1. bookVolume 64 (2015): Issue 1-6 (December 2015)
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
access type Open Access

How small and constrained is the genome size of angiosperm woody species

Published Online: 07 Jun 2017
Page range: 20 - 32
Received: 08 May 2015
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

Angiosperm hardwood species are generally considered to show an average smaller genome size with a narrow range of variation than their herbaceous counterparts. Various explanations pertaining to limitations of cell size exerted by wood fibers, the requirement of smaller stomata, longer generation time, large population size, etc., have been put forward to account for their small and constrained genome size. Yet studies done in the past several years show that genomically as well as evolutionarily, hardwoods are as diverse and active as their herbaceous counterparts. This is entirely supported by the presence of well developed inter and intraspecific polyploid series and natural triploidy in many genera. Polyploidy, in some instances has been shown to confer adaptability to arid and salt stress conditions and in colonization of new areas. Moreover, hardwoods also show reasonable amenability to the induced polyploidy which abruptly changes the balance between nuclear and cell size. Polyploidy has been induced in many hardwoods to restore fertility in interspecific hybrids and for the production of triploids.

Furthermore, some cases studied show that genome size variation in hardwoods can be as variable as that of herbaceous species. Genome size has been shown to vary remarkably both at homoploid level as well as by polyploidy in certain genera. In the same way, the genome size is not correlated with the habit in certain groups having both herbaceous and woody taxa. This point is further proved by the presence of secondary and insular woody habit in certain cases where either the transition to woodiness is not followed by any diminution in the genome size, or the genome size of insular woody species may be even more than that of the congeneric herbaceous species. This shows that woody habit does not by itself put any constraints on the genome size either at homoploid or at polyploidy levels. The genome size in fact, not only varies significantly in many congeneric woody species but also may not show any correlation with the habit when woody and herbaceous species are compared in some narrow taxonomic groups studied.


ASAMAA, K., A. SOBER and M. RAHI (2001): Leaf anatomical characteristics associated with shoot hydraulic conductance and stomatal sensitivity to changes of leaf water status in temperate deciduous trees. Australian J Pl Physiology 28: 765-774.10.1071/PP00157Search in Google Scholar

BALLARD, H. E. and K. J. SYTSMA (2000): Evolution and biogeography of the woody Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae): arctic origins, herbaceous ancestry and bird dispersal. Evolution 54: 1521-1532.10.1111/j.0014-3820.2000.tb00698.xSearch in Google Scholar

BEAULIEU, J. M., I. J. LEITCH, S. PATEL, A. PENDHARKAR and C. A. KNIGHT (2008): Genome size is a strong predictor of cell size and stomatal density in angiosperms New Phytologist 179: 975-986.10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02528.xSearch in Google Scholar

BEAULIEU, J. M., S. A. SMITH and I. J. LEITCH (2010): On the tempo of genome size evolution in angiosperms. J. Bot. doi:10.1155/2010/989152.Search in Google Scholar

BECK, S. L., R.W. DUNLOP and A. FOSSEY (2003): Evaluation of induced polyploidy in Acacia mearnsii through stomatal counts and guard cell measurements. South African Journal of Botany 69: 563-567.10.1016/S0254-6299(15)30295-7Search in Google Scholar

BEDI, Y. S., S. S. BIR and B. S. GILL (1981): Cytopalynology of woody taxa of family Rubiaceae from north and central India. Proc. Indian Natl Sci Acad B47: 708-715.Search in Google Scholar

BENNETT, M. D. (1971): The duration of meiosis. Proc Roy Soc Lond Ser B 178: 259-275.Search in Google Scholar

BENNETT, M. D. (1972): Nuclear DNA content and minimum generation time in herbaceous plants. Proc Roy Soc Lond Ser B 181: 109-135.10.1098/rspb.1972.00424403285Search in Google Scholar

BENNETT, M. D. (1987): Variation in genomic form in plants and its ecological implications. New Phytologist 106: 177-200.10.1111/j.1469-8137.1987.tb04689.xSearch in Google Scholar

BENNETT, M. D.and I. J. LEITCH (2010): Angiosperm DNA C-values Database (release 5.0, Dec. 2010). Available at http://www.kew.org/genomesizes/homepage.Search in Google Scholar

BENNETT, M. D., I. J. LEITCH and L. HANSON (1998): DNA amounts in two samples of angiosperm weeds. Ann Bot 82: 121-134.10.1006/anbo.1998.0785Search in Google Scholar

BENSON, M. K. and D.W. EINSPAHR (1967): Early growth of diploid, triploid and triploid hybrid aspen. Forest Science 13: 150-155.Search in Google Scholar

BESNARD, G., C. GARCIA-VERDUGO, R. RUBIO DE CASAS, U. A. TREIER, N. GALLAND and P. VARGAS (2008): polyploidy in the olive complex (Olea europaea): evidence from flow cytometry and nuclear microsatellite analyses. Ann Bot 101: 25-30.10.1093/aob/mcm275270183918024415Search in Google Scholar

BISWAS, B. K. and A. K. SHARMA (1984): Chromosome studies in the family Magnoliaceae. Cytologia 49: 193-200.10.1508/cytologia.49.193Search in Google Scholar

BLAKESLEY, D., A. ALLEN, T. K. PELLNY and A.V. ROBERTS (2002): Natural and induced polyploidy in Acacia dealbata Link. and Acacia mangium Willd. Ann Bot 90: 391-398.10.1093/aob/mcf202424040212234151Search in Google Scholar

BOHLE, U. R., H. H. HILGER and W. F. MARTIN (1996): Island colonization and evolution of the insular woody habit in Echium L. (Boraginaceae). Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. USA 93: 11740-11745.10.1073/pnas.93.21.11740381288876207Search in Google Scholar

BOTTINI, M. C. J., E. J. GREIZERSTEIN, M. B. AULICINO and L. POGGIO (2000): Relationships among genome size, environmental conditions and geographical distribution in naturalpopulations of NW Petgonian species of Berberis L. (Berberidaceae). Ann Bot 86: 565-573.10.1006/anbo.2000.1218Search in Google Scholar

BUKHARI, Y. M. (1997a): Cytoevolution of taxa in Acacia and Prosopis (Mimosaceae). Hereditas 126: 195-197.10.1111/j.1601-5223.1997.00195.xSearch in Google Scholar

BUKHARI, Y. M. (1997b): Nuclear DNA amounts in Acacia and Prosopis (Mimosaceae) and their evolutionary implications. Hereditas 126: 45-51.10.1111/j.1601-5223.1997.00045.xSearch in Google Scholar

BURDA, R. I. and F. L. SHCHEPOTIEV (1973): Spontaneous polyploidy in seedlings of multi-seeded acorns of Quercus robur L. Cytology and Genetica 7: 140-143 (in Russian).Search in Google Scholar

BUTORINA, A. K. (1993): Cytogenetic study of diploid and spontaneous triploid oaks, Quercus robur L. Ann Sci For 50 Suppl 1: 114s-150s.10.1051/forest:19930714Search in Google Scholar

CALVINO, C. I., S. G. MARTINEZ and S. R. DOWNIE (2010): Unraveling the taxonomic complexity of Eryngium L. (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae): phylogenetic analysis 0f 11 non-coding cpDNA loci corrobo- rates rapid radiations. Plant Divers Evol 128: 137-149.10.1127/1869-6155/2010/0128-0006Search in Google Scholar

CHEN, G., W-B. SUN, C-Y. HAN and A. COOMBES (2007): Karyomorphology of the endangered Trigonobalanus doichangensis (A. Camus) Forman (Fagaceae) and its taxonomic and biogeographic implications. Bot J Linn Soc 154: 321-330.10.1111/j.1095-8339.2007.00670.xSearch in Google Scholar

CHEN, G-Q., S-L. GUO and L-P. YIN (2010): Applying DNA C-values to evaluate invasiveness of angiosperms: validity and limitation. Biol Invasions 12: 1335-1348.10.1007/s10530-009-9550-0Search in Google Scholar

CHEN, S-C., C. H. CANNON, C-S. KUA, J. J. LIU, D.W. GALBRAITH (2014): Genome size variation in the Fagaceae and its implications for trees. Tree Genetics and Genomes 10: 977-988.10.1007/s11295-014-0736-ySearch in Google Scholar

CHOKCHAICHAMNANKIT, P., K. ANAMTHAWAT-JONSSON and W. CHULALAKSANANUKUL (2008): Chromosomal mapping of 18S-25S and 5S ribosomal genes on 15 species of Fagaceae from northern Thailand. Silvae Genetica 57: 5-13.10.1515/sg-2008-0002Search in Google Scholar

CONTRERAS, R. N. and J. M. RUTER (2011): Genome size estimates and chromosome numbers of Callicarpa L. (Lamiaceae). HortScience 46: 567-570.10.21273/HORTSCI.46.4.567Search in Google Scholar

COSTA, I. R., M. C. DORNELAS and E. R. FORNIS-MARTINS (2008): Nuclear genome size variation in fleshy-fruited neotropical Myrtaceae. Pl Syst Evol 276: 209-217.10.1007/s00606-008-0088-xSearch in Google Scholar

COSTA, I. R. and E. R. FORNIS-MARTINS (2006a): Chromosome studies in species of Eugenia, Myrciaria, and Plinia (Myrtaceae) from southeastern Brazil. Australian J. Botany 54: 409-415.10.1071/BT04199Search in Google Scholar

COSTA, I. R. and E. R. FORNIS-MARTINS (2006b): Chromosome studies in Brazilian species of Campomanesia Ruiz et Pavon and Psidium L. (Myrtaceae Juss.) Caryologia 59: 7-13.10.1080/00087114.2006.10797891Search in Google Scholar

COULLERI, J. P., M. DEMATTEIS and M. S. FERRUCCI (2012): A new insight into Serjania Mill. (Sapindaceae, Paullinieae) infrageneric classification: a cytogenetic approach. Pl Syst Evol 298: 1743-1753.10.1007/s00606-012-0675-8Search in Google Scholar

COULLERI, J. P., J. D. URDAMPILLETA and M. S. FERRUCCI (2014): Genome size evolution in Sapindaceae at subfamily level: a case study of independence in relation to karyological and palynological traits. Bot J Linn Soc 174: 589-600.10.1111/boj.12145Search in Google Scholar

CROS, J. M., C. COMBES, N. CHABRILLANGE, C. DUPERRAY, A. MONNOT DES ANGLES and S. HAMON (1995): Nuclear DNA content in the subgenus Coffea (Rubiaceae): inter- and intra-specific variation in African species. Canadian J. Botany 73: 14-20.Search in Google Scholar

D’EMERICO, S., P. BIANCO, P. MEDAGLI and B. SCHIRONE (1995): Karyotype analysis in Quercus species. Silvae Genetica 44: 66-70.Search in Google Scholar

DE, K. K., A. SAHA, R. TAMANG and B. SHARMA (2010): Investigation on relative genome sizes and ploidy levels of Darjeeling-Himalayan Rhododendron species using flow cytometer. Indian J. Biotechnology 9: 64-68.Search in Google Scholar

DWIVEDI, N. K., N. SURYANARAYANA, A. K. SIKDAR, B. N. SUSHEELAMMA and M. S. JOLLY (1989): Cytomorphological studies in triploid mulberry evolved by diploidization of female gamete cells. Cytologia 54: 13-19.10.1508/cytologia.54.13Search in Google Scholar

DZIALUK, A., I. CHYBICKI, M. WELC, E. SLIWINSKA and J. BURCZYK (2007): Presence of triploids among oak species. Ann Bot 99: 959-964.10.1093/aob/mcm043280292417409100Search in Google Scholar

Ehrendorfer, F. (1987): Differentiation trends in tropical woody angiosperms. pp 227-237 in Differentiation patterns in higher plant, edited by K.M. Urbanska , Academic Press London.Search in Google Scholar

EINSPAHR, D.W., M. K. BENSON and J. R. PECKHAM 1963): Natural variation and heritability in riploid aspen. Silvae Genetica 12: 51-58.Search in Google Scholar

EL FERCHICHI OUARDA, H., D. J. WALKER, M. L. KHOUJA and E. CORREAL (2009): Diversity of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan (Mimosaceae) using phenotypic traits, chromosome counting and DNA content approaches. Genetic Resources Crop Evolution 56: 1001-1010.10.1007/s10722-009-9418-2Search in Google Scholar

FERRUCCI, M. S. (2000): Cytotaxonomy of Sapindaceae with special reference to the tribe Paullinieae. Genetics and Molecular Biology 23: 941-946.10.1590/S1415-47572000000400039Search in Google Scholar

FRANCIS, D., M. S. DAVIES and P. W. BARLOW (2008): A strong nucleotypic effect on the cell cycle regardless of ploidy level Annals of Botany 101: 747-757.10.1093/aob/mcn038271021518339642Search in Google Scholar

FURLOW, J. (1990): The genera of Betulaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arboretum 71: 1-67.10.5962/bhl.part.24925Search in Google Scholar

GARCIA, S., M. A. CANELA, T. GARNATJE, E. D. MCARTHUR, J. PELLICER, S. C. SANDERSON and J. VALLES (2008): Evolutionary and ecological implications of genome size in the North American endemic sagebrushes and allies (Artemesia, Asteraceae) Biological J. Linnean Society 94: 631-649.10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01001.xSearch in Google Scholar

GARCIA, S., O. HIDALGO, I. JAKOVLJEVIC, S. SILJAKYAKOVLEV, J. VIGO, T. GARNATJE and J. VALLES (2013): New data on genome size in 128 Asteraceae species and subspecies, with first assessments for 40 genera, 3 tribes and 2 subfamilies. Plant Biosystems 147: 1219-122710.1080/11263504.2013.863811Search in Google Scholar

GILL, B. S., S. S. BIR and V. K. SINGHAL (1982): Cytogenetics of some timber species of Terminalia Linn. (Combretaceae). Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. B 48: 779-790.Search in Google Scholar

GILL, B. S., V. K. SINGHAL, Y. S. BEDI and S. S. BIR (1990): Cytological evolution in the woody taxa of Pachmarhi Hills. J. Cytology & Genetics 25: 308-320.Search in Google Scholar

GRATTAPAGLIA, D. and H. D. BRADSHAW (1994): Nuclear DNA content of commercially important Eucalyptus species and hybrids. Canadian J. Forest Res. 24: 1074-1078.Search in Google Scholar

GREGORY, T. R. (2001): Coincidence, coevolution, or causation? DNA content, cell size, and C-value enigma. Biological Review 76: 65-101.10.1017/S146479310000559511325054Search in Google Scholar

GREILHUBER, J., T. BORSCH, K. MULLER, A. WORBERG, S. POREMBSKI and W. BARTHLOTT (2006): Smallest angiosperm genomes found in Lentibulariaceae, with chromosomes of bacterial size. Plant Biology 8: 770-777.10.1055/s-2006-92410117203433Search in Google Scholar

GRIME, J. P., A. J. WILLIS, R. HUNT and N. P. DUNNETT (1985): Nuclear DNA contents, shoot phenology and species co-existance in a limestone grassland community. New Phytologist 100: 435-445.10.1111/j.1469-8137.1985.tb02792.xSearch in Google Scholar

GROOVER, A. T. (2005): What genes make a tree a tree? Trends Plant Sci. 10: 210-214.Search in Google Scholar

GROTKOPP, E., M. REJMANEK, J. M. SANDERSON and T. L. ROST (2004): Evolution of genome size in pines (Pinus) and its life history correlates: supertree analysis. Evolution 58: 1705-1729.10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb00456.x15446425Search in Google Scholar

GRUNER, A., N. HOVERTER, T. SMITH and C. A. KNIGHT (2010): Genome size is strong predictor of root meristem growth rate J. Botany doi:10.1155/2010/ 390414.Search in Google Scholar

GU, X. F., A. F. YANG, H. MENG and J. R. ZHANG (2005): In vitro induction of tetraploid plants from diploid Zizyphus jujube Mill. Cv. Zhanhua. Plant Cell Rep. 24: 671-676.10.1007/s00299-005-0017-116094528Search in Google Scholar

HANS, A. S. (1970): Polyploidy in Antidesma (Euphorbiaceae) Caryologia 23: 321-327.10.1080/00087114.1970.10796374Search in Google Scholar

HAO, G-Y., M. E. LUCERO, S. C. SANDERSON, E. H. ZACHARIAS and N. M. HOLBROOK (2013): Polyploidy enhances the occupation of heterogeneous environments through hydraulic related trade-offs in Atriplex canescens (Chenopodiaceae). New Phytologist 197: 970-978.10.1111/nph.1205123206198Search in Google Scholar

HARBARD, J. L., A. R. GRIFFIN, S. FOSTER, C. BROOKER, L. D. KHA and A. KOUTOULIS (2012): Production of colchicine-induced autotetraploids as a basis for sterility breeding in Acacia mangium Willd. Forestry doi:10.1093/forestry/cps041.Search in Google Scholar

HETHERINGTON, A. M. and F. I. WOODWARD (2003): The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change. Nature 424: 901-908.10.1038/nature0184312931178Search in Google Scholar

HIREMATH, S. C. and M. H. NAGASAMPIGE (2004): Genome size variation and evolution in some species of Dalbergia Linn.F. (Fabaceae). Caryologia 57: 367-372.10.1080/00087114.2004.10589418Search in Google Scholar

HUANG, H., Y. TON, Q-J. ZHANG and L-Z. GAO (2013): Genome size variation among and within Camellia species by using flow cytometric analysis. Plos One 8: e64981.10.1371/journal.pone.0064981366457123724111Search in Google Scholar

HUFFORD, L., M. M. MCMAHON, A. M. SHERWOOD, J. REEVES and M. W. CHASE (2003): The major clades of Losaceae: phylogenetic analysis using the plastid matK and trnL-trnF region. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 1215-1228.10.3732/ajb.90.8.121521659222Search in Google Scholar

HUNTER, K. L., J. L. BETANCOURT, B. R. RIDDLE, T. R. VAN DEVENDER, K. L. COLE and W. G. SPAULDING (2001): Ploidy race distributions since the last glacial maximum in the North American desert shrub, Larrea tridentate. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10: 521-533.10.1046/j.1466-822X.2001.00254.xSearch in Google Scholar

HYNNIEWTA, M., S. K. MALIK and S. R. RAO (2011): Karyological studies in ten species of Citrus (Linnaeus, 1753) (Rutaceae) of Nort-East India. Comparative Cytogenenetics 5: 277-287.10.3897/compcytogen.v5i4.1796383378824260635Search in Google Scholar

KADOTA, M. and Y. NIIMI (2002): In vitro induction of tetraploid plants from a diploid Japanese pear cultivar (Pyrus pyrifolia N. cv. Hosui). Plant Cell Rep. 21: 282-286,10.1007/s00299-002-0509-1Search in Google Scholar

KHOSHOO, T. N. (1962): Cytogenetical evolution in gymnosperms-karyotype. Proceedings of the summer school Darjeeling. Government of India, Darjeeling, pp. 119-258.Search in Google Scholar

KHOSHOO, T. N. and N. SINGH (1963): Cytology of North-West Indian trees I. Zizyphus jujube and Z. rotundifolia. Silvae Genetica 158-174.Search in Google Scholar

KHOSLA, P. K. and B. T. STYLES (1975): Karyological studies and chromosomal evolution in Meliaceae. Silvae Genetica 24: 73-83.Search in Google Scholar

KNIGHT, C. A. and J. M. BEAULIEU (2008): Genome size scaling through phenotype space. Ann Bot 101: 759-766.10.1093/aob/mcm321271021018222911Search in Google Scholar

KREMER, A., M. CASASOLI, T. BARRENECHE, C. BODENES, P. SISCO, T. KUBISIAK, M. SCALFI, S. LEONARDI, E. BAKKER, J. BUITEVELD, J. ROMERO-SEVERSON, K. ARUMUGANATHAN, J. DERORY, C. SCOTTI-SAINTAGNE, G. ROUSSEL, M. E. BERTOCCHI, C. LEXER, I. PORTH, F. HEBARD, C. CLARK, J. CARLSON, C. PLOMION, H. P. KOELEWIJN and F. VILLANI (2007): Fagaceae trees, pp161-186 in Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants, vol.7 Forest tree edited by C. Kole, Springer Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg.10.1007/978-3-540-34541-1_5Search in Google Scholar

KUBESOVA, M., L. MORACOVA, J. SUDA, V. JAROSIK and P. PYSEK (2010): Naturalized plants have smaller genomes than their non-invading relatives: a flow cytometric analysis of the Czech alien flora. Preslia 82: 81-96.Search in Google Scholar

KUMAR, A. and S. R. RAO (2002): Cytological investigations in some important tree species of Rajasthan I. Karyomorphological studies in some species of Anogeissus (DC.) Guill., Perr. & Rich. Silvae Genet. 51: 104.Search in Google Scholar

LAM, H. K., J. L. HARBARD and A. KOUTOULIS (2014): Tetraploid induction of Acacia crassicarpa using colchicine and oryzalin. J Tropical Forest Sci 26: 347-354.Search in Google Scholar

LAVERGNE, S., N. J. MUENKE and J. MOLOFSKY (2010): Genome size can trigger rapid phenotypic evolution in invasive plants. Ann Bot. 105: 109-116.10.1093/aob/mcp271279407219887472Search in Google Scholar

LEFORT, F., G. C. DOUGLAS and D. THOMPSON (2000): Microsatellite DNA profiling of phenotypically selected clones of Irish oak (Quercus spp.) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) Silvae Genetica 49: 21-28.Search in Google Scholar

LEFORT, F., M. LALLY, D. THOMPSON and G. C. DOUGLAS (1998): Morphological traits, microsatellite fingerprinting and genetic relatedness of a stand of elite oaks (Q. robur L.) at Tullynally, Ireland. Silvae Genetica 47: 257-262.Search in Google Scholar

LEITCH, I. J., M.W. CHASE and M. D. BENNETT (1998): Phylogenetic analysis of DNA C-values provides evidence for a small ancestral genome size in flowering plants. Ann Bot 82 (Supplement A) 85-94.10.1006/anbo.1998.0783Search in Google Scholar

LENS, F., N. DAVIN, E. SMETS and M. DEL ARCO (2013): Insular woodiness on the Canary Islands: A remarkable case of convergent evolution. Int J Plant Sci 174: 992-1013.10.1086/670259Search in Google Scholar

LIN, H., M. JIAN, L.Y. LIANG, W. J. PEI, X. Z. LIU and H.Y. ZHANG (2010): Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus Labill by treatment with colchicine. African J Biotechnology 9: 2252-2255.Search in Google Scholar

LIU, G., Z. LI and M. BAO (2007): Colchicine-induced chromosome doubling in Platanus acerifolia and its effect on plant morphology. Euphytica 157: 145-154.10.1007/s10681-007-9406-6Search in Google Scholar

LOMAX, B. H., F. I. WOODWARD, I. J. LEITCH, C. A. KNIGHT and J. A. LAKE (2009): Genome size as a predictor of guard cell length in Arabidopsis thaliana is independent of environmental conditions New Phytologist 181: 311-314.10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02700.x19054335Search in Google Scholar

LOPEZ, A., A. F. PANSERI, L. POGGIO and A. FERNANDEZ (2011): Nuclear DNA content in the polyploidy complex Turnera ulmifolia (Turnera L., Passifloraceae). Pl Syst Evol 296: 225-230.10.1007/s00606-011-0489-0Search in Google Scholar

MATHUR, N., K. G. RAMAWAT and G. NANDWANI (1995): Rapid in vitro multiplication of jujube through mature stem explants. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Culture 43: 75-77.10.1007/BF00042675Search in Google Scholar

MEHRA, P. N. (1972): Cytogenetical evolution of hardwoods. Nucleus 15: 64-83.Search in Google Scholar

MEHRA, P. N., A. S. HANS and T. S. SAREEN (1972): Cytomorphology of Himalayan Fagaceae. Silvae Genet 21: 102-109.Search in Google Scholar

MEHRA, P. N. (1976): Cytology of Himalayan hardwoods. Sree Saraswaty Press, Calcutta.Search in Google Scholar

MEHRA, P. N., T. S. SAREEN and P. K. KHOSLA (1972): Cytological studies on Himalayan Meliaceae. J Arnold Arboretum 53: 558-568.10.5962/p.185791Search in Google Scholar

MEHRA, P. N. and K. S. BAWA (1969): Chromosome evolution in tropical hardwoods. Evolution 23: 241-252.10.1111/j.1558-5646.1969.tb03529.x28562919Search in Google Scholar

MES, T. H. M. and H.’T HART (1996): The evolution of growth forms in the Macronesian genus Aeonium (Crassulaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA RFLPs and morphology. Mol Ecol 5: 351-363.10.1111/j.1365-294X.1996.tb00326.xSearch in Google Scholar

MISHRA, M. K. (1997): Stomatal characteristics at different ploidy levels in Coffea L. Ann Bot 80: 689-692.10.1006/anbo.1997.0491Search in Google Scholar

MOCK, K. E., C. M. CALLAHAN, M. NURUL ISLAMFARIDI, J. D. SHAW, H. S. RAI, S. C. SANDERSON, C. A. ROWE, R. J. RYEL, M. D. MADRITCH, R. S. GARDNER and P. G. WOLF (2012): Widespread triploidy in western north American aspen (Populus tremuloides). Plos One 7: e48406.10.1371/journal.pone.0048406348521823119006Search in Google Scholar

MORAWETZ, W. (1986): Remarks on karyological differentiation patterns in tropical woody plants. Pl Syst Evol 152: 49-100.10.1007/BF00985351Search in Google Scholar

MOYERS, B. T. and L. H. RIESEBERG (2013): Divergence in gene expression is uncoupled from divergence in coding sequence in a secondarily woody sunflower. Int. J. Plant Sci 174: 1079-1089.10.1086/671197Search in Google Scholar

MU, H-Z, Z-J. LIU, L. LIN, H-Y. LI, J. JIANG and G-F. LIU (2012): Transcriptomic analysis of phenotypic changes in Birch (Betula platyphylla) autotetraploids. Int. J Mol Sci 13: 13012-13029.10.3390/ijms131013012349730923202935Search in Google Scholar

MURRAY, B. G. (1998): Nuclear DNA amounts in gymnosperms. Ann. Bot. 82A: 3-15.10.1006/anbo.1998.0764Search in Google Scholar

NASSAR, N. M. A., D. GARCIANO-REBEIRO, S. D. FERNANDES and P. C. ARAUJO (2008): Anatomical alterations due to polyploidy in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Genet Mo Res 7: 276-283.10.4238/vol7-2gmr39918551393Search in Google Scholar

NAUJOKS, G., H. HERTEL and D. EWALD (1995): Characterization and propagation of an adult triploid pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) Silvae Genetica 44: 282-286.Search in Google Scholar

NESOM, G. L. (2010): Fraxinus biltmoreana and Fraxinus smallii (Oleaceae) forest trees of the eastern United States. Phytoneuron 51: 1-30.Search in Google Scholar

NOIROT, M., V. PONCET, P. BARRE, P. HAMON, S. HAMON and A. DE KOCHKO (2003): Genome size variation in diploid African Coffea species. Ann Bot 92: 709-714.10.1093/aob/mcg183424484814573524Search in Google Scholar

OBALLA, P. O. and P. A. S. OLINGOTIE (1993): Chromosome numbers in two African Acacia species. Kew Bulletin 49: 107-113.10.2307/4110205Search in Google Scholar

ODEE, D.W., J. WILSON, S. OMONDI, A. PERRY and S. CAVERS (2015): Rangewide ploidy variation and evolution in Acacia senegal: a north-south divide? AoB Plants 7:plv011;doi:10.1093/aobpla/plv011.Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. (1996): Genome size and polyploidy variation in the tropical hardwood genus Terminalia (Combretaceae). Pl Syst Evol 200: 225-232.10.1007/BF00984937Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. (2002): Genome size variation in some tropical hardwoods. Biologia Plantarum. 45: 455-457.10.1023/A:1016290222360Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. (2005): Climate and growth form: the consequences for genome size Plant Biology 7: 449-458.10.1055/s-2005-86587816163609Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. and M. R. AHUJA (1990): Giemsa C-banded karyotype in Quercus L. (oak). Silvae Genet 39: 216-219.Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. and M. R. AHUJA (1991): Giemsa C-banding in Fagus sylvatica L., Betula pendula Roth and Populus tremula L. Silvae Genet 40: 72-75.Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. and T. N. KHOSHOO (1987): Nuclear DNA contents in the genus Ficus (Moraceae). Pl Syst Evol 156: 1-4.10.1007/BF00937196Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. and T. N. KHOSHOO (1986): Genome size in gymnosperms. Pl Syst Evol 153: 119-132.10.1007/BF00989421Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. and A. KUMAR (1986): Nuclear DNA amounts in some tropical hardwoods. Caryologia 39: 303-307.10.1080/00087114.1986.10797792Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. and K. PISTRICK (2001): Phenology and genome size variation in Allium L. - a tight correlation? Plant Biology 3: 654-660.Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D. and S. N. ZADOO (1986): Cytogenetics of cultivated bougainvilleas IX. Precocious centromere division and origin of polyploidy taxa. Plant Breed 97: 227-231.10.1111/j.1439-0523.1986.tb01057.xSearch in Google Scholar

OHRI, D., A. BHARGAVA and A. CHATTERJEE (2004): Nuclear DNA amounts in 112 species of tropical hardwoods-new estimates. Plant Biol 6: 555-561.10.1055/s-2004-82123515375726Search in Google Scholar

OHRI, D., A. KUMAR and M. PAL (1986): Correlations between 2C DNA values and habit in Cassia (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae). Pl Syst Evol 153: 223-227.10.1007/BF00983689Search in Google Scholar

OUDJEHIH, B. and A. BENTOUATI (2006): Chromosome numbers of the 59 species of Eucalyptus L’Herit. (Myrtaceae). Caryologia 59: 207-212.10.1080/00087114.2006.10797916Search in Google Scholar

PALOMINO, G., G. ROMO and S. ZARATE (1995): Chromosome numbers and DNA content in some taxa of Leucena (Fabaceae Mimosoideae). Cytologia 60: 31-37.10.1508/cytologia.60.31Search in Google Scholar

PALOMINO, G. and M. SOUSA (2000): Variation of nuclear DNA content in the biflorus species of Lonchocarpus (Leguminosae). Ann Bot 85: 69-76.10.1006/anbo.1999.0998Search in Google Scholar

PARRIS, J. K., H. T. KNAP and W. C. BAIRD (2010): Ploidy levels, relative genome sizes, and base pair composition in Magnolia. J. Amer. Hort Soc 135: 533-547.10.21273/JASHS.135.6.533Search in Google Scholar

PELLICER, J., M. F. FAY and I. J. LEITCH (2010): The largest eukaryotic genome of them all? Bot J Linn Soc 164: 10-15.10.1111/j.1095-8339.2010.01072.xSearch in Google Scholar

PELSER, P. B., E. J. TEPE, A. H. KENNEDY and L. E. WATSON (2010): The fate of Robinsonia (Asteraceae): sunk in Senecio, but still monophyletic? Phytotaxa 5: 31-46.10.11646/phytotaxa.5.1.2Search in Google Scholar

PETIT, R. J. and A. HEMPE (2006): Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annual Rev Ecol Evol Syst 37: 187-214.10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.37.091305.110215Search in Google Scholar

RAZAFINARIVO, N. J., J. J. RAKOTOMALALA, S. C. BROWN, M. BOURGE, S. HAMON, A. DE KOCHKO, V. PONCET, C. DUBREUIL-TRANCHANT, E. COUTURON, R. GUYOT and P. HAMON (2012): Geographical gradients in the genome size variation of wild coffee trees (Coffea) native to Africa and Indian Ocean Islands. Tree Genetics and Genomes 8: 1345-1358.10.1007/s11295-012-0520-9Search in Google Scholar

RIBEIRO, T., J. LOUREIRO, C. SANTOS and L. MORAISCECILIO (2011): Evolution of rDNA patterns in the Fagaceae. Tree Genetics and Genomes 7: 113-1122.10.1007/s11295-011-0399-xSearch in Google Scholar

ROSE, J. B., J. KUBBA and K. R. TOBUTT (2000): Induction of tetraploidy in Buddleia globosa. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 63: 121-125.10.1023/A:1006434803003Search in Google Scholar

SARKILAHTI, E. and T. VALANNE (1990): Induced polyploidy in Betula. Silva Fennica 24: 227-234.10.14214/sf.a15577Search in Google Scholar

SHAO, J. Z., C. I. CHEN and X. X. DENG (2003): In vitro induction of tetraploid in pomegranate (Punica granatum). Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 75: 241-246.10.1023/A:1025871810813Search in Google Scholar

SHEARER, K. and T. G. RANNEY (2013): Ploidy levels and relative genome sizes of species, hybrids, and cultivars of dogwood (Cornus spp.) HortScience 48: 825-830.10.21273/HORTSCI.48.7.825Search in Google Scholar

SIMOVA, I. and T. HERBEN (2011): Geometrical constraints in the scaling relationships between genome size, cell size and cell cycle length in herbaceous plants. Proc R Soc B doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1284.Search in Google Scholar

SINGHAL, V. K., B. S. GILL and S. S. BIR (1985): Cytology of woody species. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Plant Sci) 94: 607-617.10.1007/BF03053228Search in Google Scholar

STEBBINS, G. L. (1950): Variation and Evolution in Plants. Columbia University Press, New York. STYLES, B. T. and C. G. VOSA (1971): Chromosome numbers in the Meliaceae. Taxon 20: 485-499Search in Google Scholar

SUDA, J., T. KYNCL and V. JAROLIMOVA (2003): Genome size variation in Macronesian angiosperms: forty percent of the Canarian endemic flora completed. Pl Syst Evol 252: 215-238.10.1007/s00606-004-0280-6Search in Google Scholar

TANG, Z-Q., D-L. CHEN, Y-C. HE and D-T. CAI (2010): In vitro induction and identification of tetraploid plants of Paulownia tomentosa. Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 102: 213-220.10.1007/s11240-010-9724-6Search in Google Scholar

URDAMPILLETA, J. D., M. S. FERRUCCI, J. M. D. TOREZAN and A. L. L. VANZELA (2006): Karyotype relationships among four South American species of Urvillea (Sapindaceae: Paullinieae). Pl Syst Evol 258: 85-95.10.1007/s00606-005-0393-6Search in Google Scholar

VAINOLA, A. (2000): Polyploidization and early screening of Rhododendron hybrids. Euphytica 112: 239-244.10.1023/A:1003994800440Search in Google Scholar

VALLES, J., M. A. CANELA, S. GARCIA, O. HIDALGO, J. PELLICER, I. SANCHEZ-JEMINEZ, S. SILJAKYAKOVLEV, D. VITALES and T. GARNATJE (2013): genome size variation and evolution in the family Asteraceae. Caryologia 66: 221-235.10.1080/00087114.2013.829690Search in Google Scholar

VERMA, R. C., A. SARKAR and S. SARKAR (1986): Induced amphiploids in mulberry. Curr Sci 55: 1203-1205.Search in Google Scholar

WALKER, D. J., I. MONINO, E. GONZALEZ, N. FRAYSSINET and E. CORREAL (2005): Determination of ploidy and nuclear DNA content in populations of Atriplex halimus (Chenopodiaceae). Bot J Linn Soc 147: 441-448.10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00379.xSearch in Google Scholar

WANG, H-C., A-P. MENG, J-Q. LI and Y-K. SIMA (2005): A karyotypic study on Manglietia (Magnoliaceae) from China. Caryologia 58: 189-199.10.1080/00087114.2005.10589450Search in Google Scholar

WANG, J., L. SHI, S. SONG, J. TIAN and X. KANG (2013): Tetraploid production through zygotic chromosome doubling in Populus. Silva Fennica 47no.2 article id 932.10.14214/sf.932Search in Google Scholar

WANG, Z., M. WANG, L. LIU and F. MENG (2013): Physiological and proteomic responses of diploid and tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) subjected to salt stress. Int J Mol Sci 14: 20299- 20325, doi:10.3390/ijms141020299.Search in Google Scholar

WEI, L., H. DONG-NAN, L. HUI and C. XIAO-YANG (2007): Polyploid induction of Lespedeza formosa by colchicines treatment For Stud China 9: 283-286.10.1007/s11632-007-0045-8Search in Google Scholar

WHITTEMORE, A. and R. T. OLSEN (2011): Ulmus americana (Ulmaceae) is a polyploidy complex. Amer J Bot 98: 754-760.10.3732/ajb.100037221613171Search in Google Scholar

WOODWARD, F. I. (1998): Do plants really need stomata? J Experimental Bot 49: 471-480.10.1093/jxb/49.Special_Issue.471Search in Google Scholar

ZADOO, S. N., R. P. ROY and T. N. KHOSHOO (1975): Cytogenetics of cultivated bougainvilleas V. Tetraploidy and restoration of fertility in sterile cultivars. Euphytica 24: 517-524.10.1007/BF00028222Search in Google Scholar

ZHANG, Q.Y., F. X. LUO, L. LIU and F. C. GUO (2010): In vitro induction of tetraploids in crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.). Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult 101: 41-47.10.1007/s11240-009-9660-5Search in Google Scholar

ZOLDOS, V., D. PAPES, M. CERBAH, O. PANAUD, V. BESEN DORFER and S. SILJAK-YAKOVLEV (1999): Molecular cytogenetic studies of ribosomal genes and heterochromatin reveal conserved genome organization among 11 Quercus species. Theor Appl Genet 99: 969 977.10.1007/s001220051404Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo