1. bookVolume 26 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2719-9452
First Published
01 Jan 2006
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish
access type Open Access

Migration Problems at the Regional Security Level: Reasons for Georgian Migration Abroad

Published Online: 20 Jul 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 26 (2021) - Issue 1 (March 2021)
Page range: 117 - 129
Received: 19 Nov 2020
Accepted: 27 Jan 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2719-9452
First Published
01 Jan 2006
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish
Abstract

Migration has become one of the most current themes in the reality of Georgian society since the destruction of the Soviet Union. However, this process dates backs to the twentieth century in the history of Georgian migration. Wars, chaos and turmoil, geopolitical location, and social and political conflicts constantly triggered the population to migrate either within the country or abroad. The most recent history of Georgian migration can be divided into several waves or phases: 1. Before the 1950s (Soviet Union regime), when the population was forced to leave their living place by brutal political repressions; 2. In the period of the 1950s to the 1990s, when Georgians migrated within the territory of the Soviet Union Republic; 3. The mass migration of the 1990s, which was caused by social crisis, economic hardship, political turmoil, military conflicts (including inter-ethnic conflicts in Abkhazia (1992–1993) and South Ossetia (1988–1992) and the civil war of 1993, against the democratically elected Georgian president Zviad Gamsakhurdia; 4. The later migration outflow from Georgia was mainly recorded in 2000, when a huge wave of migrants went to Russia but, as the visa regime had been restricted, Georgian citizens had to choose another destination. This time migrants headed to European countries and the USA. It has to be mentioned that since 2002, the emigration process has become more and more diverse as the motivation of migrants varied as well as the places of destination. Unfortunately, the data that reflects the precise picture of migration in Georgia does not exist. Even the official data cannot be acknowledged as accurate information about the migrants or migration because of the absence of a precise mechanism that collects reliable statistical information. It depicts data based on various sources and methodologies that should be taken into consideration when highlighting the number of migrants.

Keywords

Antelava L, Status of a woman and Style of family life-Gender problems in Georgia, Tbilisi 2002. Search in Google Scholar

Article 3 of the UN Protocol (2017, November): to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crime_cicp_convention.html. Search in Google Scholar

Assessment of U.S. activities to combat trafficking in persons (2003, August) U.S. Department of Justice, http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/crim/wetf/us_assessment.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

Badurashvili I., Illegal Migrants from Georgia: Labor Market Experiences and Remittance Behavior, Georgian Centre of Population Research 2012, http://www.carim-east.eu/media/CARIM-East-2012-RR-39.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

Badurashvili I., Determinants and Consequences of Irregular Migration in a Society under Transition: The Case of Georgia, (in:) Population Association of America Annual Meeting. Philadelphia 2004, http://paa2008.princeton.edu/papers/80486. Search in Google Scholar

Broverman F. E., Inge K., Raymond S., Vogel D. M., Sex-role stereotypes: A current appraisal. “Journal of Social Issues”, 1972 no. 28.10.1111/j.1540-4560.1972.tb00018.x Search in Google Scholar

Dannecker P., Transnational Migration and the Transformation of Gender Relations: The Case of Bangladeshi Labour Migrants, “Current Sociology” 2005, no. 53.10.1177/0011392105052720 Search in Google Scholar

Dershem L., Khoperia T., The Status of Households in Georgia. Final Report. Tbilisi: USAID, Save the Children, IPM 166–18. Search in Google Scholar

Europol Public Information (2011, September 1) Crime Assessment - Trafficking of Human Beings into the European Union, https://trafficking-in-human-beings-in-the-european-union-2011.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

Foner N., Immigrant women and work in New York City, then and now. “Journal of American Ethnic History”, 1999 vol. 18, no. 3. Search in Google Scholar

Javakhishvili N. and N. Buthsashvili, Domestic Violence in Georgia: State and Community Responses, 2006–2015 (in:) M. Barkaia and A. Waterson (eds.), Gender in Georgia: Feminist Perspectives on Culture, Nation and History in the South Caucasus, New York 2018.10.2307/j.ctvw04d83.12 Search in Google Scholar

Lutz H., Life in the Twilight Zone: Migration, Transnationality, and Gender in the Private Household, ”Journal of Contemporary European Studies”, 2004 vol. 12, no. 1.10.1080/1460846042000207114 Search in Google Scholar

Shioshvili T., American Ethnicity, Tbilisi 2016. Search in Google Scholar

UNICEF, UNHCHR, OSCE/ODIHR, Trafficking in Human Beings in Southeastern Europe, https://www.osce.org/odihr/18540?download=true. Search in Google Scholar

US Department of State Trafficking in Persons report, http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2003/. Search in Google Scholar

Yale-Loehr, Why Are So Many People Challenging Board of Immigration Appeals Decisions in Federal Court?, Cornell University Law School 2005, https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1860&context=facpub. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo