1. bookVolume 58 (2009): Issue 1-6 (December 2009)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2509-8934
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Genetic Variation in Seed Size and Germination Patterns and their Effect on White Spruce Seedling Characteristics

Published Online: 19 Oct 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 58 (2009) - Issue 1-6 (December 2009)
Page range: 152 - 161
Received: 04 Dec 2007
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2509-8934
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

We determined the degree to which families differ in seed and germination characteristics and examined the extent to which these characteristics influence the early growth of 75 open-pollinated white spruce families. Seed characteristics (1000-seed weight, length, width, area, volume) were measured for 400 seeds per family. Germination variables (germination capacity, peak value, germination value) were determined for each of the 75 families under controlled conditions and germination patterns were modelled using the Weibull function. Seedling characteristics (height, diameter, shoot and root dry weights) were measured at the end of the first and second growing seasons under standard nursery cultural practices. Statistically significant family variation (p < 0.0001) was found for all seed characteristics and germination variables measured. The between-family variance explained 23% to 98% of the total variance of morphological and physiological seed characteristics. Family differences at the seed stage explained up to 33% (root dry weight) and 12% (shoot dry weight) of the family differences observed at the one-year and two-year seedling stages, respectively. Since, in this study based on a comparison of family means, a maximum of only 12% of the family differences observed at the two-year seedling stage were explained by the effect of seed size, a selection for families with better juvenile characteristics could be envisaged without considering the maternal effect of seed size.

Keywords

BARADAT, P. and T. LABBÉ (1995): OPEP (Diogène), un logiciel intégré pour l’amélioration des plantes pérennes. In: Cirad CP (ed) Traitements statistiques des essais de sélection. Montpellier, France, pp 303-330. Search in Google Scholar

BEAULIEU, J. and J.-P. SIMON (1995): Variation in cone morphology and seed characters in Pinus strobus in Québec. Can. J. Bot. 73: 262-271. Search in Google Scholar

BEAULIEU, J. (1996): Breeding program and strategy for white spruce in Quebec. Nat. Resour. Can., Can. For. Serv., Sainte-Foy, Quebec. Inf. Rep. LAU-X-117E, 25 p. Search in Google Scholar

BECKER, W. A. (1985): Manual of quantitative genetics - Fourth edition. Academic enterprises, Pullman, Washington. Search in Google Scholar

BONNER, F. T. and T. R. DELL (1976): The Weibull function: a new method of comparing seed vigor. J. Seed Technol. 1: 96-103. Search in Google Scholar

BRAMLETT, D. L., T. R. DELL and W. D. PEPPER (1983): Genetic and maternal influences on virginia pine seed germination. Silvae Genet. 32: 1-4. Search in Google Scholar

BROWN, R. F. and D. G. MAYER (1988): Representing cumulative germination. 2. The use of the Weibull function and other empirically derived curves. Ann. Bot. 61: 127-138. Search in Google Scholar

CARON, G. E., B. S. P. WANG and H. O. SCHOOLEY (1993): Variation in Picea glauca seed germination associated with the year of cone collection. Can. J. For. Res 23: 1306-1313. Search in Google Scholar

CASTRO, J. (1999): Seed mass versus seedling performance in Scots pine: a maternally dependent trait. New Phyt. 144: 153-161. 10.1046/j.1469-8137.1999.00495.xSearch in Google Scholar

CHAISURISRI, K., D. G. W. EDWARDS and Y. A. EL-KASSABY (1992): Genetic control of seed size and germination in Sitka spruce. Silvae Genet. 41(6): 348-355. Search in Google Scholar

CORRIVEAU, A., J. BEAULIEU and G. DAOUST (1991): Heritability and genetic correlations of wood characters of Upper Ottawa Valley white spruce populations grown in Quebec. For. Chron. 67(6): 698-705. 10.5558/tfc67698-6Search in Google Scholar

CZABATOR, F. J. (1962): Germination value: an index combining speed and completeness of pine seed germination. For. Sci. 8 (4): 386-396. Search in Google Scholar

DIETERS, M. J., T. L. WHITE, R. C. LITTEL and G. R. HODGE (1995): Application of approximate variances of variance components and their ratios in genetic tests. Theor. Appl. Genet. 91: 15-24. Search in Google Scholar

DUNLAP, J. R. and J. P. BARNETT (1983): Influence of seed size on germination and early development of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) germinants. Can. J. For. Res 13: 40-44. Search in Google Scholar

EL-KASSABY, Y. A., D. G. W. EDWARDS and A. R. TAYLOR (1992): Genetic control of germination parameters in Douglas-fir and its importance for domestication. Silvae Genet. 41(1): 48-54. Search in Google Scholar

FALCONER, D. S. (1981): Introduction to quantitative genetics. Longman, London, New York. Search in Google Scholar

FARMER, R. E. (1997): 8. Germination genetics. In: Seed ecophysiology of temperate and boreal zone forest trees. Edited by R. E. FARMER. St Lucie Press, Delray Beach. pp. 137-154. Search in Google Scholar

GROSSNICKLE, S. C. (2005): Importance of root growth in overcoming planting stress. New For. 30: 273-294. 10.1007/s11056-004-8303-2Search in Google Scholar

INTERNATIONAL SEED TESTING ASSOCIATION (1999): International rules for seed testing. Seed Science and Technology 27 (supplement). Search in Google Scholar

KHALIL, M. A. K. (1981): Correlation of juvenile height growth with cone morphology and seed weight in white spruce. Silvae Genet. 30(6): 179-181. Search in Google Scholar

KHALIL, M. A. K. (1985): Heritability of juvenile characters of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss.) in central Newfoundland, Canada. Theor. Appl. Genet. 69: 247-251. Search in Google Scholar

KRAKOWSKI, J. and Y. A. EL-KASSABY (2005): Lodgepole pine and white spruce germination: effects of stratification and simulated aging. Silvae Genet. 54(3): 138-144. 10.1515/sg-2005-0021Search in Google Scholar

LAMBANY, G. and L. VEILLEUX (1999): Système d’imagerie informatisée appliqué au développement des racines de semis d’épinette - Note de recherche forestière n°97. Direction de la recherche forestière - Ministère des Ressources naturelles du Québec. Search in Google Scholar

LAMHAMEDI, M. S., H. CHAMBERLAND, P. Y. BERNIER and F. M. TREMBLAY (2000): Clonal variation in morphology, growth, physiology, anatomy and ultrastructure ot container- grown white spruce somatic plants. Tree Phys. 20: 869-880. 10.1093/treephys/20.13.86911303577Search in Google Scholar

LAMHAMEDI, M. S., F. COLAS, D. TOUSIGNANT and M. RIOUX (2006): Characterization and multi-criteria selection of families for the mass cutting propagation of white spruce (Picea glauca) in Québec. In: Recent Advances in Seed Physiology and Technology, IUFRO Tree Seed Symposium. Edited by T. L. BEARDMORE and D. G. SIMPSON. International Union of Forest Research Organizations, Frederiction, NB Canada. Search in Google Scholar

LI, P., J. BEAULIEU, A. CORRIVEAU and J. BOUSQUET (1993): Genetic variation in juvenile growth and phenology in a white spruce provenance-progeny test. Silvae Genet. 42(1): 52-60. Search in Google Scholar

LITTEL, R. C., G. A. MILLIKEN, W. W. STROUP and R. D. WOLFINGER (1996): SAS System for Mixed Models. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. Search in Google Scholar

NIENSTAEDT, H. and A. H. TEICH (1972): The genetics of white spruce. U.S.D.A. Search in Google Scholar

NIENSTAEDT, H. and J. C. ZASADA (1990): Picea glauca [Moench] Voss White spruce. In: Silvics of North America vol. 1. Conifers - Agriculture handbook no. 654. Edited by R. M. BURNS and B. H. HONKALA. United States. Dept. of Agriculture. pp. 204-226. Search in Google Scholar

NOLAND, T. L., W. H. PARKER and A. E. MORNEAULT (2006): Natural variation in seed characteristics of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). New For. 32: 87-103. 10.1007/s11056-005-4169-1Search in Google Scholar

PAPADAKIS, J. S. (1937): Méthode statistique pour des expériences sur champ. Bull. Inst. Amélioration Plantes Salonique. 23. Search in Google Scholar

PARKER, W. H., T. L. NOLAND and A. E. MORNEAULT (2006): The effects of seed mass on germination, seedling emergence, and early seedling growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). New For. 32: 33-49. 10.1007/s11056-005-3391-1Search in Google Scholar

POLLARD, D. F. W. (1974): Seedling size and age as factors of morphogenesis in white spruce Picea glauca (Moench) Voss Buds. Can. J. For. Res. 4: 97-100. Search in Google Scholar

RINK, G., T. R. DELL, G. SWITZER and F. T. BONNER (1979): Use of the Weibull function to quantify sweetgum germination data. Silvae Genet. 28(1): 9-12. Search in Google Scholar

ROBINSON, G. K. (1991): That BLUP is a good thing: the estimation of random effects. Statistical Science 6(1): 15-32. 10.1214/ss/1177011926Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

RWEYONGEZA, D. M., F. C. YEH and N. K. DHIR (2005): Heritability and correlations for biomass production and allocation in white spruce seedlings. Silvae Genet. 54(4-5): 228-235. 10.1515/sg-2005-0033Search in Google Scholar

SHEN, H. H., D. RUDIN and D. LINDGREN (1981): Study of the pollination pattern in Scots pine seed orchard by means of Isozyme Analysis. Silvae Genet. 30(1): 7-15. Search in Google Scholar

SIMPSON, J. D., B. S. P. WANG and B. I. DAIGLE (2004): Long-term seed storage of various Canadian hardwoods and conifers. Seed Sci. & Tech. 32: 561-572. Search in Google Scholar

SORENSEN, F. C. (2004): Environmental impacts on dormancy and germination. Canadian tree improvement association: Tree seed working group. News bulletin 39: 6-9. Search in Google Scholar

SORENSEN, F. C. and R. K. CAMPBELL (1985): Effect of seed eight on height growth of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) seedlings in a nursery. Can. J. For. Res 15: 1109-1115. Search in Google Scholar

SORENSEN, F. C. and R. K. CAMPBELL (1993): Seed weight - seedling size correlation in coastal Douglas-fir: genetic and environmental components. Can. J. For. Res 23: 275-285. Search in Google Scholar

ST. CLAIR, J. B. and W. T. ADAMS (1991): Effects of seed weight and rate of emergence on early growth of openpollinated douglas-fir families. For. Sci. 37(4): 987-997. Search in Google Scholar

WANG, B. S. P. (1973): Laboratory germination criteria for red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait) seed. In: Proceedings, Association of Official Seed Analysts. pp. 94-101. Search in Google Scholar

WRIGHT, J. W. (1945): Influence of size and portion of cone and seed weight on eastern white pine. J. For. 43: 817-819. Search in Google Scholar

WRIGHT, R. A., R. W. WEIN and B. P. DANCIK (1992): Population differenciation in seedling root size between adjacent stands of jack pine. For. Sci. 38(4): 777-785.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo