1. bookVolume 12 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
17 Jul 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The Historical Taboo: Colonial Discourses and Postcolonial Identities in Belgium

Published Online: 30 Aug 2017
Page range: 107 - 123
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
17 Jul 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

This article examines so-called colonial discourses in Belgium related to the former Sub-Saharan colony owned by Leopold II of Belgium which today is known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) or the Congo-Kinshasa. Having introduced the colonial history of the DR Congo from the 15th century until 1910, the study starts with a discussion of Van den Braembussche’s concept of a ‘historical taboo’ and four ways of engaging with such implicit interdictions. Finally, an empirical analysis of colonial discourses in Belgium from the 1890s until today will be presented in conjunction with Belgium’s linguistic-cultural division, taking into account age-related divergence.

Keywords

Bierhoff, Hans-Werner, and Dieter Frei. 2011. Sozialpsychologie - Individuum und soziale Welt. Gottingen et al.: Hogrefe.Search in Google Scholar

Bobineau, Julien. 2016. “The History of the Democratic Republic of Congo.” The Democratic Republic of the Congo. La Republique Democratique du Congo. Eds. Julien Bobineau, and Philipp Gieg. Berlin: LIT Verlag. 11-28.Search in Google Scholar

Bragard, Veronique, and Stephanie Planche. 2010. “Museum Practices and the Belgian Colonial Past: Questioning the Memories of an Ambivalent Metropole.” Museums in Postcolonial Europe: Africa and the Black Diaspora. Ed. Dominic Richard David Thomas. London: Routlegde. 54-64.Search in Google Scholar

Buxant, Martin, and Steven Samyn. 2011. Belgique, un roi sans pays. Paris: Plon.Search in Google Scholar

Böröcz, Jozsef, and Alejandro Portes. 1989. “Contemporary Immigration: Theoretical Perspectives on Its Determinants and Modes of Incorporation.” International Migration Review 23(3): 606-630.Search in Google Scholar

Calvet, Louis-Jean. 2010. Histoire du francais en Afrique. Une langue en copropriete? Paris: Ecriture.Search in Google Scholar

Castryck, Geert. 2006. “Whose History is History? Singularities and Dualities of the Public Debate on Belgian Colonialism.” Europe and the World in European Historiography. Ed. Csaba Levai. Pisa: Pisa Univ. Press. 71-88.Search in Google Scholar

Ceuppens, Bambi. 2003. Congo made in Flanders? Koloniale Vlaamse visies op ‘blank’ en ‘zwart’ in Belgisch Congo. Brussel: Acad. Press.Search in Google Scholar

Clément, Caty, and Claude Roosens. 2000. “La Belgique et le Congo: dimensions internationales et internes.” La Belgique et l’Afrique centrale de 1960 a nos jours. Ed. Olivier Lanotte. Brussels: GRIP et al. 17-50.Search in Google Scholar

Cornelis, Sabine. 2008. “Revisiter l’histoire, pour ‘reparer.’” UC Louvain. 17 March 2008. Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve. 25 June 2016. <https://www.uclouvain.be/cps/ucl/doc/ac-arec/documents/Cornelis.pdf>.Search in Google Scholar

Crowe , David M. 2000. “The Roma Holocaust.” The Holocaust’s Ghost. Writings on Art, Politics, Law and Education. Ed. Frederick Charles De Cost. Edmonton: Univ. of Alberta Press. 179-202.Search in Google Scholar

De Mul, Sarah. 2012. “The Holocaust as a Paradigm for the Congo Atrocities. Adam Hochschild’s King Leopold’s Ghost.” The Postcolonial Low Countries. Literature, Colonialism, Multiculturalism. Eds. Elleke Boehmer, and Sarah De Mul. Lanham et al.: Lexinton Books. 163-183.Search in Google Scholar

Dorzee, Hugues. 2008. “Colons au passe et au present.” Le Soir 15 Nov. 2008: 19.Search in Google Scholar

Emerson, Barbara. 1979. Leopold II of the Belgians. King of Colonialism. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Search in Google Scholar

“En wat met Congo na 30 juni?” De Morgen. 23 June 2010. De Morgen. 25 June 2016. <http://www.demorgen.be/buitenland/en-wat-met-congo-na-30-juni-a1123622/>.Search in Google Scholar

“Etude de la migration congolaise et de son impact sur lapresence congolaise en Belgique: Analyse des principales donnees demographiques.” 1 June 2010. Diversite. Ed. Quentin Schoonvaere.. Groupe d’etude de Demographique Appliquee (UCL) & Centre pour l’egalite des chances et la lutte contre le racisme. 24 June 2016. <http://www.diversite.be/sites/default/files/legacy_files/studies/2010/Etude_Congolais__FR%5B1%5D.pdf>.Search in Google Scholar

Fabian, Johannes. 1983. “Missions and the Colonization of African Languages: Developments in the Former Belgian Congo.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 17(2): 165-187.Search in Google Scholar

Festinger, Leon. 1957. A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. London: Stanford Univ. Press.Search in Google Scholar

Freud, Sigmund. 1919. Totem and Taboo. Resemblances between the Psychic Lives of Savages and Neurotics. London: Routlegde.Search in Google Scholar

Gillet, Florence. 2008. “Congo reve? Congo detruit... Les anciens coloniaux belges aux prises avec une societe en repentir. Enquete sur la face emergee d’une memoire.” CHTP--BEG 19: 79-133.Search in Google Scholar

Hasquin, Herve. 1982. Historiographie et politique. Charleroi: Inst. Jules Destree.Search in Google Scholar

Heusch, Luc de. 2002. “Ceci n’est pas la Belgique.” Yale French Studies 102: 11-23.Search in Google Scholar

Hochschild, Adam. 1999. King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Boston: Houghton Miffl in.Search in Google Scholar

Jacquemyns, Guillaume. 1956. Le Congo belge devant l’opinion publique. Brussels: INSOC.Search in Google Scholar

Klein, Olivier, and Laurent Licata. 2010. “Holocaust or Benevolent Paternalism? Intergenerational Comparisons on Collective Memories and Emotions about Belgium’s Colonial Past.” IJCV 4(1): 45-57.Search in Google Scholar

Krämer, Philipp. 2010. Der innere Konfl ikt in Belgien: Sprache und Politik. Geschichte und Gegenwart der mehrsprachigen Gesellschaft. Saarbrucken: VDM-Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

N’Sial, Camille Sesep. 2009. La politique et les langues. De l’Etat independant du Congo a la Troisieme Republique. Paris et al.: L’Harmattan.Search in Google Scholar

Planche, Stéphanie. 2009. “Le ‘Roi colonisateur’ a l’ecole.” Leopold II. Entre genie et gene. Eds. Vincent Dujardin, and Fancis Balace. Brussels: Racine. 269-283.Search in Google Scholar

Rahier, Jean Muteba. 2003. “The Ghost of Leopold II: The Belgian Royal Museum of Central Africa and Its Dusty Colonialist Exhibition.” Research in African Literatures 34(1): 58-84.Search in Google Scholar

Roosens, Claude. 2000. “Belgique-Zaire: la Grande crise.” La Belgique et l’Afrique centrale de 1960 a nos jours. Ed. Olivier Lanotte. Brussels: GRIP et al. 135-148.Search in Google Scholar

RTBF. 2010. “62 % des Belges sont favorables au maintien de la monarchie.” Radio-television belge de la Communaute francaise. 27 March 2010. Radio-television belge de la Communaute francaise. 25 June 2016. <http://www.rtbf.be/info/belgique/detail_62-des-belges-sont-favorables-au-maintien-delamonarchie?id=4954343>.Search in Google Scholar

Rubbers, Benjamin. 2008. “Au temps beni de la colonie. Le Congo belge dans la memoire des anciens coloniaux et des anciens colonises.” Autour de la memoire. La Belgique, le Congo et le passe coloniale. Ed. Rosario Giordano. Torino: Harmattan Italia. 121-129.Search in Google Scholar

Surmont, Eddy. 2007. “Le mystere de la main sectionnee.” Le Soir 27 March 2007: 9.Search in Google Scholar

Van den Braembussche, Antoon. 1998. “The Silenced Past. On the Nature of Historical Taboos.” Świat historii. Prace z metodologii historii i historii historiografi i dedykowane Jerzemu Topolskiemu z okazji siedemdziesięciolecia urodzin. Ed. Wojciecha Wrzoska, and Jerzy Topolski. Poznań: Inst. Historii UAM. 97-111.Search in Google Scholar

_____. 2002. “The Silence of Belgium: Taboo and Trauma in Belgian Memory.” Yale French Studies 102: 34-52.Search in Google Scholar

Van Reybrouck, Daniel. 2014. Congo. The Epic History of People. Trans. Sam Garrett. London: Fourth Estate. The original Dutch edition was published in 2010.Search in Google Scholar

Vanthemsche, Guy. 2007. Nouvelle Histoire de Belgique. La Belgique et le Congo. Empreintes d’une colonie 1885-1980. Vol. IV. Brussels: Complexe.Search in Google Scholar

Vellut, Jean-Luc. 2007. “Preface. Histoire des empires coloniaux. D’ou vient-on?” Nouvelle Histoire de Belgique. La Belgique et le Congo. Empreintes d’une colonie 1885-1980. Ed. Guy Vanthemsche. Vol. IV. Brussels: Complexe. 11-22.Search in Google Scholar

Villers, Gauthier de. 2000. “La Belgique face a la transition manquee au Congo-Zaire (1990-1997).” La Belgique et l’Afrique centrale de 1960 a nos jours. Ed. Olivier Lanotte. Brussels: GRIP et al. 149-171.Search in Google Scholar

Vincke, Edouard. 1993. “Discours sur le Noir: Images dans les espaces urbains de Bruxelles.” Images de l’Afrique et du Congo/Zaire dans les lettres francaises de Belgique et alentour. Eds. Pierre Halen, and Janos Riesz. Brussels/Kinshasa: Textyles Ed. et al. 89-99.Search in Google Scholar

Vinks, Jos. 1978. Der Nationalismus in Flandern. Geschichte und Idee. Vaterstetten: Arndt-Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Wrong, Michela. 2001. In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz. Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu’s Congo. New York: HarperCollins.Search in Google Scholar

Yates, Barbara A. 1980. “The Origins of Language Policy in Zaire.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 18(2): 257-279.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo