1. bookVolume 12 (2017): Issue 2 (December 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1857-8462
First Published
01 Jul 2005
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

THE LEGAL REASONING OF THE PRESIDENT’S RIGHT TO ISSUE PARDONS

Published Online: 11 May 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 12 (2017) - Issue 2 (December 2017)
Page range: 32 - 61
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1857-8462
First Published
01 Jul 2005
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Presidential pardon has always existed in criminal law and continues to constitute a very important competence of the head of state in many modern day countries. In the past, the clemency given by the sovereign (usually the king/queen or the emperor/empress) represented an act which showed his/her mercy upon their subjects. It was often used as a tool to show the arbitrary will of the sovereign that constituted the law, rather than the law itself. Therefore, the classical school of criminal law that appeared in the 18th century and emphasized the importance of the principle of legality, opposed harshly every kind of arbitrary deciding that excluded the law at the interest of the sovereign. This school is among the only interpretations of criminal law that engages for a complete abandonment of institutes such as pardon or amnesty. The revolutionary French Penal Code of 1791, which was strongly influenced by the classical school, excluded clemency for the proved wrongs that were severely punished. However, due to imperfections of the criminal justice system, amnesty (given by the parliament) and pardon or clemency (given by the head of the state), continue to exist and to be used in modern day criminal law. They are no longer considered acts of arbitrary decisions of the sovereign, instead they should represent important instruments of criminal law, used rarely and wisely with specifically designed goals that aim to bring justice rather than deny it. However, there are many cases when these institutes have been inappropriately used in a very arrogant way which shows that the ancient regime is not yet over for some countries in which the highest institutions continue to act as old and middle age despots. This article will analyze the legal reasoning of the institution of presidential pardon. It will try to establish why the classical school was so strictly opposed to this institute making use of the studies and interpretations found in the writings of Cesare Beccaria. It will explain the philosophy of modern day institutions of amnesty and pardon and the way in which they are regulated in the legal theory and practice. The article will explain the recent developments in Macedonia in regard to the use of presidential pardon. The methods to be used consist of desk research, historical and comparative methods and analysis of legal texts, laws and judicial decisions.

- Ancel, M. (1958). The collection of European penal codes and the study of comparative law. University of Pennsylvania Law Review , 106 (3), 329-384.10.2307/3310471Search in Google Scholar

- Arifi, B. (2016, June 9). Presidential Pardon Debunks Fragility of Macedonian State Institutions. Retrieved June 25, 2016, from Balkans in Europe Policy Blog: http://www.suedosteuropa.unigraz.at/biepag/node/220Search in Google Scholar

- Bargent, J. (2014, January 24). 'Narco-Pardons' Report Calls for Indictment of Ex-Peru President. Retrieved June 12, 2016, from InSight Crime - Investigation and Analyses of Organized Crime: http://www.insightcrime.org/news-briefs/narco-pardons-reports-callsfor-indictment-of-ex-peru-president-alan-garciaSearch in Google Scholar

- Beccaria, C. ((1784)1987). On Crimes and Punishments. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.Search in Google Scholar

- Cabinet annuls Morsi pardons. (2014, May 22). Retrieved June 11, 2016, from Mada Masr: http://www.madamasr.com/news/cabinetannuls-morsi-pardonsSearch in Google Scholar

- CODE PÉNAL Du 25 septembre - 6 octobre 1791 (Texte intégral original). Retrieved July 2, 2016, from Le Droit Criminel: http://ledroitcriminel.free.fr/la_legislation_criminelle/anciens_textes/code_penal_25_09_1791.htmSearch in Google Scholar

- Constitution of the Republic of Turkey. (1982). Retrieved July 2016, 20, from The Grand National Assembly of Turkey: https://global.tbmm.gov.tr/docs/constitution_en.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

- Elliott, C. (2011). France. In K. J. Heller, & M. D. Dubber, The Handbook of Comparative Criminal Law (pp. 209-251). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

- GRECO - Group of States Against Corruption. (2011, October 21). Evaluation Report on Liechtenstein, Adopted by GRECO at its 52nd Plenary Meeting in Strasbourg. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from Council of Europe: https://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/greco/evaluations/round2/GrecoEval1-2(2011)1Liechtenstein_EN.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

- Joyner, C. C. (1979). Rethinking the President's Power of Executive Pardons. Federal Probation, A Journal of Correctional Philosophy and Practice , 23 (1), 16-21.Search in Google Scholar

- Kurtovic Misic, A., Dragicevic Prtenjaca, M., & Strinic, V. (2012). Novosti kod instituta pomilovanja, pravnih posledica osude, rehabilitacije i davanja podatka iz kaznene evidencije. Hrvatski Ljetopis za Kazneno Pravo i Praksu , 19 (2), 701-750.Search in Google Scholar

- Langbein, J. H. (1976). The Historical Origins of the Sanction of Imprisonment for Serious Crime. The Jounral of Legal Studies, V (1), 35-60.10.1086/467543Search in Google Scholar

- Martin, S. E. (1983, October). Commutation of Prison Sentences: Practice, Promise and Limitation. Crime and Delinquency , 593-612.10.1177/001112878302900407Search in Google Scholar

- Monballyu, J. (2014). Six Centuries of Criminal Law - History of Criminal Law in the Southern Netherlands and Belgium (1400-2000). Lieden: Brill Nijhoff.10.1163/9789004273986Search in Google Scholar

- Vanuatu president revokes pardons passed by maverick speaker. (2015, October 16). Retrieved June 13, 2016, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/16/vanuatu-presidentrevokes-pardons-passed-by-maverick-speakerSearch in Google Scholar

- Von Bar, L. (1916). A history of continental criminal law. Boston: Little, Brown, and company.Search in Google Scholar

- Габер-Дамјановска, Н. (2016). Во одбрана на Уставот и цивилизациските вредности. Скопје: Македонски центар за меѓународна соработка.Search in Google Scholar

- Каневчев, М. (2015). Кривичен законик - актуелизиран итегрален текст. Скопје: Стоби Трејд - дооел.Search in Google Scholar

- Камбовски го Учи Иванов: Европската Конвенција е Посилна од Твојата Аболиција. (2016, April 18). Retrieved June 20, 2016, from Сакам Да Кажам: http://sdk.mk/index.php/makedonija/kambovski-gouchi-ivanov-evropskata-konventsija-e-posilna-od-tvojata-abolitsija/Search in Google Scholar

- Камбовски, В. (2004). Казнено право - општ дел. Скопје: Култура.Search in Google Scholar

- Калајџиев, Г., & Лажетиќ-Бужаровска, Г. (2011). Закон за кривичната постапка. Скопје: Академик.Search in Google Scholar

- Марјановиќ, Ѓ. (1998). Македонско кривично право. Скопје: Просветно дело.Search in Google Scholar

- Одлука У.Број: 19/2016-0-1. (2016, March 16). Скопје: Уставен Суд на РМ.Search in Google Scholar

- Одлука за помилување-ослободување од гонење, без спроведување на постапка. (2016, April 12). Скопје: Службен весник на РМ, бр.72.Search in Google Scholar

- Решение У.Број: 97/2011-0-0. (2012, February 29). Уставен суд на РМ.Search in Google Scholar

- Устав на Република Македонија, со амандманските измени. (1991). Скопје: Службен весник на РМ бр. 52/92.Search in Google Scholar

- Закон за јавно обвинителство за гонење на кривични дела поврзани и кои произлегуваат од содржината на незаконското следење на комуникациите. (2015, September 15). Службен Весник на РМ, бр.159.Search in Google Scholar

- Закон за изменување и дополнување на законот за помилување. (2009, January 28). Скопје: Службен весник на РМ, бр.12.Search in Google Scholar

- Закон за помилување. (1993, April 2). Скопје: Службен Весник на РМ бр.20/93.Search in Google Scholar

- Закон за дополнување на законот за помилување. (2016, May 20). Скопје: Службен весник на РМ бр.99.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo