1. bookVolume 31 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)
Journal Details
First Published
01 May 1967
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Open Access

The orthodontic extraction of permanent molars: a literature review

Published Online: 15 May 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 31 (2015) - Issue 1 (January 2015)
Page range: 69 - 77
Received: 01 Mar 2014
Accepted: 01 Apr 2015
Journal Details
First Published
01 May 1967
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

1. Sandler PJ, Atkinson R, Murray AM. For four sixes. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop 2000;117:418-34.10.1016/S0889-5406(00)70161-2Search in Google Scholar

2. Daugaard-Jensen I. Extraction of first molars in discrepancy cases. Am J Orthod 1973;64:115-36.10.1016/S0002-9416(73)90304-7Search in Google Scholar

3. Houston WJB, Stephens CD, Tulley WJ. A Textbook of Orthodontics. 2nd ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1992:196-99.Search in Google Scholar

4. Ong DC, Bleakley JE. Compromised first permanent molars: an orthodontic perspective. Aust Dent J 2010;55:2-14.10.1111/j.1834-7819.2009.01176.xSearch in Google Scholar

5. Stepovich ML. A clinical study on closing edentulous spaces in the mandible. Angle Orthod 1979;49:227-33.Search in Google Scholar

6. Hom BM, Turley PK. The effects of space closure of the mandibular first molar area in adults. Am J Orthod 1984;85:457-69.10.1016/0002-9416(84)90085-XSearch in Google Scholar

7. William R, Hosila FJ. The effect of different extraction sites upon incisor retraction. Am J Orthod 1976;69:388-410.10.1016/0002-9416(76)90208-6Search in Google Scholar

8. Jacobs C, Jacobs-Müller C, Luley C, Erbe C, Wehrbein H. Orthodontic space closure after first molar extraction without skeletal anchorage. J Orofac Orthop 2011;72:51-60.10.1007/s00056-010-0007-ySearch in Google Scholar

9. Livas C, Halazonetis DJ, Booij JW, Katsaros C. Extraction of maxillary first molars improves second and third molar inclinations in Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop 2011;140:377-82.10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.06.026Search in Google Scholar

10. Ruellas AC, Baratieri C, Roma MB, Izquierdo Ade M, Boaventura L, Rodrigues CS et al. Angle Class III malocclusion treated with mandibular first molar extractions. Am J Orthod Dento facial Orthop 2012;142:384-92.10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.01.025Search in Google Scholar

11. Orton HS, Carter NE. Initial management of first molar extraction cases. J Clin Orthod 1988;22:230-4.Search in Google Scholar

12. Thunold K. Early loss of the first molars 25 years after. Rep Congr Eur Orthod Soc 1970;349-65.Search in Google Scholar

13. Bishara SE, Ortho D, Burkey PS. Second molar extractions: a review. Am J Orthod 1986;89:415-24.10.1016/0002-9416(86)90073-4Search in Google Scholar

14. Quinn GW. Extraction of four second molars. Angle Orthod 1985;55:58-69.Search in Google Scholar

15. Haas AJ. Let’s take a rational look at permanent second molar extractions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1986;90:361-3.10.1016/0889-5406(86)90001-6Search in Google Scholar

16. Lee W, Wong RW, Ikegami T, Hägg U. Maxillary second molar extractions in orthodontic treatment. World J Orthod 2008;9:52-61.Search in Google Scholar

17. Lin J, Gu Y. Lower second molar extraction in correction of severe skeletal class III malocclusion. Angle Orthod 2006;76:217-25.Search in Google Scholar

18. Basdra EK, Stellzig A, Komposch G. Extraction of maxillary second molars in the treatment of Class II malocclusion. Angle Orthod 1996;66:287-92.Search in Google Scholar

19. Richardson M, Mills K. Late lower arch crowding: the effect of second molar extraction. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1990;98:242-6.10.1016/S0889-5406(05)81601-4Search in Google Scholar

20. Battagel JM, Ryan A. Spontaneous lower arch changes with and without second molar extractions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1998;113:133-43.10.1016/S0889-5406(98)70285-9Search in Google Scholar

21. Richardson ME, Burden DJ. Second molar extraction in the treatment of lower premolar crowding. Br J Orthod 1992;19:299-304.10.1179/bjo.19.4.299Search in Google Scholar

22. Whitney EF, Sinclair PM. An evaluation of combination second molar extraction and functional appliance therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1987;91:183-92.10.1016/0889-5406(87)90445-8Search in Google Scholar

23. Graber TM. The role of upper second molar extraction treatment. Am J Orthod 1955;41:354-61.10.1016/0002-9416(55)90079-8Search in Google Scholar

24. Greatrex PA, Sampson WJ, Richards LC, Twelftree CC. The extraction of permanent second molars and its effect on the dentofacial complex of patients treated with the Tip-Edge appliance. Eur J Orthod 2002;24:501-18.10.1093/ejo/24.5.501Search in Google Scholar

25. Basdra EK, Komposch G. Maxillary second molar extraction treatment. J Clin Orthod 1994;28:476-81.Search in Google Scholar

26. Rees H, Witt E. Second molar extractions. Zahnarztl Prax 1981;32:222-37.Search in Google Scholar

27. Chipman MR. Second and third molars: Their role in orthodontic therapy. Am J Orthod 1961;47:498-520.10.1016/0002-9416(61)90191-9Search in Google Scholar

28. Lehman R. A consideration of the advantages of second molar extractions in orthodontics. Eur J Orthod 1979;1:119-24.10.1093/ejo/1.2.119Search in Google Scholar

29. Trottier B. The influence of second molar extractions in orthodontic treatment. Preceptorship thesis. Burlington VT, 1958.Search in Google Scholar

30. Halderson H. Early second permanent molar extraction in orthodontics. J Canad Dent Assoc 1959;25:549-60.Search in Google Scholar

31. Webb MA. The quantitative effects of maxillary second molar extraction in correction of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. Master’s thesis. St Louis, Missouri: St Louis University, 1981.Search in Google Scholar

32. Brown ID. The unpredictable lower third molar. A case report. Br Dent J 1974;136:155-6.10.1038/sj.bdj.4803142Search in Google Scholar

33. Bishara SE, Andreasen GF. Third molars: a review. Am J Orthod 1983;83:131-7.10.1016/S0002-9416(83)90298-1Search in Google Scholar

34. Magness WB. Extraction of second molars. J Clin Orthod 1986;20:519-22.Search in Google Scholar

35. Huggins DG. Eruption of lower third molars following orthodontic treatment. Dent Pract 1963;13:209-15.Search in Google Scholar

36. Kokich VG. Second molar extraction: Why and when. Pacific Coast SocOrthod Bulletin 1983;55:45-50.Search in Google Scholar

37. Smith D. The eruption of third molars following extraction of second molars. Dent Pract 1958,8:292-5.Search in Google Scholar

38. Cryer BS. Third molar eruption and the effect of extraction of adjacent teeth. Dent Pract 1967;17:405-16.Search in Google Scholar

39. Fanning RJ. The role of extractions in orthodontic treatment. Int J Orthod 1964;2:17-26.Search in Google Scholar

40. Wilson HE. Extraction of second permanent molars in orthodontic treatment. Orthodontist 1971;3:18-24.Search in Google Scholar

41. Rix XE. Further thoughts on monobloc therapy. Dent Prac Dent Rec 1966;16:389-400.Search in Google Scholar

42. Liddle DW. Second molar extraction in orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod 1977;72:599-616.10.1016/0002-9416(77)90329-3Search in Google Scholar

43. Breakspear EK. Indications for extraction of the lower second permanent molar. Dent Pract Dent Rec 1967;17:198-200.Search in Google Scholar

44. Orton-Gibbs S, Crow V, Orton HS. Eruption of third permanent molars after the extraction of second permanent molars. Part 1: Assessment of third molar position and size. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2001;119:226-38.10.1067/mod.2001.111556Search in Google Scholar

45. Moffitt AH. Eruption and function of maxillary third molars after extraction of second molars. Angle Orthod 1998;68:147-52.Search in Google Scholar

46. Richardson ME, Richardson A. Lower third molar development subsequent to second molar extraction. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1993;104:566-74.10.1016/S0889-5406(05)80440-8Search in Google Scholar

47. Gaumond G. Second molar germectomy and third molar eruption. 11 cases of lower second molar enucleation. Angle Orthod 1985;55:77-88.Search in Google Scholar

48. Broadbent BH. The influence of the third molars on the alignment of teeth. Am J Orthod Oral Surg 1943;29:312-30.10.1016/S0096-6347(43)90384-9Search in Google Scholar

49. Dewey M. The third molars in relation to malocclusion. Int J Orthod 1917;3:529-33.10.1016/S1072-3471(17)90221-4Search in Google Scholar

50. Fastlicht J. Crowding of mandibular incisors. Am J Orthod 1970;58:156-63.10.1016/0002-9416(70)90069-2Search in Google Scholar

51. Hixon EH. Cephalometrics: a perspective. Angle Orthod 1972;42:200-11.Search in Google Scholar

52. Hopkins SC. Inadequacy of mandibular anchorage. Am J Orthod 1955;41:691-704.10.1016/0002-9416(55)90114-7Search in Google Scholar

53. Nance HN. The limitations of orthodontic treatment; diagnosis and treatment in the permanent dentition. Am J Orthod 1947;33:253-301.10.1016/0096-6347(47)90123-3Search in Google Scholar

54. Shanley LS. The influence of mandibular third molars on mandibular anterior teeth. Master’s thesis. St. Louis, Missouri: Washington University, 1960.Search in Google Scholar

55. Stemm RM. The influence of the third molar on the position of the remaining teeth in the mandibular dental arch. Master’s thesis. St. Louis, Missouri: St. Louis University, 1968.Search in Google Scholar

56. Sheneman J. Third molar teeth and their effect upon the lower anterior teeth: a study of 49 orthodontic cases 5 years after band removal. Am J Orthod 1969;55:196.10.1016/0002-9416(69)90130-4Search in Google Scholar

57. Chateau M, Demoge PH. Evaluation of long term results of orthodontic therapy. Int Dent J 1961;11:29-46.Search in Google Scholar

58. Laskin DM. Evaluation of the third molar problem. J Am Dent Assoc 1971;82:824-8.10.14219/jada.archive.1971.01305278781Search in Google Scholar

59. Harradine NW, Pearson MH, Toth B. The effect of extraction of third molars on late lower incisor crowding: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Orthod 1998;25:117-22.10.1093/ortho/25.2.117Search in Google Scholar

60. Lindqvist B, Thilander B. Extraction of third molars in cases of anticipated crowding in the lower jaw. Am J Orthod 1982;81:130-9.10.1016/0002-9416(82)90037-9Search in Google Scholar

61. Kaplan RG. Mandibular third molars and postretention crowding. Am J Orthod 1974;66:411-30.10.1016/0002-9416(74)90050-5Search in Google Scholar

62. Richardson ME. Late lower arch crowding: facial growth or forward drift? Eur J Orthod 1979;1:219-25.Search in Google Scholar

63. Schulhof RJ. Third molars and orthodontic diagnosis. J ClinOrthod 1976;10:272-81.Search in Google Scholar

64. Vego L. A longitudinal study of mandibular arch perimeter. Angle Orthod 1962;32:187-92.Search in Google Scholar

65. Bergstrom K, Jensen R. Responsibility of the third molar for secondary crowding. Dent Abstr 1961;6:544.Search in Google Scholar

66. Schwarze CW. The influence of third molar germectomy– a comparative long-term study. Abstract of Third International Orthodontic Congress, London: 1973;551-62.Search in Google Scholar

67. Ades AG, Joondeph DR, Little RM, Chapko MK. A long-term study of the relationship of third molars to changes in the mandibular dental arch, Am J OrthodDentofacialOrthop 1990;97:323-35.Search in Google Scholar

68. Lifshitz AB. An evaluation of the mandibular third molar influence on the arch length and post-retention crowding. Master thesis. Iowa City: University of Iowa, 1982.Search in Google Scholar

69. Kavadia S, Antoniades K, Kaklamanos E, Antoniades V, Markovitsi E, Zafariadis L. Early extraction of the mandibular third molar in case of eruption disturbances of the second molar. J Dent Child 2003;70:29-32.Search in Google Scholar

70. Kelly JF. Report of a workshop on the management of patients with third molar teeth. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1994;53:1102-12.Search in Google Scholar

71. National Institute of Health. NIH consensus development conference for removal of third molars. J Oral Surg 1980;38:235-6.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo