Migration has become one of the most current themes in the reality of Georgian society since the destruction of the Soviet Union. However, this process dates backs to the twentieth century in the history of Georgian migration. Wars, chaos and turmoil, geopolitical location, and social and political conflicts constantly triggered the population to migrate either within the country or abroad. The most recent history of Georgian migration can be divided into several waves or phases: 1. Before the 1950s (Soviet Union regime), when the population was forced to leave their living place by brutal political repressions; 2. In the period of the 1950s to the 1990s, when Georgians migrated within the territory of the Soviet Union Republic; 3. The mass migration of the 1990s, which was caused by social crisis, economic hardship, political turmoil, military conflicts (including inter-ethnic conflicts in Abkhazia (1992–1993) and South Ossetia (1988–1992) and the civil war of 1993, against the democratically elected Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia; 4. The later migration outflow from Georgia was mainly recorded in 2000, when a huge wave of migrants went to Russia but, as the visa regime had been restricted, Georgian citizens had to choose another destination. This time migrants headed to European countries and the USA. It has to be mentioned that since 2002, the emigration process has become more and more diverse as the motivation of migrants varied as well as the places of destination. Unfortunately, the data that reflects the precise picture of migration in Georgia does not exist. Even the official data cannot be acknowledged as accurate information about the migrants or migration because of the absence of a precise mechanism that collects reliable statistical information. It depicts data based on various sources and methodologies that should be taken into consideration when highlighting the number of migrants.
- gender models
- transnational mothers