The aim of the research was to find out an appropriate method of treatment of retention of fetal membranes (RFM) in cows for conditions of Latvia. Three protocols for the treatment of retained fetal membranes in dairy cows were evaluated in a field trial. Cows that retained the fetal membranes for more than 24 hours were assigned to three treatment groups. Group 1 – control group; group 2 – cows with RFM, which were removed manually, and cows were intrauterine treated with antibiotics; group 3 – cows with RFM, which were not removed, and cows were intrauterine treated with antibiotics, and group 4 – cows with RFM, which were not removed, and cows were not treated. In animals with a decreased feed consumption or milk production, body temperature above 39.5 °C, systemic therapy was applied with ceftiofur hydrochloride or procaine benzilpenicillin. In order to establish subclinical endometritis, all cows were histologically examined on the 42nd day postpartum (PP). Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed both in cows with RFM and control group cows. Results indicated that better reproductive results were in cows of group 2 and group 4. Actually, results indicated that treatment of RFM without intrauterine manipulation and parenteral treatment could be as effective as conventional treatment including RFM detachment and local antibiotic treatment.