1. bookVolume 55 (2006): Issue 1-6 (December 2006)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2509-8934
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Open Access

Genetic Engineering in Conifer Plantation Forestry

Published Online: 19 Oct 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 55 (2006) - Issue 1-6 (December 2006)
Page range: 253 - 262
Received: 28 Aug 2006
Accepted: 25 Oct 2006
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2509-8934
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

In this review we examine the history and progression of conifer genetic engineering. The review includes the methods used, the conifer species transformed, the genes inserted and the regeneration of genetically engineered conifer trees. We cover both Biolistic® and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and we detail transformation events with and without plant regeneration. We show that almost all conifer transformation work uses nptII as a selective marker, and very often uidA is included as a reporter gene. Further, we show that a range of genes that are of commercial interest for forest tree plantations have been introduced, such as herbicide resistance, insect resistance and those related to wood properties. We briefly discuss the future for biotechnology in the context of socially acceptable enhanced plantation forestry and under consideration of benefits and risks.

Keywords

ANON (2004): Nanotechnology for the forest products industry - Vision and technology roadmap. Nanotechnology for the forest products industry workshop, Lansdowne, Virginia. Download at: www.fpl.fs.fed.us/highlighted-research/nanotechnology/forest-products-nanotechnology.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

ARONEN, T., A. HOHTOLA, H. LAUKKANEN and H. HÄGGMAN (1995): Seasonal changes in the transient expression of a 35S CaMV-GUS gene construct introduced into Scots pine buds. Tree Physiol. 15: 65-70.10.1093/treephys/15.1.65Search in Google Scholar

ARONEN, T. S., T. O. NIKKANEN and H. M. HÄGGMAN (1998): Compatibility of different pollination techniques with microprojectile bombardment of Norway spruce and Scots pine pollen. Can. J. For. Res. 28: 79-86.Search in Google Scholar

ARONEN, T. S., T. O. NIKKANEN and H. M. HÄGGMAN (2003): The production of transgenic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) via the application of transformed pollen in controlled crossings. Transgenic Res. 12: 375-378.10.1023/A:1023310009902Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BEKKAOUI, F., M. PILON, D. S. S. RAJU, W. L. CROSBY and D. I. DUNSTAN (1988): Transient gene expression in electroporated Picea glauca protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep. 7: 481-484.10.1007/BF00272736Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BINNS, A. N. (2002): T-DNA of Agrobacterium: 25 years and counting. Trends in Plant Sci. 7 (5): 231-233.10.1016/S1360-1385(02)02265-3Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BISHOP-HURLEY, S. L., R. J. ZABKIEVICZ, L. GRACE, R. C. GARDNER, A. WAGNER and C. WALTER (2001): Conifer genetic engineering: Transgenic Pinus radiata (D Don) and Picea abies (Karst) plants are resistant to the herbicide Buster. Plant Cell Rep. 20: 235-243.10.1007/s002990100317Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BOMMINENI, V. R., R. S. S. DATLA and E. W. T. TSANG (1994): Expression of gus in somatic embryo cultures of black spruce after microprojectile bombardment. J. Exp. Bot. 45: 491-495.10.1093/jxb/45.4.491Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BROWN, C. (2002): The global outlook for future wood supply from forest plantations. FAO working paper No: GFPOS/WP/03. Download at: (http://www.fao.org/ forestry).Search in Google Scholar

BRUKHIN, V., D. CLAPHAM, M. ELFSTRAND and S. VON ARNOLD (2000): Basta tolerance as a selectable and screening marker for transgenic plants of Norway spruce. Plant Cell Rep. 19: 899-903.10.1007/s00299000021730754927Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BURDON, R. D. and C. WALTER (2004): Exotic pines and eucalypts: Perspectives on risks of transgenic plantations, pp 52-75 in The bioengineered forest: Challenges for science and society, edited by S. H. STRAUSS and H. D. BRADSHAW, RFF (Resources for the Future) Press, Washington, DC, USA. Search in Google Scholar

CARSON, M., C. WALTER and S. CARSON (2004): The future of forest biotechnology. Proceedings from the Workshop Biotechnolegia Forestal. Global Biotechnology Forum, Chile. Institute of Forest Biotechnology, Raleigh, NC.Search in Google Scholar

CAULEY, H. (2001). Genetic engineering FSC says risks are still too great. J. For. 99(12): 4-7.Search in Google Scholar

CAMPBELL, M. A., C. S. KINLAW and D. B. NEALE (1992): Expression of luciferase and β-glucuronidase in Pinus radiata suspension cells using electroporation and particle bombardment. Can. J. For. Res. 22: 2014-2018.Search in Google Scholar

CARDOZA, V. and C. N. JR. STEWART (2004): Brassica Biotechnology: Progress in cellular and molecular biology. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol., Plant 40: 542-551.Search in Google Scholar

CERDA, F., F. AQUEA, M. GEBAUER, C. MEDINA and P. ARCEJOHNSON (2002): Stable transformation of Pinus radiata embryogenic tissue by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 70: 251-257.10.1023/A:1016508031151Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

CHAREST, P. J., N. CALERO, D. LACHANCE, R. S. S. DATLA, L. C. DUCHESNE and E. W. T. TSANG (1993): Microprojectile- DNA delivery in conifer species: factors affecting assessment of transient gene expression using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene. Plant Cell Rep. 12: 189-193.10.1007/BF0023705124197017Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

CHAREST, P. J., Y. DEVANTIER and D. LACHANCE (1996): Stable genetic transformation of Picea mariana (Black Spruce) via particle bombardment. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol., Plant 32: 91-99.Search in Google Scholar

CHARITY, J. A., L. HOLLAND, S. S. DONALDSON, L. GRACE and C. WALTER (2002): Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Pinus radiata organogenic tissue using vacuum infiltration. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 70: 51-60.10.1023/A:1016009309176Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

CHARITY, J. A., L. HOLLAND, L. J. GRACE and C. WALTER (2005): Consistent and stable expression of the nptII, uidA and bar genes in transgenic Pinus radiata after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using nurse cultures. Plant Cell Rep. 23: 606-616.10.1007/s00299-004-0851-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

CLAPHAM, D., I. EKBERG, G. ERIKSSON, E. E. HOOD and L. NORELL (1990): Within-population variation in susceptibility to Agrobacterium tumefaciens A281 in Picea abies (L.) Karst. Theor. Appl. Genet. 79: 654-656.Search in Google Scholar

CLAPHAM, D., P. DEMEL, M. ELFSTRAND, H.-U. KOOP, I. SABALA and S. VON ARNOLD (2000): Gene transfer by particle bombardment of embryogenic cultres of Picea abies and the production of transgenic plantlets. Scand. J. For. Res. 15: 151-160.10.1080/028275800750014957Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

CONFALONIERI, M., A. BALESTRAZZI, S. BISOFFI and D. CARBONERA (2003): In vitro culture and genetic engineering of Populus spp.: synergy for forest tree improvement. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 72: 109-138.10.1023/A:1022265504775Search in Google Scholar

DANDEKAR, A. M., P. K. GUPTA, D. J. DURZAN and V. KNAUF (1987): Transformation and foreign gene expression in micropropagated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Bio/Technology 5: 587-590.Search in Google Scholar

DINER, A. M. and D. F. KARNOSKY (1987): Differential responses of two conifers to in vitro inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Eur. J. Forest Pathol. 17: 211-216.10.1111/j.1439-0329.1987.tb01018.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

DRAKE, P. M. W., A. JOHN, J. B. POWER and M. R. DAVEY (1997): Expression of the gus A gene in embryogenic cell lines of Sitka spruce following Agrobacterium mediated transformation. J. Exp. Bot. 48: 151-155.10.1093/jxb/48.1.151Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

DUCHESNE, L. C. and P. J. CHAREST (1991): Transient expression of the β-glucuronidase gene in embryogenic callus of Picea mariana following microprojection. Plant Cell Rep. 10: 191-194.10.1007/BF00234293Search in Google Scholar

DUCHESNE, L. C. and P. J. CHAREST (1992): Effect of promoter sequence on transient expression of the β-glucuronidase gene in embryogenic calli of Larix x eurolepis and Picea mariana following microprojection. Can. J. Bot. 70: 175-180.10.1139/b92-023Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

DUCHESNE, L. C., A.-M. LELU, P. VON ADERKAS and P. J. CHAREST (1993): Microprojectile-mediated DNA delivery in haploid and diploid embryogenic cells of Larix spp. Can. J. For. Res. 23: 312-316.Search in Google Scholar

ELLIS, D., D. ROBERTS, B. SUTTON, W. LAZAROFF, D. WEBB and B. FLINN (1989): Transformation of white spruce and other conifer species by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Rep. 8: 16-20.10.1007/BF00735769Search in Google Scholar

ELLIS, D. D., D. MCCABE, D. RUSSELL, B. MARTINELL and B. H. MCCOWN (1991): Expression of inducible angiosperm promoters in a gymnosperm, Picea glauca (white spruce). Plant Mol. Biol. 17: 19-27.Search in Google Scholar

ELLIS, D. D., D. E. MCCABE, S. MCINNIS, R. RAMACHANDRAN, D. R. RUSSELL, K. M. WALLACE, B. J. MARTINELL, D. R. ROBERTS, K. F. RAFFA and B. H. MCCOWN (1993): Stable transformation of Picea glauca by particle acceleration. Bio/Technology 11: 84-89. Search in Google Scholar

FAO (2003) The state of the world’s forests 2003. FAO Rome, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

FAO (2004): Preliminary review of biotechnology in forestry, including genetic modification. Forest Genetic Resources Working Paper FGR/59E. Forest Resources Development Service, Forest Resources Division. Rome Italy.Search in Google Scholar

FENNING, T. M. and J. GERSHENZON (2002): Where will the wood come from? Plantation forests and the role of biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol. 20: 291-296.10.1016/S0167-7799(02)01983-2Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

FERNANDO, D. D., J. N. OWENS and S. MISRA (2000): Transient gene expression in pine pollen tubes following particle bombardment. Plant Cell Rep. 19: 224-228.10.1007/s00299005000330754899Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

FIND, J. I., J. A. CHARITY, L. J. GRACE, M. M. M. H. KRISTENSEN, P. KROGSTRUP and C. WALTER (2005): Stable genetic transformation of embryogenic cultures of Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann fir) and regeneration of transgenic plants. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol., Plant 41: 725-730.Search in Google Scholar

GARTLAND, K. M. A., R. C. KELLISON and T. M. FENNING (2003): Forest biotechnology and Europe’s forests for the future. Forest Biotechnology in Europe: Impending barriers, policy and implications, pp. 53-84. In: Forest Biotechnology in Europe. The Challenge, the Promise, the Future, edited by K. M. A. GARTLAND, R. C. KELLISON, T. M. FENNING and S. MCCORD. Institute of Forest Biotechnology, North Carolina.Search in Google Scholar

GOLDFARB, B., S. H. STRAUSS, G. T. HOWE and J. B. ZAERR (1991): Transient gene expression of microprojectileintroduced DNA in Douglas-fir cotyledons. Plant Cell Rep. 10: 517-521.10.1007/BF00234585Search in Google Scholar

GRACE, L. J., J. A. CHARITY, B. GRESHAM, N. KAY and C. WALTER (2005): Insect-resistant transgenic Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Rep. 24: 103-111.10.1007/s00299-004-0912-xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

GRANT, J. E., P. A. COOPER and T. M. DALE (2004): Transgenic Pinus radiata from Agrobacterium tumefaciensmediated transformation of cotyledons. Plant Cell Rep. 22: 894-902.10.1007/s00299-004-0769-zOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

GUPTA, P. K., A. M. DANDEKAR and D. J. DURZAN (1988): Somatic proembryo formation and transient expression of a Luciferase gene in Douglas fir and Loblolly pine protoplasts. Plant Sci. 58: 85-92.10.1016/0168-9452(88)90157-4Search in Google Scholar

HAN, K-H., P. FLEMING, K. WALKER, M. LOPER, S. W. CHILTON, U. MOCEK, M. P. GORDON and L. C. FOWKE (1994): Genetic transformation of mature Taxus: an approach to genetically control the in vitro production of the anticancer drug, taxol. Plant Sci. 95: 187-196.10.1016/0168-9452(94)90092-2Search in Google Scholar

HAY, I., D. LACHANCE, P. VON ADERKAS and P. J. CHAREST (1994): Transient chimeric gene expression in pollen of five conifer species following microparticle bombardment. Can. J. For. Res. 24: 2417-2423.Search in Google Scholar

HÄGGMAN, H. M., T. S. ARONEN and T. O. NIKKANEN (1997): Gene transfer by particle bombardment of Norway spruce and Scots pine pollen. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 928-935.10.1139/x97-024Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

HÄGGMAN, H. and T. ARONEN (1998): Transgene expression in regenerating cotyledons and embryogenic cultures of Scots pine. J. Exp. Bot. 49: 1147-1156.Search in Google Scholar

HOEKEMA, A., P. R. HIRSCH, P. J. J. HOOYKAAS and R. A. SCHILPEROORT (1983): A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir- and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid. Nature 303: 179-180.10.1038/303179a0Search in Google Scholar

HOLLAND, L., J. E. GEMMELL, J. A. CHARITY and C. WALTER (1997): Foreign gene transfer into Pinus radiata cotyledons by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. New Zeal. J. For. Sci. 27: 289-304.Search in Google Scholar

HUANG, Y., A. M. DINER and D. F. KARNOSKY (1991): Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration of a conifer: Larix decidua. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 27: 201-207.10.1007/BF02632217Search in Google Scholar

HUANG, Y., D. D. STOKKE, A. M. DINER, W. M. BARNES and D. F. KARNOSKY (1993): Virulence of Agrobacterium on Larix decidua and their cellular interactions as depicted by scanning electron microscopy. J. Exp. Bot. 44: 1191-1201.10.1093/jxb/44.7.1191Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

HUANG, Y. and C. G. TAUER (1994): Integrative transformation of Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata Mill by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. For. Genet. 1: 23-31.Search in Google Scholar

HUMARA, J. M., M. LÓPEZ and R. J. ORDÁS (1998): Modifying transient β-glucuronidase expression in pine species using introns. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 52: 183-187.10.1023/A:1006036704801Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

HUMARA, J. M., M. LÓPEZ and R. J. ORDÁS (1999): Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of Pinus pinea L. cotyledons: an assessment of factors influencing the efficiency of uidA gene transfer. Plant Cell Rep. 19: 51-58.10.1007/s00299005070930754758Search in Google Scholar

HUMARA, J. M., M. LÓPEZ and R. J. ORDÁS (1999): Transient expression of the uidA gene in Pinus pinea cotyledons: A study of heterologous promoter sequences. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 56: 69-78.10.1023/A:1006250609262Search in Google Scholar

ISAAA (2005): ISAAA Briefs No. 34: Global status of Biotech Crops.Search in Google Scholar

KARNOSKY, D. F., D. I. SHIN and V. L. CHIANG (1994): Progress in production of transgenic trees with valueadded genes: Results with Larch and Aspen, pp 157-160 in Biological Sciences Symposium, TAPPI Proceedings.Search in Google Scholar

KLEIN, T. M., E. D. WOLF, R. WU and J. C. SANGORD (1987): High-velocity microprojectiles for delivering nucleic acids into living cells. Nature 327: 70-73.10.1038/327070a0Search in Google Scholar

KLIMASZEWSKA, K., Y. DEVANTIER, D. LACHANCE, M.-A. LELU and P. J. CHAREST (1997): Larix laricina (tamarack): somatic embryogenesis and genetic transformation. Can. J. For. Res. 27: 538-550.Search in Google Scholar

KLIMASZEWSKA, K., D. LACHANCE, G. PELLETIER, M.-A. LELU and A. SÉGUIN (2001): Regeneration of transgenic Picea glauca, P. mariana, and P. abies after cocultivation of embryogenic tissue with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 37(6): 748-755.Search in Google Scholar

KLIMASZEWSKA, K., D. LACHANCE, M. BERNIER-CARDOU and R. G. RUTHLEDGE (2003): Transgene integration patterns and expression levels in transgenic tissue lines of Picea mariana, P. glauca and P. abies. Plant Cell Rep. 21: 1080-1087.10.1007/s00299-003-0626-512836002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

KLIMASZEWSKA, K., R. G. RUTLEDGE and A. SÉGUIN (2005): Genetic transformation of conifers utilizing somatic embryogenesis. Methods Mol. Biol. 286: 151-163.Search in Google Scholar

LACROIX, B., T. TZFIRA, A. VAINSTEIN and V. CITOVSKY (2006): A case of promiscuity: Agrobacterium’s endless hunt for new partners. Trends Genet. 22(1): 29-77.10.1016/j.tig.2005.10.00416289425Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

LAMBARDI, M., D. LACHANCE, A. SÉGUIN and P. J. CHAREST (1998): Evaluation of microprojectile-mediated DNA delivery and reporter genes for genetic transformation of the Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.). Plant Cell Rep. 18: 198-202.10.1007/s00299005055630744220Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

LANG, C. (2004) Genetically modified trees - the ultimate threat to forests. World Rainforest Movement and Friends of the Earth. Download at: http://www.foei.org.Search in Google Scholar

LE, V. Q., J. BELLES-ISLES, M. DUSABENYAGASANI and F. M. TREMBLAY (2001): An improved procedure for production of white spruce (Picea glauca) transgenic plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Exp. Bot. 52: 2089-2095.10.1093/jexbot/52.364.208911604447Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

LEVÉE, V., M.-A. LELU, L. JOUANIN, D. CORNU and G. PILATE (1997): Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of hybrid larch (Larix kaempferi x L. decidua) and transgenic plant regeneration. Plant Cell Rep. 16: 680-685.10.1007/s00299005030130727618Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

LEVÉE, V., E. GARIN, K. KLIMASZEWSKA and A. SÉGUIN (1999): Stable genetic transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) after cocultivation of embryogenic tissues with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Breed. 5: 429-440.10.1023/A:1009683605841Search in Google Scholar

LI, Y.-H., F. M. TREMBLAY and A. SÉGUIN (1994): Transient transformation of pollen and embryogenic tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) resulting from microprojectile bombardment. Plant Cell Rep. 13: 661-665.10.1007/BF0023161924193515Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

LIDA, W., H. YIFAN and H. JIANJUN (2003): Transgenic forest trees for insect resistance, pp. 243-261. In: Molecular Genetics and Breeding of Forest Trees, edited by S. KUMAR and M. FLADUNG, The Haworth Press, Binghamton, USA. Search in Google Scholar

LOOPSTRA, C. A., A.-M. STOMP and R. R. SEDEROFF (1990): Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer in sugar pine. Plant Mol. Biol. 15: 1-9.10.1007/BF00017719Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

MAGNUSSEN, D., D. CLAPHAM, R. GRÖNROOS and S. von ARNOLD (1994): Induction of Hairy and Normal Roots on Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus cortorta by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Scandanavian Journal of Forest Research 9: 46-51.10.1080/02827589409382811Search in Google Scholar

MARTINUSSEN, I., O. JUNTTILA and D. TWELL (1994): Optimization of transient gene expression in pollen of Norway spruce (Picea abies) by particle acceleration. Physiol. Plantarum 92: 412-416.10.1111/j.1399-3054.1994.tb08829.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

MAZUR, B. J. and S. C. FALCO (1989): The development of herbicide resistant crops. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 40: 441-470.10.1146/annurev.pp.40.060189.002301Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

MIHAJLEVIC, S., S. STIPKOVIC and S. JELASKA (1996): Increase of root induction in Pinus nigra explants using Agrobacteria. Plant Cell Rep. 15: 610-614.10.1007/BF00232463Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

MOHRI, T., T. IGASAKI, T. SATO and K. SHINOHARA (2000): Expression of genes for β-glucuronidase and luciferase in three species of Japanese conifer (Pinus thunbergii, P. densiflora and Cryptomeria japonica) after transfer of DNA by microprojectile bombardment. Plant Biotechnol. 17: 49-54.10.5511/plantbiotechnology.17.49Search in Google Scholar

MOORE, P. (2004): Battle for biotech progress. The American Enterprise Online, available online: http://www.taemag.com/issues/articleid.17889/article_detail.aspSearch in Google Scholar

MORRIS, J. W., L. A. CASTLE and R. O. MORRIS (1989): Efficacy of different Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains in transformation of pinaceous gymnosperms. Physiol. Mol. Plant Path. 34: 451-461.10.1016/0885-5765(89)90071-4Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

MÖLLER, R., A. G. MCDONALD, C. WALTER and P. J. HARRIS (2003): Cell differentiation, secondary cell-wall formation and transformation of callus tissue of Pinus radiata D. Don. Planta 217: 736-747.10.1007/s00425-003-1053-012811558Search in Google Scholar

NIGRO, S. A., N. P. MAKUNGA, N. B. JONES and J. VAN STADEN (2004): A Biolistic approach towards producing transgenic Pinus patula embryonal suspensor masses. Plant Growth Regul. 44: 187-197.10.1007/s10725-004-4630-8Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

OWUSU, R. A. (1999). GM technology in the forest sector. A scoping study for the WWF. WWF-UK.Search in Google Scholar

PARASHARAMI, V. A., V. B. NAIK, S. VON ARNOLD, R. S. NADGAUDA and D. H. CLAPHAM (2006): Stable transformation of mature zygotic embryos and regeneration of transgenic plants of chir pine (Pinus roxbughii Sarg.). Plant Cell Rep. 24: 708-714.10.1007/s00299-005-0019-z16133348Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

REY, M., M. V. GONZÁLEZ, R. J. ORDÁS, R. TAVAZZA and G. ANCORA (1996): Factors affecting transient gene expression in cultured radiata pine cotyledons following bombardment. Physiol. Plantarum 96: 630-636.10.1111/j.1399-3054.1996.tb00236.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

ROBERTSON, D., A. K. WEISSINGER, R. ACKLEY, S. GLOVER and R. R. SEDEROFF (1992): Genetic transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) using somatic embryo explants by microprojectile bombardment. Plant Mol. Biol. 19: 925-935.10.1007/BF00040525Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

SALAJ, T., J. MORAVCIKOVA, L. GREC-NIQUET and J. SALAJ (2005): Stable transformation of embryogenic tissues of Pinus nigra Arn. using a biolistic method. Biotechnol. Lett. 27: 899-903.10.1007/s10529-005-7178-4Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

SALAJOVA, T., J. SALAJ and A. KORMUTAK (1999): Initiation of embryogenic tissues and plantlet regeneration from somatic embryos of Pinus nigra Arn. Plant Sci. 145: 33-40.10.1016/S0168-9452(99)00067-9Search in Google Scholar

SAUTTER, C., S. POLETTI, P. ZHANG and W. GRUISSEM (2006): Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava. Symposium on ‘Enhancing the nutritional value of plant foods’ 65: 153-159.10.1079/PNS200648816672076Search in Google Scholar

SEDEROFF, R., A.-M. STOMP, W. S. CHILTON and L. W. MOORE (1986): Gene transfer into loblolly pine by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bio/Technology 4: 647-649.Search in Google Scholar

SEDJO, R. (2001) Biotechnology’s potential contribution to global wood supply and forest conservation. Resources for the future, Washington D.C.Search in Google Scholar

SEDJO, R. (2004) Potential for biotechnology applications in plantation forestry, pp. 3-24. In: Plantation Forest Biotechnology for the 21st Century, edited by C. WALTER and M. CARSON, Kerala, India.Search in Google Scholar

SHARMA, H. C., K. K. SHARMA and J. H. CROUCH (2004): Genetic transformation of crops for insect resistance: Potential and limitations. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 23: 47-72.Search in Google Scholar

SHIN, D. I., G. K. PODILA, Y. HUANG and D. F. KARNOSKY (1994): Transgenic larch expressing genes for herbicide and insect resistance. Can. J. For. Res. 24: 2059-2067.Search in Google Scholar

STOMP, A. M., A. WEISSINGER and R. R. SEDEROFF (1991): Transient expression from micro-projectile-mediated DNA transfer in Pinus taeda. Plant Cell Rep. 10: 187-190.10.1007/BF0023429224221543Search in Google Scholar

STRAUSS, S. H., P. COVENTRY, M. M. CAMPBELL, S. N. PRYOR and J. BURLEY (2001): Certification of genetically modified forest plantations. Int. For. Rev. 3: 87-104.Search in Google Scholar

TANG, W., R. SEDEROFF and R. WHETTEN (2001): Regeneration of transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) from zygotic embryos transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Planta 213: 981-989.10.1007/s00425010056611722135Search in Google Scholar

TANG, W. (2001): Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and assessment of factors influencing transgene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Cell Res. 11: 237-243.10.1038/sj.cr.729009211642410Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

TANG, W. and V. SAMUELS (2002): Genetic transformation of Pinus taeda by particle bombardment. Journal of Forestry Research 13: 91-97.10.1007/BF02857228Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

TANG, W. (2003): Additional virulence genes and sonication enhance Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated loblolly pine transformation. Plant Cell Rep. 21: 555-562.10.1007/s00299-002-0550-012789430Search in Google Scholar

TANG, W. and Y. TIAN (2003): Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified deltaendotoxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 835-844.10.1093/jxb/erg07112554726Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

TANG, W., R. J. NEWTON and T. M. CHARLES (2005): High efficiency inducible gene expression systems based on activation of a chimeric transcription factor in transgenic pine. Plant Cell Rep. 24: 619-628.10.1007/s00299-005-0009-116133346Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

TAUTORUS, T. E., F. BEKKAOUI, M. PILON, R. S. S. DATLA, W. L. CROSBY, L. C. FOWKE and D. I. DUNSTAN (1989): Factors affecting transient gene expression in electroporated black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) protoplasts. Theor. Appl. Genet. 78: 531-536.10.1007/BF0029083824225681Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

TIAN, L., V. LEVÉE, R. MENTAG, P. J. CHAREST and A. SEGUIN (1999): Green fluorescent protein as a tool for monitoring transgene expression in forest tree species. Tree Physiol. 19: 541-546.10.1093/treephys/19.8.54112651545Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

TIAN, L.-N., P. J. CHAREST, A. SEGUIN and R. G. RUTLEDGE (2000): Hygromycin resistance is an effective selectable marker for biolistic transformation of black spruce (Picea mariana). Plant Cell Rep. 19: 358-362.10.1007/s00299005074030754787Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

TIAN, L. and A. SEGUIN (2004): Microprojectile particle effect on stable transformation of black spruce via bombardment. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep. 22: 199a-199f.10.1007/BF02772729Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

TRONTIN, J.-F., L. HARVENGT, E. GARIN, M. LOPEZ-BERNAZA, L. ARANCIA, J. HOEBEKE, F. CANLET and M. PÂQUES (2002): Towards genetic engineering of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Ann. For. Sci. 59: 687-697.Search in Google Scholar

TZFIRA, T., O. YARNITZKY, A. VAINSTEIN and A. ALTMAN (1996): Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated DNA transfer in Pinus halepensis Mill. Plant Cell Rep. 16: 26-31.10.1007/BF0127544324178648Search in Google Scholar

VICTOR, D. G. (2000) The great restoration: The potentials for forest protection to 2050. The great restoration project: http://greatrestoration.rockefeller.edu/Search in Google Scholar

WAGNER, A., J. MOODY, L. J. GRACE and C. WALTER (1997): Transformation of Pinus radiata based on selection with Hygromycin B. New Zeal. J. For. Sci. 27: 280-288.Search in Google Scholar

WAGNER, A., L. PHILLIPS, R. D. NARAYAN, J. M. MOODY and B. GEDDES (2005): Gene silencing studies in the gymnosperm species Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Rep. 24: 95-102.10.1007/s00299-004-0911-y15662500Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WALTER, C., D. R. SMITH, M. B. CONNETT, L. GRACE and D. W. R. WHITE (1994): A biolistic approach for the transfer and expression of a gusA reporter gene in embryogenic cultures of Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Rep. 14: 69-74.10.1007/BF0023376424192868Search in Google Scholar

WALTER, C., S. D. CARSON, M. I. MENZIES, T. RICHARDSON and M. CARSON (1998): Review: Application of biotechnology to forestry - Molecular biology of conifers. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 14: 321-330.10.1023/A:1008848824626Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WALTER, C., L. J. GRACE, A. WAGNER, A. R. WALDEN, D. W. R. WHITE, S. S. DONALDSON, H. HINTON, R. C. GARDNER and D. R. SMITH (1998b): Stable transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants of Pinus radiata D. Don. Plant Cell Rep. 17: 460-468.10.1007/s00299005042630736620Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

WALTER, C., L. J. GRACE, S. S. DONALDSON, J. MOODY, J. E. GEMMELL, S. VAN DER MAAS, H. KVAALEN and A. LÖNNEBORG (1999): An efficient biolistic transformation protocol for Picea abies (L) Karst embryogenic tissue and regeneration of transgenic plants. Can. J. For. Res. 29: 1539-1546.Search in Google Scholar

WALTER, C. (2004): Genetic engineering in conifer forestry: Technical and social considerations. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Bioliology-Plant 40: 434-441.10.1079/IVP2004542Search in Google Scholar

WALTER, C. and T. FENNING (2004): Deployment of genetically- engineered trees in plantation forestry - An issue of concern? The science and politics of genetically modified tree plantations, pp. 423-446. In: Plantation forest biotechnology for the 21st century, edited by, C. WALTER and M. CARSON, Kerala, India.Search in Google Scholar

WANG, W., B. VINOCUR and A. ALTMAN (2003): Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218: 1-14.10.1007/s00425-003-1105-514513379Search in Google Scholar

WENCK, A. R., M. QUINN, R. W. WHETTEN, G. PULLMANN and R. SEDEROFF (1999): High-efficiency Agrobacteriummediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Plant Mol. Biol. 39: 407-416.Search in Google Scholar

WILSON, S. M., T. A. THORPE, and M. M. MOLONEY (1989): PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca. Plant Cell Rep. 7: 704-707.10.1007/BF00272066Search in Google Scholar

YIBRAH, H. S., R. GRONROOS, A. LINDROTH, H. FRANZEN, D. CLAPHAM and S. VON ARNOLD (1996): Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated induction of adventitious rooting from Pinus contorta hypocotyls and the effect of 5-azacytidine on transgene activity. Transgenic Res. 5: 75-85.10.1007/BF01969425Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo