1. bookVolume 10 (2017): Issue 2 (July 2017)
Journal Details
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Endophytic fungi residing in medicinal plants have the ability to produce the same or similar pharmacologically active secondary metabolites as their hosts

Published Online: 18 Jul 2017
Page range: 51 - 66
Received: 07 Jun 2017
Accepted: 29 Jun 2017
Journal Details
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years in folk medicines and still are used for their health benefits. In our days medicinal plants are exploited for the isolation of plant-derived drugs as they are very effective and have relatively less or no side effects. However, the natural resources of medicinal plants are gradually exhausted and access to plant bioactive compounds is challenged by the low levels at which these products accumulate in native medicinal plants. For instance, to meet the market demands of 3 Kg per year of vinca alkaloids, powerful plant-derived anticancer drugs, 1.5×106 Kg dry leaves are required. In this regard, this review aims to highlight the fact that endophytic fungi residing in medicinal plants are capable to biosynthesize pharmacologically active secondary metabolites similar or identical to those produced by their host medicinal plant. Furthermore, the evolutionary origin of the genes involved in these metabolic pathways as well as the approaches designed to enhance the production of these metabolites by the isolated endophytic fungi are also discussed.


Atanasov, A.G., Waltenberger, B., Pferschy-Wenzig, E.M., Linder, T., Wawrosch, C., Uhrin, P., Temml, V., Wang, L., Schwaiger, S, Heiss, E.H., Rollinger, J.M., Schuster, D., Breuss, J.M., Bochkov, V., Mihovilovic, M.D., Kopp, B., Bauer, R, Dirsch, V.M. and Rollinger, J. M. 2015. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review. Biotechnology advances, 33: 1582-1614.Search in Google Scholar

Bhalkar, B.N., Patil, S. M. and Govindwar, S.P. 2016. Camptothecine production by mixed fermentation of two endophytic fungi from Nothapodytes nimmoniana. Fungal Biology, 120: 873-883.Search in Google Scholar

Bomke, C. and Tudzynski, B. 2009. Diversity, regulation, and evolution of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway in fungi compared to plants and bacteria. Phytochemistry, 70: 1876-1893.Search in Google Scholar

Butelman, E.R. and Kreek, M.J. 2015. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist hallucinogen: pharmacology and potential template for novel pharmacotherapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 6: 285.Search in Google Scholar

Carrier, D.J., van Beek, T.A., van der Heijden, R., and Veroorte, R. 1998. Distribution of ginkgolides and terpenoids biosynthetic activity in Ginkgo biloba. Phytochemistry, 48: 89-92.Search in Google Scholar

Chen, S.L., Yu, H., Luo, H.M., Wu, Q., Li, C.F. and Steinmetz, A. 2016. Conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants: problems, progress, and prospects. Chinese Medicine, 11: 37.Search in Google Scholar

Chiang, H.M., Chen, H.C., Wu, C.S., Wu, P.Y. and Wen, K.C. 2015. Rhodiola plants: chemistry and biological activity. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 23: 359-369.Search in Google Scholar

Chithra, S., Jasim, B., Anisha, C., Mathew, J. and Radhakrishnan, E.K. 2014. LC-MS/MS based nidentifi cation of piperine production by endophytic Mycosphaerella sp. PF13 from Piper nigrum. Applied Biochemistry Biotechnology, 173: 30-35.Search in Google Scholar

Chun-Yan, S.U., Qian-Liang, M.I.N.G., Rahman, K., Ting, H.A.N., and Lu-Ping, Q.I.N. 2015. Salvia miltiorrhiza: Traditional medicinal uses, chemistry, and pharmacology. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 13: 163-182.Search in Google Scholar

Cui, J., Guo, T., Chao, J., Wang, M. and Wang, J. 2016. Potential of the endophytic fungus Phialocephala fortinii Rac56 found in Rhodiola plants to produce salidroside and p-tyrosol. Molecules, 21: 502.Search in Google Scholar

Cui, J.L., Guo, T.T., Ren, Z.X., Zhang, N.S. and Wang, M.L. 2015. Diversity and antioxidant activity of culturable endophytic fungi from alpine plants of Rhodiola crenulata, R. angusta, and R. sachalinensis. PloS one, 10: e0118204.Search in Google Scholar

Cui, Y., Yi, D., Bai, X., Sun, B., Zhao, Y. and Zhang, Y. 2012. Ginkgolide B produced endophytic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum) isolated from Ginkgo biloba. Fitoterapia, 83: 913-920.Search in Google Scholar

Cutignano, A., Villani, G. and Fontana, A. 2012. One metabolite, two pathways: convergence of polypropionate biosynthesis in fungi and marine molluscs. Organic letters, 14: 992-995.Search in Google Scholar

Devari, S., Jaglan, S., Kumar, M., Deshidi, R., Guru, S., Bhushan, S. and Taneja, S.C. 2014. Capsaicin production by Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus from Capsicum annum; LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Phytochemistry, 98: 183-189.Search in Google Scholar

Dziggel, C., Schafer, H., and Wink, M. 2017. Tools of pathway reconstruction and production of economically relevant plant secondary metabolites in recombinant microorganisms. Biotechnology Journal, 2:1666145.Search in Google Scholar

El-Elimat, T., Raja, H.A., Graf, T.N. Faeth, S.H., Cech, N.B. and Oberlies, N.H. 2014. Flavonolignans from Aspergillus iizukae, a fungal endophyte of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Journal of Natural Products, 77: 193-199.Search in Google Scholar

El-Hawary, S.S., Mohammed, R., AbouZid, S.F., Bakeer, W., Ebel, R., Sayed, A.M., and Rateb, M.E. 2016. Solamargine production by a fungal endophyte of Solanum nigrum. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 1201: 143-50.Search in Google Scholar

El-Sayed, A.S., Abdel-Ghany, S.E. and Ali, G.S. 2017. Genome editing approaches: manipulating of lovastatin and taxol synthesis of fi lamentous fungi by CRISPR/Cas9 system. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 101: 3953-3976.Search in Google Scholar

Feher, J. and Lengyel, G. 2012. Silymarin in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 13: 210-217.Search in Google Scholar

Gokhale, M.S., Gupta,D., Gupta, U., Fara, R. and Sandhu, S.S. 2017. Patents on Endophytic Fungi. Recent Patents on Biotechology, doi: 10.2174/18722 08311666170215151834Search in Google Scholar

Gorgani, L., Mohammadi, M., Najafpour, G.D. and Nikzad, M. 2017. Piperine-The bioactive compound of black pepper: from isolation to medicinal formulations. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16: 124-140.Search in Google Scholar

Gu, Y.H. and Wu, Q.Q. 2005. HPLC method for the determination of huperzine A in Huperzia serrata. China Pharmacology Bulletin, 21: 1017-1018Search in Google Scholar

Hamayun, M., Hussain, A., Khan, S.A., Kim, H.Y., Khan, A.L., Waqas, M., Irshad M., Iqbal A., Rehman G., Jan, S. and Lee, I.J. 2017. Gibberellins producing endophytic fungus Porostereum spadiceum AGH786 rescues growth of salt aff ected soybean. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8.Search in Google Scholar

Hu, X., Li, W., Yuan, M., Li, C., Liu, S., Jiang, C., Wu, Y., Cai, K. and Liu, Y. 2016. Homoharringtonine production by endophytic fungus isolated from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 32: 1-9.Search in Google Scholar

Jain, R., Sharma, A., Gupta, S., Sarethy, I.P. and Gabrani, R. 2011. Solanum nigrum: current perspectives on therapeutic properties. Alternative Medicine Review, 16: 78-85.Search in Google Scholar

Jensen, N.B., Zagrobelny, M., Hjerno, K., Olsen, C.E., Houghton-Larsen, J., Borch, J., Moller B.L. and Bak, S. 2011. Convergent evolution in biosynthesis of cyanogenic defence compounds in plants and insects. Nature Communications, 2: 273.Search in Google Scholar

Kantas, D., Papatsiros, V.G., Tassis, P.D., Athanasiou, L.V. and Tzika, E.D. 2015. The eff ect of a natural feed additive (Macleaya cordata), containing sanguinarine, on the performance and health status of weaning pigs. Animal Science Journal, 86: 92-98.Search in Google Scholar

Kaufman, T.S. and Ruveda, E.A. 2005. The quest for quinine: those who won the battles and those who won the war. Angewandte Chemie, 44: 854-885.Search in Google Scholar

Kaul, S., Ahmed, M., Zargar, K., Sharma, P. and Dhar, M.K. 2013. Prospecting endophytic fungal assemblage of Digitalis lanata Ehrh.(foxglove) as a novel source of digoxin: a cardiac glycoside.3 Biotech, 3: 335-340.Search in Google Scholar

Kavitha, C., Rajamani, K. and Vadivel, E. 2010. Coleus forskohlii -A comprehensive review on morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4: 278-285.Search in Google Scholar

Kiewert, C., Kumar, V., Hildmann, O., Hartmann, J., Hillert, M. and Klein, J. 2008. Role of glycine receptors and glycine release for the neuroprotective activity of bilobalide. Brain Research, 27: 143-150.Search in Google Scholar

Kharwar, R.N., Verma, V.C., Strobel, G. and Ezra, D. 2008. The endophytic fungal complex of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Current Science, 95: 228-233.Search in Google Scholar

Krings, M., Taylor, T.N., Hass, H., Kerp, H., Dotzler, N. and Hermsen, E.J. 2007. Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses. New Phytology, 174: 648-657.Search in Google Scholar

Kumar, A., Patil, D., Rajamohanan, P.R. and Ahmad, A. 2013. Isolation, purifi cation and characterization of vinblastine and vincristine from endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum isolated from Catharanthus roseus. PloS one, 8: e71805.Search in Google Scholar

Kumara, P.M., Soujanya, K.N., Ravikanth, G., Vasudeva, R., Ganeshaiah, K.N. and Shaanker, R.U. 2014. Rohitukine, a chromone alkaloid and a precursor of fl avopiridol, is produced by endophytic fungi isolated from Dysoxylum binectariferum Hook.f and Amoora rohituka (Roxb). Phytomedicine, 21:541-546 Search in Google Scholar

Kuriakose, G.C., Palem, P.P. and Jayabaskaran, C. 2016. Fungal vincristine from Eutypella spp- CrP14 isolated from Catharanthus roseus induces apoptosis in human squamous carcinoma cell line-A431. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16: 302.Search in Google Scholar

Kusari, S., Zuelke, S. and Spiteller, M. 2011. Eff ect of artifi cial reconstitution of the interaction between the plant Camptotheca acuminate and the fungal endophyte Fusarium solani on camptothecin biosynthesis. Journal of Natural Products, 74: 764-775.Search in Google Scholar

Kusari, S., Hertweck, C. and Spiteller, M. 2012. Chemical ecology of endophytic fungi: origins of secondary metabolites. Chemistry and Biology, 19: 792-798.Search in Google Scholar

Kusari, S., Singh, S. and Jayabaskaran, C. 2014. Rethinking production of Taxol (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology. Trends in Biotechnology, 32: 304-311.Search in Google Scholar

Li, X., Zhai, X., Shu, Z., Dong, R., Ming, Q., Qin, L., and Zheng, C. 2016. Phoma glomerata D14: An Endophytic Fungus from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Current Microbiology, 73: 31-37.Search in Google Scholar

Liang, L., Luo, M., Fu, Y., Zu, Y., Wang, W., Gu, C., Zhao, C., Li, C. and Eff erth, T. 2013. Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) exerts cytoprotective eff ects against oxidative stress through the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant pathway. Toxicology Letters, 219: 254-261.Search in Google Scholar

Lu, X., Chen, G., Hua, H., Dai, H., Mei, W., Xu, Y. and Pei, Y. 2012. Aromatic compounds from endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. L10 of Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li. Fitoterapia, 83, 737-741.Search in Google Scholar

Luo, M., Liu, X., Zu, Y., Fu, Y., Zhang, S., Yao, L. and Efferth, T. 2010. Cajanol, a novel anticancer agent from Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] roots, induces apoptosis in human breast can cer cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway. Chemico-biological Interactions, 188: 151-160.Search in Google Scholar

Maehara, S., Simanjuntak, P., Maetani, Y., Kitamura, C., Ohashi, K. and Shibuya, H. 2013. Ability of endophytic fi lamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana to produce Cinchona alkaloids. Journal of Natural Medicines, 67: 421-423.Search in Google Scholar

Maehara, S., Simanjuntak, P., Kitamura, C., Ohashi, K. and Shibuya, H. 2011. Cinchona alkaloids are also produced by an endophytic fi lamentous fungus living in Cinchona plant. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 59: 1073-1074.Search in Google Scholar

Magotra, A., Kumar, M., Kushwaha, M., Awasthi, P., Raina, C., Gupta, A. P. Shah,B.A, Gandhi SG and Chaubey, A. 2017. Epigenetic modifi er induced enhancement of fumiquinazoline C production in Aspergillus fumigatus (GA-L7): an endophytic fungus from Grewia asiatica L. AMB Express, 7: 43.Search in Google Scholar

Malik, S., Cusido, R.M., Mirjalili, M.H., Moyano, E., Palazon, J. and Bonfi ll, M. 2011. Production of the anticancer drug taxol in Taxus baccata suspension cultures: A review. Process Biochemistry, 46: 23-34.Search in Google Scholar

Manda, V.K., Avula, B., Dale, O.R., Chittiboyina, A.G., Khan, I.A., Walker, L.A. and Khan, S.I. 2015. Studies on pharmacokinetic drug interaction potential of vinpocetine. Medicines, 2: 93-105.Search in Google Scholar

Ming, Q., Han, T., Li, W., Zhang, Q., Zhang, H., Zheng, C., and Qin, L. 2012. Tanshinone IIA and tanshinone I production by Trichoderma atroviride D16, an endophytic fungus in Salvia miltiorrhiza. Phytomedicine, 19: 330-333.Search in Google Scholar

Mir, R.A., Kaushik, S.P., Chowdery, R.A, and Anuradha, M. 2015. Elicitation of Forskolin in Cultures of Rhizactonia bataticola - A Phytochemical Synthesizing Endophytic Fungi. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7: 10.Search in Google Scholar

Mousa, W.K., Shearer, C., Limay-Rios, V., Ettinger, C.L., Eisen, J.A. and Raizada, M.N. 2016. Roothair endophyte stacking in fi nger millet creates a physicochemical barrier to trap the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Nature Microbiology, 1: 16167.Search in Google Scholar

Na, R., Jiajia, L., Dongliang, Y., Yingzi, P., Juan, H., Xiong, L., Nana, Z., Jing, Z. and Yitian, L. 2016. Indentifi cation of vincamine indole alkaloids producing endophytic fungi isolated from Nerium indicum, Apocynaceae. Microbiological Research, 192: 114-121.Search in Google Scholar

Pan, F., Hou, K., Gao, F., Hu, B., Chen, Q., and Wu, W. 2014. Peimisine and peiminine production by endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabensis. Phytomedicine, 21: 1104-1109.Search in Google Scholar

Pan, F., Su, X., Hu, B., Yang, N., Chen, Q. and Wu, W. 2015. Fusarium redolens 6WBY3, an endophytic fungus isolated from Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis, produces peimisine and imperialine- 3β-d-glucoside. Fitoterapia, 103: 213-221.Search in Google Scholar

Pan, F., Su, T.J., Cai, S.M. and Wu, W. 2017. Fungal endophyte-derived Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis: diversity, antioxidant capacities in vitro and relations to phenolic, fl avonoid or saponin compounds. Scientifi c Reports, 7.Search in Google Scholar

Pan, S.Y., Zhou, S.F., Gao, S.H., Yu, Z.L., Zhang, S.F., Tang, M.K., Sun, J.N., Ma, D.L., Han, Y.F., Fong, W.F. and Ko, K.M. 2013. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM’s Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM, 2: 627375.Search in Google Scholar

Panaccione, D.G., Beaulieu, W.T. and Cook, D. 2014. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes. Functional Ecology, 28: 299-314.Search in Google Scholar

Palem, P.P., Kuriakose, G.C. and Jayabaskaran, C. 2015. An endophytic fungus, Talaromyces radicus, isolated from Catharanthus roseus, produces vincristine and vinblastine, which induce apoptotic cell death. PloS one, 10: e0144476Search in Google Scholar

Pateraki, I., Andersen-Ranberg, J., Jensen, N.B., Wubshet, S.G., Heskes, A.M., Forman, V., Hallstrom, B, Hamberger, B, Motawia, M.S., Olsen, C.E., Staerk, D., Hansen, J., Moller, B.L. and Staerk, D. 2017. Total biosynthesis of the cyclic AMP booster forskolin from Coleus forskohlii. Elife, 6: e23001.Search in Google Scholar

Pateraki, I., Andersen-Ranberg, J., Hamberger, B., Heskes, A.M., Martens, H.J., Zerbe, P., Bach, S.S., Molle,r B.L., Bohlmann, J. and Hamberger, B. 2014. Manoyl oxide (13R), the biosynthetic precursor of forskolin, is synthesized in specialized root cork cells in Coleus forskohlii. Plant Physiology, 164: 1222-1236.Search in Google Scholar

Pérez-Alonso, N., Wilken, D., Gerth, A., Jahn, A., Nitzsche, H.M., Kerns, G. and Jimenez, E. 2009. Cardiotonic glycosides from biomass of Digitalis purpurea L. cultured in temporary immersion systems. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 99: 151-156.Search in Google Scholar

Petrini, O. and Fisher, P. 1990. Occurrence of fungal endophytes in twigs of Salix fragilis and Quercus robur. Mycological Research, 94: 1077-80.Search in Google Scholar

Piao, X.L., Jang, M.H., Cui, J. and Piao, X.S. 2008. Lignans from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Bioorganic Medical Chemistry Letters, 18: 1980-1984.Search in Google Scholar

Pu, X., Qu, X., Chen, F., Bao, J., Zhang, G. and Luo, Y. 2013. Camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride LY357: isolation, identifi cation, and fermentation conditions optimization for camptothecin production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 97: 9365-9375.Search in Google Scholar

Qian, Y.X., Kang, J.C., Luo, Y.K., Zhao, J.J., He, J. and Geng, K. 2016. A Bilobalide-Producing Endophytic Fungus, Pestalotiopsis uvicola. Current Mi crobiology, 73: 280-286.Search in Google Scholar

Qu, H., Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Li, B. and Sun, W. 2008. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of two compounds (forsythiaside and forsythin) isolated from Forsythia suspensa. Journal Pharmacy Pharmacology, 60: 261-266.Search in Google Scholar

Rai, A., Saito, K. and Yamazaki, M. 2017. Integrated omics analysis of specialized metabolism in medicinal plants. The Plant Journal, 90: 764-787.Search in Google Scholar

Ramesha, B.T., Suma, H.K., Senthilkumar, U., Priti, V., Ravikanth, G., Vasudeva, R., Kumar, T.R.S, Ganeshaiah, K.N. and Shaanker, R.U. 2013. New plant sources of the anti-cancer alkaloid, camptothecine from the Icacinaceae taxa, India. Phytomedicine, 20: 521-527. Search in Google Scholar

Ramirez-Estrada, K., Vidal-Limon, H., Hidalgo, D., Moyano, E., Golenioswki, M., Cusido, R.M. and Palazon, J. 2016. Elicitation, an eff ective strategy for the biotechnological production of bioactive high-added value compounds in plant cell factories. Molecules, 21: 182.Search in Google Scholar

Richards, T.A., Soanes, D.M., Foster, P.G., Leonard, G., Thornton, C.R., and Talbot, N.J. 2009. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrates a pattern of rare and ancient horizontal gene transfer between plants and fungi. The Plant Cell, 21: 1897-1911.Search in Google Scholar

Rodriguez, R.J., White, Jr.J.F., Arnold, A.E. and Redman, R.S., 2009. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles. New Phytolology, 182: 314-330.Search in Google Scholar

Sachin, N., Manjunatha, B.L, Kumara, P.M, Ravikanth, G., Shweta, S., Suryanarayanan, T.S., Ganeshaiah, K.N. and Shaanker, R.U. 2013. Do endophytic fungi possess pathway genes for plant secondary metabolites? Current Science, 104: 178-182Search in Google Scholar

Saurabh, C.V. and Kishor, N.G. 2013. Vinpocetine: hype, hope and hurdles towards neuroprotection. Asian Journal of Pharmacological Research Developments, 1: 17-23.Search in Google Scholar

Seetharaman, P., Gnanasekar, S., Chandrasekaran, R., Chandrakasan, G., Kadarkarai, M. and Sivaperumal, S. 2017. Isolation and characterization of anticancer fl avone chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxy fl avone)-producing endophytic fungi from Passifl ora incarnata L. leaves. Annals of Microbiology, 67: 321-331.Search in Google Scholar

Shweta, S., Bindu, J. H., Raghu, J., Suma, H.K., Manjunatha, B.L., Kumara, P.M., Ravikanth, G., Nataraja, K.N, Ganeshaiah, K.N. and Shaanker, R.U. 2013. Isolation of endophytic bacteria producing the anti-cancer alkaloid camptothecine from Miquelia dentata Bedd. (Icacinaceae). Phytomedicine, 20: 913-917.Search in Google Scholar

Shweta, S., Gurumurthy, B.R., Ravikanth, G., Ramanan, U.S. and Shivanna, M.B. 2013. Endophytic fungi from Miquelia dentata Bedd., produce the anti-cancer alkaloid, camptothecine. Phytomedicine, 20: 337-342.Search in Google Scholar

Slot, J.C. and Rokas, A. 2011. Horizontal transfer of a large and highly toxic secondary metabolic gene cluster between fungi. Current Biology, 21: 134-139.Search in Google Scholar

Soliman, S.S., Greenwood, J.S., Bombarely, A., Mueller, L.A., Tsao, R., Mosser, D.D. and Raizada, M.N. 2015. An endophyte constructs fungicide-containing extracellular barriers for its host plant. Current Biology, 25: 2570-2576.Search in Google Scholar

Soliman, S.S., Trobacher, C.P., Tsao, R., Greenwood, J.S. and Raizada, M.N. 2013. A fungal endophyte induces transcription of genes encoding a redundant fungicide pathway in its host plant. BMC Plant Biology, 13: 93.Search in Google Scholar

Soliman, S.S. and Raizada, M.N. 2013. Interactions between co-habitating fungi elicit synthesis of Taxol from an endophytic fungus in host Taxus plants. Frontiers in Microbiology, 4: 3.Search in Google Scholar

Srinivasan, K. 2016. Biological activities of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) and its pungent principle capsaicin: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56: 1488-1500.Search in Google Scholar

Staniek, A., Bouwmeester, H., Fraser, P.D., Kayser, O., Martens, S., Tissier, A. and Warzecha, H. 2014. Natural products-learning chemistry from plants. Biotechnology journal, 9: 326-336.Search in Google Scholar

Stierle, A.A. and Stierle, D.B. 2015. Bioactive secondary metabolites produced by the fungal endophytes of conifers. Natural Product Communications, 10: 1671.Search in Google Scholar

Stierle, A., Strobel, G. and Stierle, D. 1993. Taxol and taxane production by Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of Pacifi c yew. Science, 260: 214-214.Search in Google Scholar

Su, J., Liu, H., Guo, K., Chen, L., Yang, M. and Chen, Q. 2017. Research Advances and Detection Methodologies for Microbe-Derived Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Systemic Review. Molecules, 22: 176.Search in Google Scholar

Tu, Y. 2011. The discovery of artemisinin (qinghaosu) and gifts from Chinese medicine. Nature medicine, 17: 1217-1220. Search in Google Scholar

Tudzynski, B., Studt, L. and Rojas, C. 2016. Gibberellins in fungi bacteria and lower plants: biosynthesis function and evolution. Annual Plant Reviews, 49: 121-152.Search in Google Scholar

Usai, S., Grazzi, L. and Bussone, G. 2011. Gingkolide B as migraine preventive treatment in young age: results at 1-year follow-up. Neurological Science, 1:197-199Search in Google Scholar

Vasanthakumari, M.M., Jadhav, S.S., Sachin, N., Vinod, G., Shweta, S., Manjunatha, B.L., Ravikanth, G., Nataraja, K.N., Kumara, P.M. and Shaanker, R.U. 2015. Restoration of camptothecine production in attenuated endophytic fungus on reinoculation into host plant and treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 31: 1629-1639.Search in Google Scholar

Verma, V.C., Lobkovsky, E., Gange, A.C., Singh, S.K. and Prakash, S. 2011. Piperine production by en dophytic fungus Periconia sp. isolated from Piper longum L. Journal of Antibiotics, 64: 427-431.Search in Google Scholar

Wakai, S., Arazoe, T., Ogino, C. and Kondo, A. 2017. Future insights in fungal metabolic engineering. Bioresource Technology. doi.org/10.1016/j. biortech.2017.04.095.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, D., Zhu, J., Wang, S., Wang, X., Ou, Y., Wei, D. and Xueping, L. 2011. Antitussive, expectorant and anti-infl ammatory alkaloids from Bulbus Fritillariae cirrhosae. Fitoterapia, 82: 1290-1294.Search in Google Scholar

Wang, Y., Lai, Z., Li, X.X., Yan, R. M., Zhang, Z.B., Yang, H.L. and Zhu, D. 2016. Isolation, diversity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi harboured in Huperzia serrata from Jinggang Mountain, China. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 32: 20. Search in Google Scholar

Wang, X.J., Min, C.L., Ge, M. and Zuo, R.H. 2014. An endophytic sanguinarine-producing fungus from Macleaya cordata, Fusarium proliferatum BLH51. Current Microbiology, 68: 336-341.Search in Google Scholar

Wei, G., Wang, J. and Du, Y. 2011. Total synthesis of solamargine. Bioorganic Medical Chemistry Letters, 21: 2930-2933.Search in Google Scholar

Wu, Y.B., Ni, Z.Y., Shi, Q.W., Dong, M., Kiyota, H., Gu, Y.C. and Cong, B. 2012. Constituents from Salvia species and their biological activities. Chemical Reviews, 112: 5967-6026.Search in Google Scholar

Xiong, Z.Q., Yang, Y.Y., Zhao, N. and Wang, Y. 2013. Diversity of endophytic fungi and screening of fungal paclitaxel producer from Anglojap yew, Taxus x media. BMC Microbiology, 13: 71Search in Google Scholar

Xue, H., Lu, C., Liang, L. and Shen, Y. 2012. Secondary Metabolites of Aspergillus sp. CM9a, an Endophytic Fungus of Cephalotaxus mannii. Records of Natural Products, 6: 28.Search in Google Scholar

Yang, H., Peng,S., Zhang, Z., Yan, R., Wang, Y., Zhan, J., Zhu, J. and Zhu,D. 2014. Whole-genome shotgun assembly and analysis of the genome of Shiraia sp. strain Slf14, a novel endophytic fungus producing huperzine A and hypocrellin A. Genome Announcements, 2: e00011-14.Search in Google Scholar

Yang, H., Peng, S., Zhang, Z., Yan, R., Wang, Y., Zhan, J. and Zhu, D. 2016. Molecular cloning, expression, and functional analysis of the copper amine oxidase gene in the endophytic fungus Shiraia sp. Slf14 from Huperzia serrata. Protein Expression and Purifi cation, 128: 8-13.Search in Google Scholar

Yang, Y., Zhao, H., Barrero, R.A., Zhang, B., Sun, G., Wilson, I.W. and Guo, G. 2014. Genome sequencing and analysis of the paclitaxel-producing endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum NRRL 62431. BMC Genomics, 15: 69.Search in Google Scholar

Yin, H. and Sun, Y.H. 2011. Vincamine-producing endophytic fungus isolated from Vinca minor. Phytomedicine, 18: 802-805.Search in Google Scholar

You, X., Feng, S., Luo, S., Cong, D., Yu, Z., Yang, Z. and Zhang, J. 2013. Studies on a rhein-producing endophytic fungus isolated from Rheum palmatum L. Fitoterapia, 85: 161-168.Search in Google Scholar

Yu, X., Gao, X., Zhu, Z., Cao, Y., Zhang, Q., Tu, P. and Chai, X. 2014. Alkaloids from the Tribe Bocconieae (Papaveraceae): A Chemical and Biological Review. Molecules, 19: 13042-13060.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, F., Chen, B., Xiao, S. and Yao, S.Z. 2005. Optimization and comparison of diff erent extraction techniques for sanguinarine and chelerythrine in fruits of Macleaya cordata (Willd) R. Br. Separation and Purifi cation Technology. 42: 283-290.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, X.M., Wang, Z.Q., Shu, S.H., Wang, W.J., Xu, H. J., Ahn, Y.J. and Hu, X. 2013. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026. PLoS One, 8, e61777.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, G., Wang, W., Zhang, X., Xia, Q., Zhao, X., Ahn, Y. and Shu, S. 2015. De novo RNA sequencing and transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 reveal genes related to biosynthesis of huperzine A. PloS one, 10: e0120809.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, Q., Wei, X. and Wang, J. 2012. Phillyrin produced by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an endophytic fungus isolated from Forsythia suspensa. Fitoterapia, 83: 1500-1505.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, J., Fu, Y., Luo, M., Zu, Y., Wang, W., Zhao, C., Zhao C. and Gu, C. 2012. Endophytic fungi from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] produce antioxidant cajaninstilbene acid. Journal of Agricultural and Food hemistry, 60: 4314-4319.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, J., Li, C., Wang, W., Zhao, C., Luo, M., Mu, F., Fu, Y., Su, Y. and Yao, M. 2013. Hypocrea lixii, novel endophytic fungi producing anticancer agent cajanol, isolated from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan [L.] Millsp.). Journal of Applied Microbiology, 115: 102-113.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, J., Shan, T., Mou, Y. and Zhou, L. 2011. Plantderived bioactive compounds produced by endophytic ungi. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry, 11: 159-168. Search in Google Scholar

Zheng, C.J., Sun, P.X., Jin, G.L. and Qin, L.P. 2011. Sesquiterpenoids from Trichoderma atroviride, an endophytic fungus in Cephalotaxus fortunei. Fitoterapia, 82: 1035-1038.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo