68:921-9.10.1021/ac9505482Search in Google Scholar

Ferrer I, Furlong ET. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples. Anal Chem 2002;74:1275-80.10.1021/ac010969lSearch in Google Scholar

Kümmerer K, Eitel A, Braun U, Hubner P, Daschner FD, Mascart G, Milandri M, Reinthaler F Verhoef J. Analysis of benzalkonium chloride in the effluent from European hospitals by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column ion-pairing and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A 1997;774:281-6.10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00242-2Search in Google Scholar

Dunphy JC, Pessler DG, Morall SW, Evans KA, Robaugh DA, Fujimoto G Negahban A. Derivatization LC/MS for the simultaneous determination of fatty alcohol and alcohol ethoxylate surfactants in water and wastewater samples. Environ Sci Technol 2001;35:1223-30.10.1021/es001491q11347937Search in Google Scholar

Sütterlin H, Alexy R, Kümmerer K. The toxicity of the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride alone and in mixtures with other anionic compounds to bacteria in test systems with Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2008;71:498-505.10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.12.01518272223Search in Google Scholar

Liwarska-Bizukojc E, Miksch K, Malachowska-Jutsz A, Kalka J. Acute toxicity of five selected anionic and nonionic surfactants. Chemosphere 2005;58:1249-53.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.10.03115667844Search in Google Scholar

Pavlić Ž, Vidaković-Cifrek Ž, Puntarić D. Toxicity of surfactants to green microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Scenedesmus subspicatus and to marine diatoms Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Skeletonema costatum.Chemosphere 2005;61:1061-68.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.03.05116263376Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo