1. bookVolume 60 (2011): Issue 1-6 (December 2011)
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
access type Open Access

Strong Genetic Control of High Wood Specific Gravity in Young Progenies of Pinus brutia: Potential of Early Selection for Industrial Plantations

Published Online: 05 Aug 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 60 (2011) - Issue 1-6 (December 2011)
Page range: 249 - 258
Received: 17 Dec 2010
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

To increase quality and amount of wood production in Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.), genetic control of wood specific gravity (WSG), tracheid length and growth traits was investigated in Ceyhan1A progeny trial by evaluating 168 families originated from six clonal Turkish red pine seed orchards. Wood samples were taken by destructive sampling during the rouging of this trial at the age of seven. Differences among the 168 families for mean WSG was large (ranged from 0.35 to 0.62), as indicated by high individual (0.42±0.07) and family mean (0.55±0.03) heritabilities. Family differences and high heritabilities were also observed for all growth traits and tracheid length. Genetic correlations between WSG and growth traits were insignificant (near zero), while low and insignificant negative phenotypic correlations among the same traits were also observed. Predicted genetic gain for single trait selection at age of seven was low for WSG (0.37%), but substantial for stem volume (8.4%) in phenotypic seed orchards. However, the first generation clonal seed orchards consisting of the best 30 clones yielded higher genetic gains (5.2% for WSG and 35% for stem volume). These preliminary results suggest that selection for wood characteristics and growth traits in Turkish pine could be practiced at early ages for short rotation (about 30 years) in industrial plantations.


Anonymous (2006): The Forest Assets (Orman varlıǧımız). The Republic of Turkey-The Ministry of Envriornment and Forestry, General Directorate of Forests, Ankara. 160p.Search in Google Scholar

Barbosa, R. I. and P. M. Fearnside (2004): Wood density of trees in open savannas of the Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 199: 115–23.10.1016/j.foreco.2004.05.035Search in Google Scholar

Falconer, D. S. and T. F. C. Mackay (1996): Introduction to quantitative genetics. 4th ed. Longman. Essex, England. 463p.Search in Google Scholar

Falconer, D. S. (1981): Introduction to quantitative genetics. 2nd ed. Longman, New York, 335 p.Search in Google Scholar

Fischer, R., G. Becher, M. Lorenz, M. Köhl, G. Oliver and C. Andreas (2008): Special Focus: Brutia pine forests in the Mediterranean basin, pp. 23–24. In: The Condition of Forests in Europe: Executive Report, edited by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), Hamburg.Search in Google Scholar

Fries, A. and T. Ericson (2006): Estimating genetic parameters for wood density of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Silvae Genetica 55(2): 84–92.10.1515/sg-2006-0013Search in Google Scholar

Fries, A. and T. Ericson (2009): Genetic parameters for earlywood and latewood densities and development with increasing age in Scots pine. Annals of Forest Science 66(4): 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

Gezer, A. (1986): The silviculture of Pinus brutia Ten. in Turkey. Options Méditerranéennes 86/1(5): 55–66.Search in Google Scholar

Gezer, A. and S. Aslan (1980): Studies on the selection of some best growing coniferous tree species in the southeastern Anatolia. The Republic of Turkey-The Ministry of Envriornment and Forestry, General Directorate of Forests, Technical Bulletin No: 103, Ankara, 42 s.Search in Google Scholar

Göksel, E. and Ö. Özden (1993): Turkish Red Pine in pulp and paper industry, pp: 648–654. In: International Pinus brutia symposium. Edited by N. Çepel, M. Boydak, O. Taşkin, Marmaris, Turkey.Search in Google Scholar

Gray, J. (1965): Extraction techniques, pp. 530–587. In: Handbook of paleontological techniques Edited by B. Kummel and D. M. Raup, W. H. Freeman. San Francisco.Search in Google Scholar

Guller, B. (2007): The effects of thinning treatments on density, MOE, MOR and maximum crushing strength of Pinus brutia Ten. wood. Annals of Forest Science 64: 467–475.10.1051/forest:2007024Search in Google Scholar

Gürboy, B. (2007): Fiber morphology of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) naturally grown in north Cyprus. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Orman Fakültesi Dergisi Seri: A (2): 119–127.Search in Google Scholar

Hannrup, B. and I. Ekberg (1998): Age-age correlations for tracheid length and wood density in Pinus sylvestris. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28: 1373–1379.10.1139/x98-124Search in Google Scholar

Hannrup, B., Ö. Danell, I. Ekberg and M. Moell (2001): Relationship between wood density and tracheid dimensions in Pinus sylvestiris L. Wood Fiber Science 3: 178–185.Search in Google Scholar

Hodge, G. R. and R. C. Purnel (1993): Genetic parameter estimates for wood density, transition age, and radial growth in slash pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 1881–1891.10.1139/x93-238Search in Google Scholar

Hollowell, R. R. and R. L. Porterfield (1986): Is tree improvement a good investment? Journal of Forestry 84(2): 46–48.Search in Google Scholar

Icgen, Y., Z. Kaya, B. Çengel, E. Velioǧlu, H. Öztürk and S. Önde (2006): Potential impact of forest management and tree improvement on genetic diversity of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) plantations in Turkey. Forest Ecology and Management 225(1–3): 328–336.10.1016/j.foreco.2006.01.009Search in Google Scholar

Işik, K. and N. Kara (1997): Altitudinal variation in Pinus brutia Ten, and its implication for genetic conservation and seed transfer in Southern Turkey. Silvae Genetica 46(2-3): 113–119.Search in Google Scholar

Işik, F. and K. Işik (1999): Genetic variation in Pinus brutia Ten, in Turkey (II): Branching and crown traits, Silvae Genetica 48(6): 293–301.Search in Google Scholar

Jayaickkrama, K. J. S., S. E. Mckeand, J. B. Jett and E. A. Wheeler (1997): Date of early-latewood transition in provenances and families of loblolly pine, and its relationship to growth phenology and juvenile wood specific gravity. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 1245–1253.10.1139/x97-091Search in Google Scholar

Kaya, Z., R. K. Campbell and W. T. Adams (1989): Correlated responses of height increment and components of increment in 2-year old Douglas-fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19: 124–1130.10.1139/x89-170Search in Google Scholar

Kaya, Z. and F. Işik (1997): The pattern of genetic variation in shoot growth of Pinus brutia Ten, populations sampled from the Toros Mountains in Turkey. Silvae Genetica 46: 73–81.Search in Google Scholar

Kaya, Z., F. Steel, A. Temerit and H. Vurdu (2003): Genetic variation in wood specific gravity of half-sib families of Pinus nigra subsp pallasiana: Implications for early selection. Silvae Genetica 52(3–4): 153–158.Search in Google Scholar

Kaya, Z., K. Yildirim, H. Öztürk, S. Şiklar, M. Alan and E. Ilter (2008). Determination of inheritance and genetic gains in Turkish red pine wood quality characteristics (wood density, fiber characters, spring and summer wood ratios) in order to increase quality wood production in the Low Elevation Mediterranean Breeding zone. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Research Grant Committee, Project Final Report TOVAG-106O392, 78p.Search in Google Scholar

Koch, L. and L. Fins (2000): Genetic variation in wood specific gravity from progeny tests of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in northern Idaho and western Montana. Silvae Genetica 49: 174–181.Search in Google Scholar

Koski, V. and J. Antola (1993): Turkish national tree breeding and seed production program for Turkey (1994–2003), Cooperated with ENSO Forest Development Inc and Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Institute, Ankara, 49 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Koga, S. and S.Y. Zhang (2004): Inter-tree and intra-tree variations in ring width and wood density components in balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Wood Science and Technology 38: 149–162.10.1007/s00226-004-0222-zSearch in Google Scholar

Louzada, J. L. P. C. and F. M. A. Fonseca (2002): The heritability of wood density components in Pinus pinaster Ait. and the implications for tree breeding. Annals of Forest Science 59: 867–873.10.1051/forest:2002085Search in Google Scholar

Lynch, M. and B. Walsh (1998): Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, 990 p.Search in Google Scholar

Nicholls, J. W. P., J. D. Morris and L. A. Pederick (1980): Heritability estimates of density characteristics in juvenile Pinus radiata wood. Silvae Genetica 29: 54–61.Search in Google Scholar

Öztürk, H., S. Şiklar, M. Alan, T. Ezen, B. Korkmaz, G. Gülbaba, R. Sabuncu, M. Tulukcu and S. I. Derilgen (2004): Turkish Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) progeny trials in low elevation breeding zone (0–400 m) of mediterranean region (fourth year results). Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Institute, Technical Bulletin No: 12, Ankara 147p.Search in Google Scholar

Öztürk, H., S. Şiklar, M. Alan, T. Ezen, B. Korkmaz, G. Gülbaba, R. Sabuncu, S. I. Derilgen and B. Çalişkan (2008): Turkish Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) progeny trials in low elevation breeding zone (0–400 m) of mediterranean region (eight-year results). Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Institute, Technical Bulletin No: 18, Ankara 122p.Search in Google Scholar

Pot, D., C. Guillaume, P. Rozenberg, J. C. Rodrigues, G. L. Jones, H. Pereira, B. Hannrup, C. Cahalan and C. Plomion (2002): Genetic control of pulp and timber properties in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Annals of Forest Science 59: 563–575.10.1051/forest:2002042Search in Google Scholar

Raymond, C. A., R. Dickson, D. Rowell, P. Blakemore, N. Clark, M. Williams, G. Freischmidt and B. Joe (2004): Wood and fibre properties of dryland conifers. RIRDC Publication 99(4): 71.Search in Google Scholar

SAS Institute Inc. (2004): SAS Online Doc 9.1.3. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Search in Google Scholar

Schutz, W. M. and C. C. Cockerham (1966): The effect of field blocking on gain from selection. Biometrics 22(4): 843–863.10.2307/2528078Search in Google Scholar

Shelbourne, C. J. A., L. A. Apiolaza, K. J. S. Jayawickrama and C. T. Sorensson (1997): Developing breeding objectives for radiata pine in New Zealand, pp. 160–168. In: IUFRO’97 Genetics of Radiata Pine, edited by R. D. Burdon and J. M. Moore Rotorua, New Zealand.Search in Google Scholar

Sorensen, F. C. and T. L. White (1988): Effect of natural inbreeding on variance structure in tests of wind pollinated Douglas-fir progenies. Forest Science 34(1): 102–118.Search in Google Scholar

Stener, L. and Ö. Hedenberg (2003): Genetic parameters of wood, fibre, stem quality and growth traits in a clone test with Betula pendula. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 18: 103–110.10.1080/02827580310003678Search in Google Scholar

Talbert, J. T., J. B. Jett and R. L. Bryant (1983): Inheritance of wood specific gravity in an unimproved loblolly pine population: 20 years of results. Silvae Genetica 32: 33–37.Search in Google Scholar

Usta, H. Z. (1991): Yield researches on Pinus brutia plantations (Kızılçam (Pinus brutia Ten) aǧaçlandırmalarında hasılat araştırmaları). The Ministry of Forestry, Technical Bulletin No: 213, Ankara 138p.Search in Google Scholar

Williamson, G. B. and M. C. Wiemann (2010): Measuring wood specific gravity correctly. American Journal of Botany 97(3): 519–524.10.3732/ajb.090024321622413Search in Google Scholar

Yanchuk, A. D. and G. K. Kiss (1993): Genetic variation in growth and wood specific gravity and its utility in the improvement of Interior Spruce in British Colombia. Silvae Genetica 42(2–3): 141–148.Search in Google Scholar

Zamudio, F., R. Baettyg, A. Vergara, F. Guerra and P. Rozenberg (2002): Genetic trends in wood density and radial growth with cambial age in a radiata pine progeny test. Annals of Forest Science 59: 541–549.10.1051/forest:2002039Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, S. Y. and Z. H. Jiang (1998): Variability of selected wood characteristics in 40 half-sib families of black spruce (Picea mariana). Wood Science and Technology 32(1): 71–82.10.1007/BF00702561Search in Google Scholar

Zobel, B. J. and J. P. van Buijtenen (1989): Wood Variation: Its causes and control. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 363p.10.1007/978-3-642-74069-5Search in Google Scholar

Zobel, B. J. and J. Talbert (1984): Applied Forest Tree Improvement, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 511 p.Search in Google Scholar

Zobel, B. J. and J. B. Jett (1995): Genetics of wood production. Springer-Verlag, New York, 337 p.10.1007/978-3-642-79514-5Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo