1. bookVolume 33 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-134X
First Published
16 Apr 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Preparation, structure and optical properties of transparent conducting gallium-doped zinc oxide thin films

Published Online: 30 Aug 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 33 (2015) - Issue 3 (September 2015)
Page range: 470 - 481
Received: 27 Jun 2013
Accepted: 28 Mar 2015
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-134X
First Published
16 Apr 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) transparent thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF mag­netron sputtering. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), four-point probe and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The effect of growth temperature on the structure and optoelectrical properties of the films was investigated. The results demonstrate that high quality GZO films oriented with their crystal­lographic c-axis perpendicular to the substrates are obtained. The structure and optoelectrical properties of the films are highly dependent on the growth temperature. It is found that with increasing growth temperature, the average visible transmittance of the deposited films is enhanced and the residual stress in the thin films is obviously relaxed. The GZO films deposited at the growth temperature of 400°C, which have the largest grain size (74.3 nm), the lowest electrical resistivity (1.31×10-3 Ω·cm) and the maximum figure of merit (1.46×1O-2Ω-1), exhibit the best optoelectrical properties. Furthermore, the optical proper­ties of the deposited films were determined by the optical characterization methods and the optical energy-gaps were evaluated by extrapolation method. A blue shift of the optical energy gap is observed with an increase in the growth temperature.

Keywords

[1] WONG L.M., CHIAM S.Y., HUANG J.Q., WANG S.J., CHIM W.K., PAN J.S., Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., 95 (2011), 2400.10.1016/j.solmat.2011.04.013Search in Google Scholar

[2] CHEN S.B., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 33 (2014), 57.Search in Google Scholar

[3] PARK H.-K., KANG J.-W., NA S.-I., KIM D.-Y., KIM H.-K., Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. C., 93 (2009), 1994.Search in Google Scholar

[4] HU J., ZHOU Y., LIU H., MENG L., BAO M., SONG Z., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 29 (2010), 6.Search in Google Scholar

[5] LEE Y.-S., DAI Z.-M., LIN C.-I., LIN H.-C., Ceram. Int., 38 (2012), S595.10.1016/j.ceramint.2011.05.105Search in Google Scholar

[6] YAMAMOTO N., MAKINO H., OSONE S., UJIHARA A., ITO T., HOKARI H., MARUYAMA T., YAMAMOTO T., Thin Solid Films, 520 (2012), 4131.10.1016/j.tsf.2011.04.067Search in Google Scholar

[7] WAN L. SWENSEN G, J.S., POLIKARPOV E., MATSON D.W., BONHAM C.C., BENNETT W., GASPAR D.J., PADMAPERUMA A.B., Org. Electron., 11 (2010), 1555.10.1016/j.orgel.2010.06.018Search in Google Scholar

[8] HE X., XIONG L., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 30 (2011), 70.Search in Google Scholar

[9] GORRIE C.W., SIGDEL A.K., BERRY J.J., REESE B.J., VAN HEST M.F.A.M., HOLLOWAY P.H., GINLEY D.S., PERKINS J.D., Thin Solid Films, 519 (2010), 190.10.1016/j.tsf.2010.07.098Search in Google Scholar

[10] ZHONG Z., ZHOU J., YANG L., J. South-Cent. Univ.Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 30 (2011), 34.Search in Google Scholar

[11] KIM S., LEE W.I., LEE E.-H., HWANG S.K., LEE C., J. Mater. Sci., 42 (2007), 4845.10.1007/s10853-006-0738-8Search in Google Scholar

[12] BIE X., LU J.G., GONG L., LIN L., ZHAO B.H., YE Z.Z., Appl. Surf. Sci., 256 (2009), 289.10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.018Search in Google Scholar

[13] GOMEZ H., M. OLVERA DE LA L., Mater. Sci. Eng. BAdv., 134 (2006), 20.Search in Google Scholar

[14] SANS J.A., S´A NCHEZ-ROYO J.F., SEGUR A A., Superlattice. Microst., 43 (2008), 362.10.1016/j.spmi.2007.12.020Search in Google Scholar

[15] TSAY C.-Y., FAN K.-S., LEI C.-M., J. Alloy. Compd., 512 (2012), 216.10.1016/j.jallcom.2011.09.066Search in Google Scholar

[16] NAM T., LEE C.W., KIM H.J., KIM H., Appl. Surf. Sci., 295 (2014), 260.10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.01.027Search in Google Scholar

[17] YAMADA T., MIYAKE A., KISHIMOTO S., MAKINO H., YAMAMOTO N., YAMAMOTO T., Surf. Coat. Tech., 202 (2007), 973.10.1016/j.surfcoat.2007.05.051Search in Google Scholar

[18] ZHU D.L., WANG Q., HAN S., CAO P.J., LIU W.J., JIA F., ZENG Y.X., MA X.C., LU Y.M., Appl. Surf. Sci., 298 (2014), 208.10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.01.163Search in Google Scholar

[19] CHU C.Y., HUANG C.H., KAO L.M., CHOU C.P., HSU C.Y., CHEN C.W., CHEN D.Y., Superlattice. Microst., 49 (2011), 158.10.1016/j.spmi.2010.12.001Search in Google Scholar

[20] BIE X., LU J., WANG Y., GONG L., MA Q., YE Z., Appl. Surf. Sci., 257 (2011) 6125.10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.02.016Search in Google Scholar

[21] MALEK M.F., MAMAT M.H., MUSA M.Z., KHUSAIMI Z., SAHDAN M.Z., SURIANI A.B., ISHAK A., SAURDI I., RAHMAN S.A., RUSOP M., J. Alloy. Compd., 610 (2014), 575.10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.05.036Search in Google Scholar

[22] ZHONG Z., GU J., HE X., SUN F., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 28 (2009), 33.Search in Google Scholar

[23] CAO P.-J., DENG H.-F., LIU W.-J., JIA F., ZHU D.- L., MA X.-C., LV Y.-M., Chin. J. Lumin., 33 (2012), 318.10.3788/fgxb20123303.0318Search in Google Scholar

[24] KWAK D.-J., PARK K.-I., KIM B.-S., LEE S.-H., LEE S.-J., LIM D.-G., J. Korean Phys. Soc., 45 (2004), 206.Search in Google Scholar

[25] ZHANG Z., BAO C., YAO W., MA S., ZHANG L., HOU S., Superlattice. Microst., 49 (2011), 644.10.1016/j.spmi.2011.04.002Search in Google Scholar

[26] SATHYAMOORTHY R., SHARMILA C., NATARAJAN K., VELUMANI S., Mater. Charact., 58 (2007), 745.10.1016/j.matchar.2006.11.015Search in Google Scholar

[27] CHEN D.H., LI Q.X., HUANG J.P., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 29 (2010), 14.Search in Google Scholar

[28] THANIKAIKARASAN S., MAHALINGAM T., J. Alloy. Compd., 511 (2012), 115.10.1016/j.jallcom.2011.09.003Search in Google Scholar

[29] FANG G.J., LI D.J., YAO B.L., Phys. Status Solidi A, 193 (2002), 139.10.1002/1521-396X(200209)193:1<139::AID-PSSA139>3.0.CO;2-DSearch in Google Scholar

[30] CHEN S., WEI S., HE X., SUN F., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 31 (2012), 66.Search in Google Scholar

[31] CULLITY B.D., Elements of X-ray Diffraction, 2nd Ed., Addison-Wesley, Boston, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

[32] CHEN S.B., SUN F.L., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 32 (2013), 59.Search in Google Scholar

[33] CEBULLA R., WENDT R., ELLMER K., J. Appl. Phys., 83 (1998), 1087.10.1063/1.366798Search in Google Scholar

[34] ZHONG Z., GU J., HE X., SUN F., CHEN S., J. South- Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 30 (2011), 64.Search in Google Scholar

[35] LIU J., XIA C., HE X., ZHOU G., XU J., J. Cryst. Growth, 267 (2004), 161.10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.03.043Search in Google Scholar

[36] RUSU G.G., RAMBU A.P., BUTA V.E., DOBROMIR M., LUCA D., RUSU M., Mater. Chem. Phys., 123 (2010), 314.10.1016/j.matchemphys.2010.04.022Search in Google Scholar

[37] KUMAR R., KHARE N., KUMAR V., BHALLA G.L., Appl. Surf. Sci., 254 (2008), 6511.10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.04.012Search in Google Scholar

[38] SO S.K., CHOI W.K., CHENG C.H., LEUNG L.M., KWONG C.F., Appl. Phys. A-Mater., 68 (1999), 447.10.1007/s003390050921Search in Google Scholar

[39] LI L., FANG L., ZHOU X.J., LIU Z.Y., ZHAO L., JIANG S., J. Electron Spectrosc., 173 (2009), 7.10.1016/j.elspec.2009.03.001Search in Google Scholar

[40] CHEN S.B, WEI S.L., HE X, SUN F.L., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 28 (2009), 43.Search in Google Scholar

[41] YEN W.T., LIN Y.C., YAO P.C., KE J.H., CHEN Y.L., Thin Solid Films, 518 (2010), 3882.10.1016/j.tsf.2009.10.149Search in Google Scholar

[42] YANG W., LIU Z., PENG D.-L., ZHANG F., HUANG Y., XIE H., WU Z., Appl. Surf. Sci., 255 (2009), 5669.10.1016/j.apsusc.2008.12.021Search in Google Scholar

[43] YOU Z.Z, HUA G.J., Vacuum, 83 (2009), 984.10.1016/j.vacuum.2008.11.010Search in Google Scholar

[44] ZHONG Z.Y., ZHANG T., Mater. Lett., 96 (2013), 237.10.1016/j.matlet.2013.01.025Search in Google Scholar

[45] SUN F., HUI S., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 28 (2009), 10.Search in Google Scholar

[46] MULATO M., CHAMBOULEYRON I., BIRGIN E.G., MART´INEZ J.M., Appl. Phys. Lett., 77 (2000), 2133.10.1063/1.1314299Search in Google Scholar

[47] WANG M.-D., ZHU D.-Y., LIU Y., ZHANG L., ZHENG C.-X., HE Z.-H., CHEN D.-H., WEN L.-S., Chin. Phys. Lett., 25 (2008), 743.Search in Google Scholar

[48] HWANG Y.H., KIM H.M., UM Y.H., PARK H.Y., Mater. Res. Bull., 47 (2012), 2898.10.1016/j.materresbull.2012.04.111Search in Google Scholar

[49] AKSOY S., CAGLAR Y., ILICAN S., CAGLAR M., J. Alloy. Compd., 512 (2012), 171.10.1016/j.jallcom.2011.09.058Search in Google Scholar

[50] ZHONG Z., LAN C., WANG H., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 33 (2014), 51.Search in Google Scholar

[51] EL-SAYED S.M., Vacuum, 72 (2004), 169.10.1016/S0042-207X(03)00139-8Search in Google Scholar

[52] WEMPLE S.H., DIDOMENICO, JR, M., Phys. Rev. B, 3 (1971), 1338.10.1103/PhysRevB.3.1338Search in Google Scholar

[53] SINGH P., KAUSHAL A., KAUR D., J. Alloy. Compd., 471 (2009), 11.10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.03.123Search in Google Scholar

[54] SARAVANAN S., ANANTHARAMAN M.R., VENKATACHALAM S., AVASTHI D.K., Vacuum, 82 (2008), 56.10.1016/j.vacuum.2007.03.008Search in Google Scholar

[55] GU J., ZHONG Z., HE X., SUN F., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 28 (2009), 30.Search in Google Scholar

[56] CHANG J.F., HON M.H., Thin Solid Films, 386 (2001), 79.10.1016/S0040-6090(00)01891-5Search in Google Scholar

[57] GUPTA R.K., GHOSH K., PATEL R., MISHRA S.R., KAHOL P.K., J. Cryst. Growth, 210 (2008), 3019.10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.03.004Search in Google Scholar

[58] MA Q.-B., YE Z.-Z., HE H.-P., ZHU L.-P., ZHAO B.- H., Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc., 10 (2007), 167.10.1016/j.mssp.2007.11.001Search in Google Scholar

[59] LV M., XIU X., PANG Z., DAI Y., HAN S., Appl. Surf. Sci., 252 (2005), 2006.10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.02.131Search in Google Scholar

[60] KIM D.-K., KIM H.-B., J. Alloy. Compd., 522 (2012), 69.10.1016/j.jallcom.2012.01.078Search in Google Scholar

[61] HAACKE G., J. Appl. Phys., 47 (1976), 4086.10.1063/1.323240Search in Google Scholar

[62] ZHONG Z., ZHANG T., WANG H., J. South-Cent. Univ. Nationlities (Nat. Sci. Ed.), 32 (2013), 58.Search in Google Scholar

[63] GONTIJO L.C., MACHADO R., NASCIMENTO V.P., Mater. Sci. Eng. B-Adv., 177 (2012) 780.10.1016/j.mseb.2012.02.021Search in Google Scholar

[64] KIM C.E., MOON P., YUN I., KIM S., MYOUNG J.- M., JANG H. W., BANG J., Expert Syst. Appl., 38 (2011) 2823.10.1016/j.eswa.2010.08.074Search in Google Scholar

[65] ZHANG B., DONG X., XU X., WANG X., WU J., Mat. Sci. Semicon. Proc., 10 (2007) 264.10.1016/j.mssp.2008.03.003Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo