1. bookVolume 60 (2011): Issue 1-6 (December 2011)
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
access type Open Access

Effect of genetic relatedness among parents on gain in salt tolerance in progeny of crosses of Eucalyptus occidentalis

Published Online: 05 Aug 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 60 (2011) - Issue 1-6 (December 2011)
Page range: 45 - 55
Received: 06 Mar 2009
Journal Details
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

Genetic diversity of a Eucalyptus occidentalis breeding population screened for salt and waterlogging tolerance was examined using eight microsatellite loci. Mating using an immature style ‘one stop pollination’ method between parents was carried out to produce progeny for testing under 500 mM salt waterlogging. The effect of parental genetic distance on seed production and early seedling survival was examined and inheritance of salt/or waterlogging tolerance was assessed by testing performance of progeny in comparison to parents. Diversity was moderate among the nine provenances and the families, and most of the diversity was distributed within rather than between families. Genetic relationships showed no structure in relation to provenance indicating any adaptation to saline environments has not affected genetic similarity. Breeding for salt and water tolerance may be achieved without decline in genetic diversity. There was a significant correlation between capsule production and parental genetic distance and a positive trend between increasing parental genetic distance and increasing number of germinated seeds/capsule, and seedling survival at 2 weeks and 9 months. These trends indicate expression of inbreeding depression in crosses between genetically similar parents. Heritability values, under 500 mM salt-waterlogging treatment, indicated that height had moderate heritability (h2 = 0.5). Crosses with the widest parental genetic distance produced progeny with considerable height increase above parents and this trend was evident even with moderate genetic distance indicating crossing at this level of differentiation may achieve optimum breeding gain.


Bennet, J. and G. S. Kush (2003): Enhancing salt tolerance in crops through molecular breeding: A new strategy, pp. 11–65. In: Crop production in saline environments: Global and integrative perspectives, edited by S. S. Goyal, S. K. Sharma and D. W. Rains, Haworth Press, London.10.1300/J144v07n01_02Search in Google Scholar

Benyon, R. G., N. E. Marcar, D. F. Crawford and A. T. Nicholson (1999): Growth and water use of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. occidentalis on a saline discharge site near Wellington, NSW, Australia. Agricultural Water Management 39: 229–244.10.1016/S0378-3774(98)00080-8Search in Google Scholar

Bos, I. and P. Caligari (1995): Selection methods in plant breeding, Chapman & Hall, London.10.1007/978-94-015-8432-6Search in Google Scholar

Brondani, R. P. V., C. Brondani, R. Tarchini and D. Grattapaglia (1998): Development characterization and mapping of microsatellite markers in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 97: 816–827.10.1007/s001220050961Search in Google Scholar

Brooker, M. I. H. and D. A. Kleinig (1990) Field guide to eucalypts. Volume 2 south-western and southern Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne.Search in Google Scholar

Burdon, R. D. and G. B. Sweet (1976): The problem of interpreting inherent differences in tree growth shortly after planting, pp. 483–502. In: Tree physiology and yield improvement, edited by M. G. R. Cannell and F. T. Last, Academic Press, London.Search in Google Scholar

Byrne, M. (2008): Eucalyptus phylogeny, diversity and evolution, pp. 303–346. In: Plant genome: Biodiversity and evolution. 1E-Phanerogam-Angiosperm, edited by A. K. Sharma and A. Sharma, Science Publishers, Enfield.Search in Google Scholar

Byrne, M., M. I. Marquez-Garcia, T. Uren, D. S. Smith and G. F. Moran (1996). Conservation and genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in the genus Eucalyptus. Australian Journal of Botany 44: 331–341.Search in Google Scholar

Cauvin, B. (1988): Pistil treatments for improved fertility in hybridization of Eucalyptus gunni (Hook), pp. 321–325. In: Proceedings of the tenth international symposium on sexual reproduction in higher plants, edited by M. Cresti, P. Gori and P. Pacini, University of Siena, Italy.10.1007/978-3-642-73271-3_51Search in Google Scholar

Charlesworth, D. and B. Charlesworth (1987): Inbreeding depression and its evolutionary consequences. Annual Review of Ecological System 18: 237–268.10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.001321Search in Google Scholar

Chippendale, G. M. (1973): Eucalyptus of the Western Australia goldfields (and the adjacent wheatbelt), Department of Primary Industry, Forestry and Timber Bureau, Canberra, Australia.Search in Google Scholar

Clark, N. B., S. M. Read and P. Vinden (1999): The effect of drought and salinity on wood and kraft pulps from young plantation Eucalyptus. Appita Journal 52: 93–97.Search in Google Scholar

Conacher, A. and J. Conacher (1998): Southern Australia, pp. 155–167. In: Land degradation in Mediterranean environments of the world: Nature and extent, causes and solutions, edited by A. J. Conacher and M. Sala, John Wiley and Sons, Brisbane.Search in Google Scholar

Craig, G. F., D. T. Bell and C. A. Atkins (1990): Responses to salt and waterlogging stress of ten taxa of Acacia from naturally saline areas of Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 38: 619–630.10.1071/BT9900619Search in Google Scholar

Edmands, S. (2007): Between a rock and a hard place: evaluating the relative risks of inbreeding and out-breeding for conservation and management. Molecular Ecology 16: 463–475.10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03148.x17257106Search in Google Scholar

Eldridge, K., J. Davidson, C. Harwood and G. Van Wyk (1994): Eucalyptus domestication and breeding, Clarendon Press, Oxford University.Search in Google Scholar

Elliot, T. C. and M. Byrne (2003): Genetic diversity within and between natural populations of Eucalyptus occidentalis (Myrtaceae). Silvae Genetica 52: 3–4.Search in Google Scholar

FAO (1981): Eucalyptus for planting, Forestry Series no 11, FAO, Rome, Italy.Search in Google Scholar

Goldstein, D. B., A. Ruiz Linarez, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza and M. M. Feldman (1995): Genetic absolute dating based on microsatellites and the origin of modern humans. Proceedings of National Academic Science, USA 92: 6723–6727.10.1073/pnas.92.15.6723414017624310Search in Google Scholar

Griffin, A. R. and P. P. Cotteril (1988): Genetic variation in growth of outcrossed, selfed and open pollinated progenies of Eucalyptus regnans and some implications for breeding strategy. Silvae Genetica 37: 124–131.Search in Google Scholar

Harbard, J. L., A. R. Griffin and J. Espejo (1999): Mass controlled pollination of Eucalyptus globulus: a practical reality. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 1457–1463.10.1139/x99-129Search in Google Scholar

Hardner, C. and W. Tibbits (1998): Inbreeding depression for growth, wood and fecundity traits in Eucalyptus nitens. Forest Genetics 5: 11–20.Search in Google Scholar

Hardner, C. M. and B. M. Potts (1995): Inbreeding depression and changes in variation after selfing in Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus. Silvae Genetica 44: 46–54.Search in Google Scholar

Hardner, C. M., B. M. Potts and P. L. Gore (1998): The relationship between cross success and spatial proximity of Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus parents. Evolution 52: 614–618.10.1111/j.1558-5646.1998.tb01660.x28568328Search in Google Scholar

Harwood, C., P. Bulman, D. Bush, R. Mazanec and D. Stackpole (2001): Compendium of Hardwood Breeding Strategies, Joint Venture Agroforestry Program, Canberra, Australia.Search in Google Scholar

Hendrati, R. (2008): Screening for salt and/waterlogging tolerance, deployment systems and genetic diversity of Eucalyptus occidentalis Endl. for breeding, PhD Thesis, The University of Western Australia.Search in Google Scholar

Herrero, M. and J. H. Hormanza (1996): Pistil strategies controlling pollen tube growth. Sexual Plant Reproduction 9: 343–347.10.1007/BF02441953Search in Google Scholar

Hu, Y., J. J. Oertli and U. Schmidhalter (1977): Interactive effect of salinity and macronutrient level on wheat. Journal of Plant Nutrition 20: 1155–1177.10.1080/01904169709365324Search in Google Scholar

Hunt, N. and B. Gilkes (1992): Farm Monitoring Handbook: a practical down-to-earth manual for farmers and other land users, The University of Western Australia, Perth.Search in Google Scholar

Jones, T. H., D. A. Steane, R. C. Jones, D. Pilbeam, R. E. Vaillancourt and B. M. Potts (2006): Effects of domestication on genetic diversity in Eucalyptus globulus. Forest Ecology Management 234: 78–84.10.1016/j.foreco.2006.06.021Search in Google Scholar

Liu, K. and S. V. Muse (2005): Powermarker: Integrated analysis environment for genetic marker data. Bioinformatics 21: 2128–2129.10.1093/bioinformatics/bti28215705655Search in Google Scholar

Loo-Dinkins, J. (1992): Field Test Design, pp. 96–139. In: Handbook of quantitative forest genetics, edited by L. Fins, S. T. Friedman and J. V. Brotschol, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.10.1007/978-94-015-7987-2_4Search in Google Scholar

Marcar, N. E., D. Crawford, P. Leppert, T. Jovanovic, R. Floyd and R. Farrow (1995): Trees for Saltland: a guide to selecting native species for Australia, CSIRO Division of Forestry, Canberra.10.1071/9780643101425Search in Google Scholar

Marcar, N. E. and D. F. Crawford (2004): Trees for Saline Landscapes, RIRDC Publication Number 03/108, Canberra, Australia.Search in Google Scholar

Marcar, N. E., D. F. Crawford, A. K. M. A. Hossain and A. T. Nicholson (2003): Survival and growth of the tree species and provenances in response to salinity on a discharge site. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43: 1293–1302.10.1071/EA02192Search in Google Scholar

Marcucci Poltri, S. N., N. Zelener, J. Rodriguez Traverso, P. Gelid and H. E. Hopp (2003): Selection of a seed orchard of Eucalyptus dunnii based on genetic diversity criteria calculated using molecular markers. Tree Physiology 23: 625–632.10.1093/treephys/23.9.62512750055Search in Google Scholar

Lowe, A., S. Harris and P. Ashton (2004): Ecological genetics: design, analysis and application. Blackwell Publishing, Victoria, Australia.Search in Google Scholar

Moncur, M. W. (1995): Techniques for pollination Eucalyptus, ACIAR Technical Reports 34, ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.Search in Google Scholar

Munns, R. and A. Termaat (1986): Whole-plant responses to salinity. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 13: 143–160.Search in Google Scholar

Pepper, R. G. and G. F. Craig (1986): Resistance of selected Eucalyptus species to soil salinity in Western Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology 23: 977–987.10.2307/2403949Search in Google Scholar

Potts, B. M. and B. Cauvin (1988): Inbreeding and interspecific hybridization in Eucalyptus, pp. 1–17. In: Proceedings of the International Forestry Conference of the Australian Bicentenary, Australia, AFDI-Albury-Wodonga.Search in Google Scholar

Potts, B. M and R. J. E. Wiltshire (1997): Eucalyptus genetics and genecology, pp 56–91. In: Eucalyptus ecology: individuals to ecosystems, edited by J. Williams and J. Woinarski, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Search in Google Scholar

Sedgley, M. and A. R. Griffin (1989): Sexual reproduction of tree crops. Academic Press, London.10.1016/B978-0-12-634470-7.50006-4Search in Google Scholar

Shannon, M. C. (1997): Genetics of salt tolerance in higher plants, pp. 265–280. In: Strategies for improving salt tolerance in higher plants, edited by P. K. Jaiwal, R. P. Singh and A. Gulati, Science Publishers, New Hampshire, USA.Search in Google Scholar

Steane, D. A., R. E. Vaillancourt, J. Russell, W. Powell, D. Marshall and B. M. Potts (2001): Development and characterisation of microsatellite loci in Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae). Silvae Genetica: 50, 89–91.Search in Google Scholar

Trindade, H., L. C. Boavida, N. Borralho and J. A. Feijo (2001): Successful fertilization and seed set from pollination on immature non-dehisced flowers of Eucalyptus globulus. Annals of Botany 87: 469–475.10.1006/anbo.2000.1359Search in Google Scholar

Van der Moezel, P. G., G. V. N. Pearce-Pinto and D. T. Bell (1991): Screening for salt and waterlogging tolerance in Eucalyptus and Melaleuca species. Forest Ecology and Management 40, 27–37.10.1016/0378-1127(91)90089-ESearch in Google Scholar

Willi, Y. and J. Buskirk (2005): Genomic compatibility occurs over a wide range of parental genetic similarity in an outcrossing plant. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. Royal Society, London, 272: 1333–1338.Search in Google Scholar

Williams, D. R., B. M. Potts and P. G. Black (1999): Testing single visit pollination procedures for Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens. Australian Forestry 62: 346–352.10.1080/00049158.1999.10674802Search in Google Scholar

Yanchuk, A. D. (2001): A quantitative framework for breeding and conservation of forest tree genetic resources in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 566–576.10.1139/x00-133Search in Google Scholar

Zobel, B. J. and J. Talbert (1984): Applied Forest Tree Improvement, Wiley, New York.Search in Google Scholar

Zohar, Y. (1991): Performance of seedlings from selected sources of Eucalyptus occidentalis in a semi-arid Mediterranean-type environment. South African Forestry Journal 159: 37–41.10.1080/00382167.1991.9630393Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo