1. bookVolume 53 (2004): Issue 1-6 (December 2004)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2509-8934
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Genetic Structure and Variability of Natural Populations of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) in Morocco

Published Online: 27 Oct 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 53 (2004) - Issue 1-6 (December 2004)
Page range: 93 - 99
Received: 16 Dec 2003
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2509-8934
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The estimation of genetic diversity using molecular markers is a major component of genetic conservation programs. In its range, Maritime pine has been extensively studied using different molecular markers and quantitative traits. However, Moroccan populations have been usually represented only by a few typical locations in the Middle Atlas (e.g., Tamjout). To describe the genetic structure and variability of maritime pine in Morocco, eleven populations of this species comprising all major geographic regions (Rif, Middle Atlas and High Atlas) were studied using allozyme markers. A total of 471 samples were analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of eight enzyme systems encoded by 19 loci. Genetic variation was lower in Morocco than in other ranges of the species. However, genetic diversity was structured and a high differentiation among populations (θ = 10.44%) and a moderate correlation between genetic and geographic distances were found (0.350). Three main groups of populations can be distinguished based on genetic distances: (i) Mediterranean Coastal, (ii) Occidental Rif and Middle Atlas and (iii) High Atlas. The populations from Middle Atlas presented the lowest values of allelic richness and gene diversity whereas the populations from Rif showed a considerable amount of genetic variability. Human impact and isolation are major factors explaining population genetic structure of maritime pine in Morocco. Overexploitation of the forest by intensive cattle grazing and land speculation are suggested to be active mechanisms currently deploying the genetic resources of this species.

Keywords

BARADAT, P. and MARPEAU, A. (1988): Le Pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Biologie et génétique des terpènes pour la conaissance et l’amélioration de l’espèce. Université Bordeaux I, Bordeaux, France.Search in Google Scholar

BARBA, D., GONZÁLEZ-MARTÍNEZ, S. C., RIBEIRO, M. M., AGÚNDEZ, D., SALVADOR, L., ALÍA1, R. and GIL, L. (2001): Variación genética de Pinus pinaster Ait.: aplicación a la identificación y caracterización del material forestal de reproducción (MFR). Actas del III Congreso Forestal Español, Tomo V: 263-269.Search in Google Scholar

BARBÉRO, M., LOISEL, R., QUÉZEL, P., RICHARDSON, D. M. and ROMANE, F. (1998): Pines of the Mediterranean Basin. Pp. 153-170. In: RICHARDSON, D. M. (ed.). Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Search in Google Scholar

BEDHRI, M. M. (1992): La protection juridique de l’arbre dans le droit marocaine, Actes des Premières Journées de l’Arbre, Ed. Laboratoire d’Ecologie Végétale Fac. Sci. Semlalia Marrakech, pp. 11-13.Search in Google Scholar

BENABID, A. (1985): Les écosystèmes forestiers et pré forestiers du Maroc: diversité, répartition biogéographique et problèmes posés par leur aménagement. Forêt Méditerranéenne. VII: 53-67.Search in Google Scholar

BURBAN, C. and PETIT, R. J. (2003): Phylogeography of maritimepine inferred with organelle markers having contrasted inheritance. Molecular Ecology 12: 1487-1495.10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01817.x12755877Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

BOUDY P. (1951): Economie Forestière Nord-Africaine, description forestière du Maroc, tome troisième, Edit. F. Moncho, pp. 249.Search in Google Scholar

CARRIÓN, J. S., NAVARRO, C., NAVARRO, J. and MUNUERA, M. (2000): The distribution of cluster pine (Pinus pinaster) in Spain as derived from palaeoecological data: relationships with phytosociological classification. The Holocene 10: 243-252.10.1191/095968300676937462Search in Google Scholar

CAUVIN, B., MARIEN, J. N. and EL-YOUSFO, S. M. (1997): Protection, conservation et gestion des ressources génétiques forestiers au Maroc. Ann. Rech. For. Maroc. 178-195.Search in Google Scholar

CHELIAK, W. M. and PITEL, J. A. (1984): Techniques for starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes from forest tree species. Petawawa Nat. For. Inst., Can. For. Serv. Agric., Canada.Search in Google Scholar

CONKLE, M. T., HODGSKISS, P. D., NUNNALLY, L. B. and HUNTER, S. C. (1982): Starch gel electrophoresis of conifer seeds: a laboratory manual. USDA-Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW- 64, 18 pp.10.2737/PSW-GTR-64Search in Google Scholar

DESTREMAU, D. X., JOLLY, H. and THARI, T. (1976): Contribution à la connaissance des provenances de Pinus pinaster. Ann. Rech. For. Maroc. 16: 101-153.Search in Google Scholar

DUREL, C. E., BERTIN, P. and KREMER, A. (1996): Relationship between inbreeding depression and inbreeding coefficent in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 92: 347-356.10.1007/BF0022367824166256Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

EL-ALAMI, S. L., SBAY, H., PETIT, R. J. and OUASSON, A. (1997): Contribution à l’étude de la variabilité de six provenances marocaines de Pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Pp. 56-62. In: Actes du séminaire sur l’amélioration, la conservation et l’utilisation des ressources génétiques forestières marocaines. ENFI Salé, Maroc.Search in Google Scholar

FALLOUR, D., FADY, B. and LEFÈVRE, F. (1997): Study on isoenzyme variation in Pinus pinea L.: Evidence for low polymorphism. Silvae Genetica 46: 201-207.Search in Google Scholar

FAO (1993): Programme d’action forestier méditerranéen: Cadre de référence des plans d’action forestiers nationaux des pays méditerranéennes. Committee on Mediterranean Forestry Questions, Sylva Mediterranea, Rome, 81 pp.Search in Google Scholar

GONZÁLEZ-MARTÍNEZ, S. C., AGÚNDEZ, D., ALÍA, R., SALVADOR, L. and GIL, L. (2001): Geographical variation of gene diversity of Pinus pinaster Ait in the Iberian Peninsula. Pp. 161-171. In: SCHUBERT, R. and MÜLLER-STARCK, G. (eds.). Genetic response of forest systems to changing environmental conditions.10.1007/978-94-015-9839-2_14Search in Google Scholar

Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht.Search in Google Scholar

GONZÁLEZ-MARTÍNEZ, S. C., MARIETTE, S., RIBEIRO, M. M., BURBAN, C., RAFFIN, A., CHAMBEL, M. R., RIBEIRO, C. A. M., AGUIAR, A., PLOMION, C., ALÍA, R., GIL, L., VENDRAMIN, G. G. and KREMER, A. (2004): Genetic resources in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.): molecular and quantitative measures of genetic variation and differentiation among maternal lineages. Forest Ecology and Management (in press).10.1016/j.foreco.2004.05.008Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

GOTTLIEB, L. D. (1981): Electrophoresis evidence and plant populations. Prog. Phytochem. 7: 1-46.Search in Google Scholar

HAMRICK, J. L. and GODT, M. J. (1990): Allozyme diversity in plant species. Pp. 43-63. In: BROWN, A. H. D., CLEGG, M. T., KAHLER, A. L. and WEIR, B. S. (eds). Plant population genetics, breeding and genetic resources. Sinauer, Sunderland. Mass.Search in Google Scholar

HAMRICK, J. L., LINHART, Y. B. and MITTON, J. B. (1979): Relationship between life history characteristics and electrophoretically detectable genetic variation in plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10: 173-200.Search in Google Scholar

HAMRICK, J. L., GODT, M. J. and SHERMAN-BROYLES, S. L. (1992): Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. New Forests 6: 95-124.10.1007/BF00120641Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

HARFOUCHE, A., BARADAT, P. and KREMER, A. (1995): Variabilité intraspécifique chez le pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.) dans le sud-est de la France. I. Variabilité des populations autochtones et de l’ensemble de l’aire de l’espèce. Ann. Sci. For. 52: 307-328.10.1051/forest:19950402Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

HARFOUCHE, A., BAHRMAN, N., BARADAT, P., GUYON, J. P., PETIT, J. R. and KREMER, A. (2000): Provenance hybridization in a diallel mating scheme of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). II. Heterosis. Can. J. For. Res. 30: 10-16.Search in Google Scholar

HULME, M. (1999): Global Warming. Progress in Physical Geography 23: 303-311.10.1177/030913339902300208Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

HURLBERT, S. H. (1971): The non concept of species diversity: a critique and alternative parameters. Ecology 52: 577-586.10.2307/193414528973811Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

KEPHART, S. R. (1990): Starch gel electrophoresis of plant isozymes: a comparative analysis of techniques. Amer. J. Bot. 77: 693-712.10.1002/j.1537-2197.1990.tb14456.xSearch in Google Scholar

LAMY, S., BOUCHARD, A. and SIMON, J. P. (1999): Genetic structure, variability and mating system in eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) populations of recent origin in an agricultural landscape in southern Québec. Can. J. For. Res. 29: 1383-1392.Search in Google Scholar

LEDIG, F. T. and CONKLE, M. T. (1983): Gene diversity and genetic structure in a narrow endemic, Torrey pine. Evolution 37: 79-85.10.1111/j.1558-5646.1983.tb05515.x28568032Search in Google Scholar

LEWIS, P. O., ZAYKIN, D. (2001): Genetic Data Analysis: Computer Program for the Analysis of Allelic Data, Version 1.0 (d16c). Free program distributed by the authors over the internet from: http://lewis.eeb.uconn.edu/lewishome/software.html.Search in Google Scholar

LOVELESS, M. D. and HAMRICK, J. L. (1984): Ecological determinants of genetic structure in plant populations. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15: 65-95.Search in Google Scholar

M’HIRIT, O. (1999): Mediterranean forest: ecological space and economic and community wealth. Unasylva 197: 3-15.Search in Google Scholar

M’HIRIT, O. and MAGHNOUJ, M. (1994): Stratégie de conservation des ressources génétiques forestières au Maroc. Pp 123- 138 in: Les ressources phytogénétiques et développement durable. Actes Editions, Rabat, Maroc.Search in Google Scholar

M’HIRIT, O., SBAY, H., EL-ALAMI, S. L. and KERROUANI, H. (1997): Bilan de la recherche en matière de génétique forestière au Maroc. Pp. 1-29. In: Actes du séminaire sur l’amélioration, la conservation et l’utilisation des ressources génétiques forestières marocaines. ENFI Salé, Maroc.Search in Google Scholar

MÜLLER-STARCK, G., BARADAT, P. and BERGMANN, F. (1992): Genetic variation within European tree species. New Forest 6: 23-47.10.1007/BF00120638Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

NEI, M. (1973): Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 3321-3323.10.1073/pnas.70.12.33214272284519626Search in Google Scholar

NEI, M., MARUYAMA, T. and CHAKRABORTY, R. (1975): The bottleneck effect and genetic variability in populations. Evolution 29: 1-10.10.1111/j.1558-5646.1975.tb00807.x28563291Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

NEVO, E. (1978): Genetic variation in natural populations: patterns and theory. Theor. Pop. Biol. 13: 123-177. Search in Google Scholar

NGUYEN-QUEYRENS, A., DERRE, N., LAMANT, A. and SEILLAC, P. (1995): Tolérance au chlorure de sodium et sélectivité Na/K chez trois races géographiques de Pin maritime (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Ann. Sci. For. 52: 465-475.10.1051/forest:19950506Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

PETIT, R. J., BAHRMAN, N. and BARADAT, P. (1995): Comparison of genetic differentiation in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) estimated using isozyme, total protein and terpenic loci. Heredity 75: 382-389.10.1038/hdy.1995.150Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

PETIT, R. J., EL-MOUSADIK, A. and PONS, O. (1998): Identifying populations for conservation on the basis of genetic markers. Conservation Biology 12: 844-855.10.1046/j.1523-1739.1998.96489.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

RAFFIN, A. (1999): Pin maritime. Pp. 50-51. In: TESSIER DU CROSS, E. (ed.). Conserver les ressources génétiques forestières en France. MAP-BRG, Commission des Ressources Génétiques Forestières, INRA-DIC, Paris.Search in Google Scholar

RAYMOND, M. and ROUSSET, F. (1995): GENEPOP (version 1.2): Population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J. Hered. 86: 248-249.10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a111573Search in Google Scholar

RIBEIRO, M. M., PLOMION, C., PETIT, R. J., VENDRAMIN, G. G. and SZMIDT, A. C. (2001): Variation in chloroplast single-sequence repeats in Portuguese maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 102: 97-103.10.1007/s001220051623Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

ROGERS, D. L. and LEDIG, F. T. (eds.) (1996): The status of temperateNorth American Forest Genetic Resources. Report 16. University of California, Genetic Resources Conservation Program, Davis, California.Search in Google Scholar

ROTHE, G. M. (1994): Electrophoresis for enzymes: laboratorymethods. Springer Verlag, Bertin-Heidelberg, 307 pp. 10.1007/978-3-642-79069-0Search in Google Scholar

SALVADOR, L., ALÍA, R., AGÚNDEZ, D. and GIL, L. (2000): Genetic variation and migration pathways of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in the Iberian Peninsula. Theor. Appl. Genet. 100: 89-95.10.1007/s001220050013Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

SAVOLAINEN, O. (2000): Guidelines for gene conservation basedon population genetics. Pp. 100-109. In: KRISHNAPILLAY, B. et al. (eds.). Proceedings of the XXI IUFRO World Congress, Malaysian XXI IUFRO World Congress Organising Committee, Malaysia.Search in Google Scholar

SKOURI, M. (1994): Les dégradations du milieu et les mesures de protection. CR Acad. Agri. Fran. 80: 49-82.Search in Google Scholar

TOMASELLI, R. (1976): La dégradation du maquis méditerranéen. Pp. 34-75. In: Forêts et maquis méditerranéens: écologie, conservation et aménagements. Note Technique MAB 2. UNESCO, Paris.Search in Google Scholar

TREMBLAY, M. and SIMON, J. P. (1989): Genetic structure of populations of White spruce (Picea glauca) at its northern limit of distribution in nouveau-Québec. Can. J. For. Res. 19: 1371-1379.Search in Google Scholar

WEIR, B. S. (1990): Genetic Data Analysis. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA. YEH, F. C. and LAYTON, C. (1979): The organization of genetic variability in central and marginal population of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia). Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 21: 487-503.Search in Google Scholar

YEH, F. C., YANG, R.-C., BOYLE, T., YE, Z.-H. and MAO, J. X. (1997): POPGENE, the user-friendly shareware for population genetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Alberta, Canada.10.1023/A:1005764702510Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo