1. bookVolume 7 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-831X
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Tourism Product as a Tool Shaping Cross-cultural Approach in Marketing

Published Online: 29 Jan 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 7 (2015) - Issue 2 (June 2015)
Page range: 125 - 134
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-831X
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

One of the earlier definitions of cross-cultural management focuses on its behavioral aspects and underlines an importance of interaction of people from different cultures. “Cross-cultural management is the study of the behavior of people in organizations located in cultures and nations around the world” [Adler 1983, p. 226]. This definition is based on the description of organizational behavior within countries and cultures on one hand and of organizational behavior across countries and cultures on another. Peoples from different countries often work together in the same environment creating specific interactions but they can also built special relationships during their leisure time.

Looking at the particular subject of management from this perspective it is possible to notice that tourism products have quite big potential for creating cross-cultural interactions when services are produced in different cultures or/and consumed in different cultural context. It is mainly connected with a simultaneous production and consumption on the one hand and consumer’s participation in both processes on the other hand. Tourism products posses an additional feature which creates a cross-cultural dimension in both production and consumption: movement (traveling) between different cultural environments which is a source of different cultural experiences; they have to be recognized a priori to be placed on the market with the tourism product. On the other hand tourism services have to be produced according to identified consumer expectations in different cultures.

The aim of the study is to present selected aspects of tourism products which can create cross-cultural interactions and require a special managerial marketing approach. This article discusses an impact of cultural diversity on organizational behavior in international tourism and on consumer behavior in cultural tourism with a special focus on cross-cultural interactions in consumption of tourism products. This is connected with the fact that tourism products are produced and consumed by tourists in different cultures; this relationship can create specific interactions of many types.

The main research method applied is a literature review on cultural tourism and marketing.

Keywords

Adler N.J. (1983), Cross-cultural Management Research: The Ostrich and the Trend, “Academy of Management Review”, Vol. 8 (2), pp. 226–232.Search in Google Scholar

Bailey Ch. (2000), Audiences, Artists and the Cultural Economy: Reflecting on the Experience of Visual Arts UK, “Cultural Policy”, Vol. 7(1), pp. 171–196.Search in Google Scholar

Beirne M., Knight S. (2002), Principles and Consistent Management in the Arts: Lessons from British Theatre, “International Journal of Cultural Policy”, Vol. 8(1), pp.75–89.Search in Google Scholar

Boorsma M. (2002), Arts Marketing and the Societal Functioning of the Arts: The Case of the Subsidised Dramatic Arts in the Netherlands, “International Journal of Cultural Policy”, Vol. 8(1), pp. 65–74.Search in Google Scholar

Gnoth J., Zins A., Lengmueller R., Boshoff C. (2000), The Relationships Between Emotions, Mood and Motivations to Travel: Towards a Cross-Cultural Measurement of Flow [in:] Woodside A.G., Crouch G.I., Mazanec J.A., Oppermann M., Sakai M.Y. (eds), Consumer Psychology of Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure, CABI Publishing. Wallingford, pp. 155–175.Search in Google Scholar

Marciszewska B. (2000), Turystyka kulturowa a rozwój społeczno-gospodarczy, Teoria Ekonomii. Zeszyty Naukowe UG.Search in Google Scholar

Marciszewska B. (2001), Consumption of Cultural Tourism in Poland [in:] G. Richards (ed.), Cultural Attractions and European Tourism, CABI Publishing. Wallingford, Oxon, pp. 215–226.10.1079/9780851994406.0215Search in Google Scholar

Marciszewska B. (2004), Kreowanie wiedzy warunkiem racjonalnego wykorzystania potencjału turystycznego Pomorza [in:] B. Marciszewska, S. Miecznikowski (eds.), Usługi a rozwój gospodarczo-społeczny, Gdansk: GTN-AWFiS, pp. 24–31.Search in Google Scholar

Marciszewska B. (2006), Współpraca sektora turystycznego i instytucji kultury a rozwój regionu [in:] Rola turystyki w strategii i polityce rozwoju gospodarki regionalnej, Zbiór materiałów konferencyjnych, Gdansk, 14–15 września WSTiH, pp. 517–522.Search in Google Scholar

Marciszewska B., Marciszewski K. (2012), Promoting tourism products via 3D graphic arts. In: New challenges for tourism promotion: tackling high competition and multimedia changes /ed. by Peter Keller, Christian Laesser–Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verl., pp. 51–68.Search in Google Scholar

Mazurek-Łopacińska K. (ed.) (1999), Problemy zarządzania sfera kultury i turystyki, Warszawa-Wrocław, Wyd. AE.Search in Google Scholar

Moscardo J. (2000), Cultural and Heritage Tourism: The great debates [in:] Faulkner B., Moscardo G., Laws E. (eds), Tourism in the 21st century. Lessons from experience, London & New York. Continuum, pp. 3–17.Search in Google Scholar

Mulvaney R.H., O’Neil J.W., Cleveland J.N., Crouter A.C. (2007), A Model of Work-Family Dynamics of Hotel Managers, “Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 34 (1), pp. 66.Search in Google Scholar

Pine B.J., Gilmore J.H. (1999), The Experience Economy, Boston, Harvard Business School Press.Search in Google Scholar

Richards G. (2001), The Experience Industry and the Creation of Attractions [in:] G. Richards (ed.), Cultural Attractions and European Tourism, CABI Publishing. Wallingford, Oxon, pp. 55–69.10.1079/9780851994406.0055Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo