1. bookVolume 63 (2014): Issue 1-6 (December 2014)
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Open Access

Spatial genetic structure in the very rare and species-rich Picea chihuahuana tree community (Mexico)

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 63 (2014) - Issue 1-6 (December 2014)
Page range: 149 - 158
Received: 24 Mar 2014
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

In natural plant populations, the spatial genetic structure (SGS) is occasionally associated with evolutionary and ecological features such as the mating system, individual fitness, inbreeding depression and natural selection of the species of interest. The very rare Mexican P. chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been the subject of several studies concerning its ecology and population genetics. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. However, analysis of the fine-scale SGS in this special forest tree community has not yet been conducted, which might help enrich the above mentioned conservation programs. In this study, we examined the SGS of this community, mostly formed by P. chihuahuana Martínez, Pinus strobiformis Ehrenberg ex Schlechtendah, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, and Populus tremuloides Michx, in 14 localities at both the fine and large scales, with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of evolutionary processes. We observed a non-significant autocorrelation in fine-scale SGS, suggesting that the genetic variants of all four tree species are randomly distributed in space within each sampled plot of 50 x 50 m. At the larger scale, the autocorrelation was highly significant for P. chihuahuana and P. menziesii, probably as a result of insufficient gene flow due to the extreme population isolation and small sizes. For these two species our results provided strong support for the theory of isolation by distance.


ACHERÉ, V., J. M. FAVRE, G. BESNARD and S. JEANDROZ (2005): Genome organization of molecular differentiation in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Mol. Ecol. 14: 3191-3201.Search in Google Scholar

Bonin, A., E. BELLEMAIN, E. P. BRONKEN, F. POMPANON et al. (2004): How to track and assess genotyping errors in population genetics studies. Mol. Ecol. 13: 3261-3273.Search in Google Scholar

CAIN, M. L., B. G. MILLIGAN and A. E. STRAND (2000): Long-distance seed dispersal in plant populations. Am. J. Bot. 87: 1217-1227.10.2307/2656714Search in Google Scholar

CLARK, P. J. and F. C. EVANS (1954): Distance to nearest neighbour as a measure of spatial relationships in populations. Ecology 35: 445-453.10.2307/1931034Search in Google Scholar

CLARK, D. B., M. W. PALMER and D. A. CLARK (1999): Edaphic factors and the landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest trees. Ecology 80: 2662-2675.10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[2662:EFATLS]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

DE LAFONTAINE, G., A. DUCOUSSO, S. LEFEVRE, E. MAGNANOU and R. J. PETIT (2013): Stronger spatial genetic structure in recolonized areas than in refugia in the European beech. Mol. Ecol. 22: 4397-4412.Search in Google Scholar

DEGEN, B. (2000): SGS: Spatial Genetic Software. Computer program and user’s manual. http://kourou.cirad.fr/genetique/software.html.Search in Google Scholar

DEGEN, B., R. PETIT and A. KREMER (2001): SGS - Spatial Genetic Software: A Computer Program for Analysis of Spatial Genetic and Phenotypic Structures of Individuals and Populations. J. Hered. 92: 447-448.10.1093/jhered/92.5.447Search in Google Scholar

DEICHSEL, G. and H. J. TRAMPISCH (1985): Clusteranalyse und Diskriminanzanalyse. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

DICK, C.W., F. A. JONES, O. J. HARDY and R. J. PETIT (2008): Spatial scales of seed and pollen-mediated gene flow in tropical forest trees. Trop. Plant Biol. 1: 20-33.Search in Google Scholar

EPPERSON, B. K. (1992): Spatial structure of genetic variation within populations of forest trees. New Forest. 6: 257-278.10.1007/BF00120648Search in Google Scholar

EPPERSON, B. K. (1993): Recent advances in correlation analysis of spatial patterns of genetic variation. Evol. Biol. 27: 95-155.Search in Google Scholar

EPPERSON, B. K. and M. GI CHUNG (2001): Spatial genetic structure of allozyme polymorphisms within populations of Pinus strobus (Pinaceae). Am. J. Bot. 88: 1006-1010.10.2307/2657081Search in Google Scholar

FOLL, M., M. C. FISCHER, G. HECKEL and L. EXCOFFIER (2010): Estimating population structure from AFLP amplification intensity. Mol. Ecol. 19: 4638-4647.Search in Google Scholar

FOLL, M. and O. E. GAGGIOTTI (2008): A genome scan method to identify selected loci appropriate for both dominant and codominant markers: A Bayesian perspective. Genetics 180: 977-993.10.1534/genetics.108.092221Search in Google Scholar

FRECKLETON, R. P. and A. R. WATKINSON (2002): Largescale spatial dynamics of plants: metapopulations, regional ensembles and patchy populations. J. Ecol. 90: 419-434.10.1046/j.1365-2745.2002.00692.xSearch in Google Scholar

FRELICH, L. E., J. L. MACHADO and P. B. REICH (2003): Fine-scale environmental variation and structure of understorey plant communities in two old-growth pine forests. J. Ecol. 91: 283-293.10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00765.xSearch in Google Scholar

GEHRING, J. L. and L. F. DELPH (1999): Fine-scale genetic structure and clinal variation in Silene acaulis despite high gene flow. Heredity 82: 628-637.10.1046/j.1365-2540.1999.00524.xSearch in Google Scholar

GORDON, A. G. (1968): Ecology of Picea chihuahuana Martínez. Ecology 49: 880-896.10.2307/1936540Search in Google Scholar

HEUERTZ, M., X. VEKEMANS, J. F. HAUSMAN, M. PALADA and O. J. HARDY (2003): Estimating seed vs. pollen dispersal from spatial genetic structure in the common ash. Mol. Ecol. 12: 2483-2495.Search in Google Scholar

HAMPE, A. and R. J. PETIT (2005): Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecol. Lett. 8: 461-467.Search in Google Scholar

KETTLE, C. J., P. M. HOLLINGSWORTH, D. BURSLEM et al. (2011): Determinants of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in three co-occurring rain forest canopy trees in Borneo. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst. 13: 45-54.Search in Google Scholar

KRAUSS, S. L. (2000): Accurate gene diversity estimates from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Mol. Ecol. 9: 1241-1245.Search in Google Scholar

JUMP, A. S. and J. PEÑUELAS (2007): Extensive spatial genetic structure revealed by AFLP but not SSR molecular markers in the wind-pollinated tree, Fagus sylvatica. Mol. Ecol. 16: 925-936.Search in Google Scholar

JARAMILLO-CORREA, J. P., J. BEAULIEU, F. T. LEDIG and J. BOUSQUET (2006): Decoupled mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA population structure reveals holocene collapse and population isolation in a threatened mexican- endemic conifer. Mol. Ecol. 15: 2787-2800.Search in Google Scholar

LEDIG, F. T., V. JACOB-CERVANTES, P. D. HODGSKISS and T. EGUILUZ-PIEDRA (1997): Recent evolution and divergence among populations of a rare Mexican endemic, Chihuahua spruce, following Holocene climatic warming. Evolution 51: 1815-1827.10.1111/j.1558-5646.1997.tb05105.x28565106Search in Google Scholar

LEDIG, F. T., M. MAPULA-L, B. BERMEJO-V, V. REYES-H, C. FLORES-LÓPEZ and M. A. CAPÓ-ARTEAGA (2000): Locations of endangered spruce populations in Mexico and the demography of Picea chihuahuana. Madroño 47: 71-88.Search in Google Scholar

LEDIG, F. T. (2012): Climate change and conservation. Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica. 8: 57-74.10.2478/v10303-012-0005-4Search in Google Scholar

LEINEMANN, L., W. STEINER, B. HOSIUS, O. KUCHMA, W. ARENHÖVEL, B. FUSSI, B. HAASE, R. KÄTZEL, M. ROGGE and R. Finkeldey (2013): Genetic variation of chloroplast and nuclear markers in natural populations of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) in Germany. Plant Syst Evol. 299: 36-378.10.1007/s00606-012-0727-0Search in Google Scholar

LEINEMANN, L., J. KLEINSCHMIT, B. FUSSI, B. HOSIUS, O. KUCHMA, W. ARENHÖVEL, P. LEMMEN, R. KÄTZEL, M. ROGGE and R. FINKELDEY (2014): Genetic composition and differentiation of sloe (Prunus spinosa L.) populations in Germany with respect to the tracing of reproductive plant material. Plant Syst. Evol. Online first, DOI 10.1007/s00606-014-1027-7.Search in Google Scholar

LOONEY, C. E. and K. M. WARING (2013): Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) stand dynamics, regeneration, and disturbance ecology: A review. For. Ecol. Manag. 287: 90-102.Search in Google Scholar

MANLY, B. F. J. (1997): Randomization bootstrap and Monte Carlo methods in biology - Chapman and Hall, London, p 399.Search in Google Scholar

MARQUARDT, P. E. and B. K. EPPERSON (2004): Spatial and population genetic structure of microsatellites in white pine. Mol. Ecol. 13: 3305-3315.Search in Google Scholar

MCCUE, K. A., E. S. BUCKLER and T. P. HOLTSFORD (1996): A hierarchical view of genetic structure in the rare annual plant Clarkia springvillensis. Conserv. Biol. 10: 1425-1434.Search in Google Scholar

MENDOZA-MAYA, E., J. ESPINO-ESPINO, C. Z. QUIÑONESPÉREZ, C. FLORES-LÓPEZ, C. WEHENKEL, J. J. VARGASHERNÁNDEZ and C. SÁENZ-ROMERO (2015): Proposal for conservation of three endangered species of Mexican spruce. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana: Manuscript submitted.Search in Google Scholar

MOCK, K. E., B. J. BENTZ, E. M. O’NEILL, J. P. CHONG, J. ORWIN and M. E. PFRENDER (2007): Landscape-scale genetic variation in a forest outbreak species, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). Mol. Ecol. 16: 553-568.Search in Google Scholar

NAMROUD, M., J. BEAULIEU, N. JUGE, J. LAROCHE and J. BOUSQUET (2008): Scanning the genome for gene single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in adaptive population differentiation in white spruce. Mol. Ecol. 17: 3599-3613.Search in Google Scholar

NARVÁEZ, F. R. (1984): Contribución al Conocimiento de la Ecología de Picea chihuahuana. Tesis profesional (Biología), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas. Mexico.Search in Google Scholar

NORMA OFICIAL MEXICANA (2010): NOM-059-ECOL-2010. Protección ambiental - Especies nativas de Mexico de flora y fauna silvestres- Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio. Lista de especies en riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación (Segunda sección): 1-77.7.Search in Google Scholar

NEI, M. (1972): Genetic distance between populations. Amer. Nat. 106: 283-392.Search in Google Scholar

NEI, M. (1978): Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89: 583-590.10.1093/genetics/89.3.583121385517248844Search in Google Scholar

PEAKALL, R. and P. E. SMOUSE (2012): GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research - an update. Bioinformatics 28: 2537-2539.10.1093/bioinformatics/bts460346324522820204Search in Google Scholar

QUIÑONES-PÉREZ, C. Z., C. SÁENZ-ROMERO and C. WEHENKEL (2014): Influence of neighbouring tree species on AFLP variants of endangered Picea chihuahuana populations on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Northeastern Mexico. Pol. J. Ecol. 62: 55-65.Search in Google Scholar

QUIÑONES-PÉREZ, C. Z., R. SILVA-FLORES and C. WEHENKEL (2012): Ecology of the Mexican Abies durangensis Martínez. Kastamonu University Journal of Forestry Faculty 12(3): 180-184.Search in Google Scholar

QUIÑONES-PÉREZ, C. Z., C. SÁENZ-ROMERO, and C. WEHENKEL (2014): Genetic diversity and conservation of Picea chihuahuana Martínez: a Review. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 13(28): 2786-2795.10.5897/AJB2014.13645Search in Google Scholar

PETIT, R. J. and A. HAMPE (2006): Some evolutionary consequences of being a tree. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 37: 187-214.Search in Google Scholar

RICHARDSON, B. A., G. E. REHFELDT and M. S. KIM (2009): Congruent climate-related genecological responses from molecular markers and quantitative traits for western white pine (Pinus monticola). Int. J. Plant. Sci. 170: 1120-1131.Search in Google Scholar

SÁENZ-ROMERO, C., R. P. GURIES and A. I. MONK (2001): Landscape genetic structure of Pinus banksiana: allozyme variation. Can. J. Bot. 79(8): 871-878.10.1139/cjb-79-8-871Search in Google Scholar

SÁENZ-ROMERO, C. and R. P. GURIES (2002): Landscape genetic structure of Pinus banksiana: seedling traits. Silvae Genet. 51(1): 26-35.Search in Google Scholar

TROUPIN, D., R. NATHAN and G. G. VENDRAMIN (2006): Analysis of spatial genetic structure in an expanding Pinus halepensis population reveals development of fine-scale genetic clustering over time. Mol. Ecol. 15: 3617-3630.10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03047.x17032261Search in Google Scholar

VALBUENA-CARABAÑA, M., S. C. GONZÁLEZ-MARTÍNEZ, O. J. HARDY and L. GIL (2007): Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in mixed oak stands with different levels of hybridization. Mol. Ecol. 16: 1207-1219.Search in Google Scholar

VEKEMANS, X. and O. J. HARDY (2004): New insights from fine-scale spatial genetic structure analyses in plant populations. Mol. Ecol. 13: 921-935.Search in Google Scholar

VOS, P., R. HOGERS and M. BLEEKER (1995): AFLP: a new concept for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 23: 4407-4414.10.1093/nar/23.21.44073073977501463Search in Google Scholar

WEHENKEL, C., J. H. MARTÍNEZ-GUERRERO, A. PINEDOALVAREZ and A. CARRILLO (2012): Adaptive genetic differentiation in Picea chihuahuana M. caused by different copper concentrations in the top soil. Forstarchiv 83: 48-51.Search in Google Scholar

WEHENKEL, C. and C. SÁENZ-ROMERO (2012): Estimatinggenetic erosion using the example of Picea chihuahuana Martínez. Tree Genet. Genomes 8: 1085-1094.Search in Google Scholar

WEHENKEL, C., C. SÁENZ-ROMERO and J. P. JARAMILLOCORREA (2014): Estimating genetic erosion in threatened conifers: the example of Picea chihuahuana Martínez, Chapter 15: 20 pages in Ahuja, M. R. and Jain, S.M. (eds.): Genetic Erosion and Biodiversity, Springer SBM, The Netherlands, in press.10.1007/978-3-319-25954-3_7Search in Google Scholar

WRIGHT, S. (1943): Isolation by distance. Genetics 28: 114-138.10.1093/genetics/28.2.114120919617247074Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo