1. bookVolume 65 (2016): Issue 2 (December 2016)
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
access type Open Access

Genetic and adaptive trait variation in seedlings of European beech provenances from Northern Germany

Published Online: 27 Oct 2017
Page range: 65 - 73
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) will most likely be threatened by climate change. Therefore, more knowledge of its adaptation potential to changing environmental conditions is required. Several studies showed differences in adaptive traits for beech populations from across Europe, but there is also growing evidence for microevolutionary processes occurring within short geographic distances in this species, or even a lack of local adaptation. Hence, a more regional perspective for adaptation research in beech might be appropriate. Here, we investigated the performance (height, height increment and mortality) and genetic structure based on microsatellite markers of 2400 beech seedlings from provenances growing along a temperature and precipitation gradient in Northern Germany in a common garden experiment. Differences for all traits were found among provenances. Provenances from lower precipitation areas did not perform better than provenances from higher precipitation areas at the common garden site, which was located near the lower precipitation limit of beech. Further, neighboring provenances growing on either sandy or loamy soils showed more different adaptive trait variation than distant provenances. We detected minor genetic structure among provenances and a high genetic diversity within them. Thus, small-scale adaptive trait variation in beech can occur, despite low but significant genetic population structure among provenances.


Asuka Y, Tani N, Tsumura Y, Tomaru N (2004) Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Fagus crenata Blume. Mol Ecol Notes 4 (1):101-103. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00583.x10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00583.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Bates D, Mächler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw 67 (1):48. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i0110.18637/jss.v067.i01Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Bilela S, Dounavi A, Fussi B, Konnert M, Holst J, Mayer H, Rennenberg H, Simon J (2012) Natural regeneration of Fagus sylvatica L. adapts with maturation to warmer and drier microclimatic conditions. For Ecol Manag 275:60-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.03.00910.1016/j.foreco.2012.03.009Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Charru M, Seynave I, Morneau F, Bontemps JD (2010) Recent changes in forest productivity: An analysis of national forest inventory data for common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in north-eastern France. For Ecol Manag 260 (5):864-874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.06.00510.1016/j.foreco.2010.06.005Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Demesure B, Comps B, Petit RJ (1996) Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of the common beech (Fagus sylvatica L) in Europe. Evolution 50 (6):2515-2520. https://doi.org/10.2307/241071910.2307/2410719Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dounavi A, Netzer F, Celepirovic N, Ivanković M, Burger J, Figueroa AG, Schön S, Simon J, Cremer E, Fussi B, Konnert M, Rennenberg H (2016) Genetic and physiological differences of European beech provenances (F. sylvatica L.) exposed to drought stress. For Ecol Manag 361:226-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.11.01410.1016/j.foreco.2015.11.014Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Durand J, Bodenes C, Chancerel E, Frigerio JM, Vendramin G, Sebastiani F, Buonamici A, Gailing O, Koelewijn HP, Villani F, Mattioni C, Cherubini M, Goicoechea PG, Herran A, Ikaran Z, Cabane C, Ueno S, Alberto F, Dumoulin PY, Guichoux E, de Daruvar A, Kremer A, Plomion C (2010) A fast and cost-effective approach to develop and map EST-SSR markers: oak as a case study. BMC Genomics 11:570. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-11-57010.1186/1471-2164-11-570309171920950475Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Earl DA, vonHoldt BM (2012) STRUCTURE HARVESTER: a website and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method. Conserv Genet Resour 4 (2):359-361. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12686-011-9548-710.1007/s12686-011-9548-7Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14 (8):2611-2620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2005.02553.x10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02553.x15969739Search in Google Scholar

Gray LK, Gylander T, Mbogga MS, Chen PY, Hamann A (2011) Assisted migration to address climate change: recommendations for aspen reforestation in western Canada. Ecol Appl 21 (5):1591-1603. https://doi.org/10.1890/10-1054.110.1890/10-1054.121830704Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hamrick JL, Godt MJW, Sherman-Broyles SL (1992) Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. New Forest 6 (1-4):95-124 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf0012064110.1007/BF00120641Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hamrick JL, Godt MJW (1996) Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philos T Roy Soc B 351 (1345):1291-1298. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1996.011210.1098/rstb.1996.0112Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hanewinkel M, Cullmann DA, Schelhaas M-J, Nabuurs G-J, Zimmermann NE (2013) Climate change may cause severe loss in the economic value of European forest land. Nat Clim Change 3 (3):203-207. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate168710.1038/nclimate1687Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hertel D, Strecker T, Müller-Haubold H, Leuschner C, Guo D (2013) Fine root biomass and dynamics in beech forests across a precipitation gradient - is optimal resource partitioning theory applicable to water-limited mature trees? J Ecol 101 (5):1183-1200. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.1212410.1111/1365-2745.12124Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hofmann M, Durka W, Liesebach M, Bruelheide H (2015) Intraspecific variability in frost hardiness of Fagus sylvatica L. Eur J For Res 134 (3):433-441. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-015-0862-610.1007/s10342-015-0862-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hothorn T, Bretz F, Westfall P (2008) Simultaneous inference in general parametric models. Biometrical J 50 (3):346-363. https://doi.org/10.1002/bimj.20081042510.1002/bimj.20081042518481363Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Jump AS, Peñuelas J (2005) Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecol Lett 8 (9):1010-1020. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00796.x10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00796.x34517682Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Jump AS, Hunt JM, Martinez-Izquierdo JA, Penuelas J (2006) Natural selection and climate change: temperature-linked spatial and temporal trends in gene frequency in Fagus sylvatica. Mol Ecol 15 (11):3469-3480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2006.03027.x10.1111/j.1365-294x.2006.03027.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Knapp HD, Emde F-A, Engels B, Lehrke S, Hendrischke O, Klein M, Kluttig H, Krug A, Schäfer H-J, Scherfose V, Schröder E, Schweppe-Kraft B (2008) Naturerbe Buchenwälder: Situationsanalyse und Handlungserfordernisse. Bonn, Vilm: Bundesamt für NaturschutzSearch in Google Scholar

Knutzen F, Dulamsuren C, Meier IC, Leuschner C (2017) Recent climate warming-related growth decline impairs European beech in the center of its distribution range. Ecosystems. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0128-x10.1007/s10021-017-0128-xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Konnert M, Behm A (1999) Genetische Strukturen einer Saatgutpartie - Einflussfaktoren und Einflussmöglichkeiten. Beiträge für Forstwirtschaft und Landschaftsökologie 33:152-156Search in Google Scholar

Lalagüe H, Csilléry K, Oddou-Muratorio S, Safrana J, de Quattro C, Fady B, González-Martínez SC, Vendramin GG (2014) Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium at 58 stress response and phenology candidate genes in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) population from southeastern France. Tree Genet Genomes 10 (1):15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-013-0658-010.1007/s11295-013-0658-0Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Langella O (1999) Populations version 1.2.32 [online]. To be found in <http://www.bioinformatics.org/project/?group_id=84>Search in Google Scholar

Liesebach M (2012) Wachstum und phänotypische Variation von sechs Herkünften der Rot-Buche (Fagus sylvatica L.) an einem Standort in Schleswig-Holstein. Appl Agric Forestry Res 62:179-192Search in Google Scholar

Magri D, Vendramin GG, Comps B, Dupanloup I, Geburek T, Gömöry D, Latalowa M, Litt T, Paule L, Roure JM, Tantau I, van der Knaap WO, Petit RJ, de Beaulieu JL (2006) A new scenario for the quaternary history of European beech populations: palaeobotanical evidence and genetic consequences. New Phytol 171 (1):199-221. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01740.x10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01740.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Meier ES, Edwards Jr TC, Kienast F, Dobbertin M, Zimmermann NE (2011) Co-occurrence patterns of trees along macro-climatic gradients and their potential influence on the present and future distribution of Fagus sylvatica L. J Biogeogr 38 (2):371-382. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02405.x10.1111/j.1365-2699.2010.02405.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Meirmans PG, Hedrick PW (2011) Assessing population structure: F(ST) and related measures. Mol Ecol Resour 11 (1):5-18. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02927.x10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02927.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Müller-Haubold H, Hertel D, Seidel D, Knutzen F, Leuschner C (2013) Climate responses of aboveground productivity and allocation in Fagus sylvatica: a transect study in mature forests. Ecosystems 16 (8):1498-1516. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9698-410.1007/s10021-013-9698-4Search in Google Scholar

Müller M, Seifert S, Finkeldey R (2015) A candidate gene-based association study reveals SNPs significantly associated with bud burst in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Tree Genet Genomes 11 (6):116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-015-0943-110.1007/s11295-015-0943-1Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Nei M (1972) Genetic Distance between Populations. Am Nat 106 (949):283-292. https://doi.org/10.1086/28277110.1086/282771Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Nei M (1987) Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. New York: Columbia University Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/0047-2484(89)90093-610.1016/0047-2484(89)90093-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Nguyen QN, Polle A, Pena R (2017) Intraspecific variations in drought response and fitness traits of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings from three provenances differing in annual precipitation. Trees. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-017-1539-110.1007/s00468-017-1539-1Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Niinemets Ü (2010) Responses of forest trees to single and multiple environmental stresses from seedlings to mature plants: Past stress history, stress interactions, tolerance and acclimation. For Ecol Manag 260 (10):1623-1639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2010.07.05410.1016/j.foreco.2010.07.054Search in Google Scholar

Oddou-Muratorio S, Vendramin GG, Buiteveld J, Fady B (2009) Population estimators or progeny tests: what is the best method to assess null allele frequencies at SSR loci? Conserv Genet 10 (5):1343-1347. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-008-9648-410.1007/s10592-008-9648-4Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Oddou-Muratorio S, Klein EK, Vendramin GG, Fady B (2011) Spatial vs. temporal effects on demographic and genetic structures: the roles of dispersal, masting and differential mortality on patterns of recruitment in Fagus sylvatica. Mol Ecol 20 (9):1997-2010. https://doi.rg/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2011.05039.x10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05039.x21426434Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Page RD (1996) TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers. Comput Appl Biosci 12 (4):357-358. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/12.4.35710.1093/bioinformatics/12.4.3578902363Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pastorelli R, Smulders MJM, Van’t Westende WPC, Vosman B, Giannini R, Vettori C, Vendramin GG (2003) Characterization of microsatellite markers in Fagus sylvatica L. and Fagus orientalis Lipsky. Mol Ecol Notes 3 (1):76-78. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00355.x10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00355.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Peakall R, Smouse PE (2006) genalex 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6 (1):288-295. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.01155.x10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.01155.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012) GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research--an update. Bioinformatics 28 (19):2537-2539. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts46010.1093/bioinformatics/bts460346324522820204Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Peñuelas J, Boada M (2003) A global change-induced biome shift in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain). Glob Change Biol 9 (2):131-140. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00566.x10.1046/j.1365-2486.2003.00566.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Petit RJ, Hampe A (2006) Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annu Rev Ecol Evol S 37 (1):187-214. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.37.091305.11021510.1146/annurev.ecolsys.37.091305.110215Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pluess AR, Weber P (2012) Drought-adaptation potential in Fagus sylvatica: linking moisture availability with genetic diversity and dendrochronology. PLoS One 7 (3):e33636. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.003363610.1371/journal.pone.0033636330898822448260Search in Google Scholar

Pluess AR, Frank A, Heiri C, Lalague H, Vendramin GG, Oddou-Muratorio S (2016) Genome-environment association study suggests local adaptation to climate at the regional scale in Fagus sylvatica. New Phytol 210 (2):589-601. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.1380910.1111/nph.1380926777878Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155 (2):945-95910.1093/genetics/155.2.945146109610835412Search in Google Scholar

R Core Team (2016) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. [online]. To be found in <http://www.R-project.org/>Search in Google Scholar

Rajendra KC, Seifert S, Prinz K, Gailing O, Finkeldey R (2014) Subtle human impacts on neutral genetic diversity and spatial patterns of genetic variation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica). For Ecol Manag 319:138-149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.02.00310.1016/j.foreco.2014.02.003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Robson TM, Sánchez-Gómez D, Cano FJ, Aranda I (2012) Variation in functional leaf traits among beech provenances during a Spanish summer reflects the differences in their origin. Tree Genet Genomes 8 (5):1111-1121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-012-0496-510.1007/s11295-012-0496-5Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rose L, Leuschner C, Köckemann B, Buschmann H (2009) Are marginal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances a source for drought tolerant ecotypes? Eur J For Res 128 (4):335-343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-009-0268-410.1007/s10342-009-0268-4Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rousset F (2008) genepop’007: a complete re-implementation of the genepop software for Windows and Linux. Mol Ecol Resour 8 (1):103-106. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01931.x10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01931.xSearch in Google Scholar

Scharnweber T, Manthey M, Criegee C, Bauwe A, Schröder C, Wilmking M (2011) Drought matters – Declining precipitation influences growth of Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus robur L. in north-eastern Germany. For Ecol Manag 262 (6):947-961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2011.05.02610.1016/j.foreco.2011.05.026Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Seifert S (2012) Variation of candidate genes related to climate change in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Göttingen, 134 p, University of GöttingenSearch in Google Scholar

Seifert S, Vornam B, Finkeldey R (2012) DNA sequence variation and development of SNP markers in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Eur J For Res 131 (6):1761-1770. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-012-0630-910.1007/s10342-012-0630-9Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Shorthouse D (2010) SimpleMappr, an online tool to produce publication-quality point maps [online]. To be found in <http://www.simplemappr.net>Search in Google Scholar

Tarp P, Helles F, Holten-Andersen P, Larsen JB, Strange N (2000) Modelling near-natural silvicultural regimes for beech - an economic sensitivity analysis. For Ecol Manag 130 (1-3):187-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1127(99)00190-510.1016/s0378-1127(99)00190-5Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Višnjić Ć, Dohrenbusch A (2004) Frost resistance and phenology of European beech provenances (Fagus sylvatica L.). Allg Forst Jagdztg 175:101-108Search in Google Scholar

von Wühlisch G, Krusche D, Muhs HJ (1995) Variation in temperature sum requirement for flushing of beech provenances. Silvae Genet 44:343-346Search in Google Scholar

von Wühlisch G, Hansen JK, Mertens P, Liesebach M, Meierjohann E, Muhs H-J, Teissier du Cros E, de Vries S Terazawa K, Madsen P, Sagheb-Talebi K (eds) Variation among Fagus sylvatica and Fagus orientalis provenances in young international field trials: The organizing committee of the 8th IUFRO international beech symposium c/o Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute Bibai, Hokkaido, JapanSearch in Google Scholar

Vornam B, Decarli N, Gailing O (2004) Spatial distribution of genetic variation in a natural beech stand (Fagus sylvatica L.) based on microsatellite markers. Conserv Genet 5 (4):561-570. https://doi.org/10.1023/b:coge.0000041025.82917.ac10.1023/B:COGE.0000041025.82917.acOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo