1. bookVolume 17 (2018): Issue 2 (December 2018)
Journal Details
First Published
10 Jul 2007
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Species identification and population structure analysis in Geranium subg. Geranium (Geraniaceae)

Published Online: 28 Jul 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 17 (2018) - Issue 2 (December 2018)
Page range: 235 - 246
Received: 19 Jun 2017
Accepted: 10 Sep 2017
Journal Details
First Published
10 Jul 2007
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

Species identification is fundamentally important within the fields of biology, biogeography, ecology and conservation. The genus Geranium L. (Geraniaceae) comprises about 430 species distributed throughout most parts of the world. According to the most recent treatments, subg. Geranium is the largest subgenus with over 370 species classified in ten sections. The subg. Geranium is represented in Iran by 13 species. These species are grouped 3 sections. In spite vast distribution of many Geranium species that grow in Iran, there are not any available report on their genetic diversity, mode of divergence and patterns of dispersal.

Therefore, we performed molecular (ISSR markers) and morphological studies of 102 accessions from 13 species of Geranium (subg. Geranium) that were collected from different habitats in Iran. The aims of present study are: 1) can ISSR markers identify Geranium species, 2) what is the genetic structure of these taxa in Iran, and 3) to investigate the species inter-relationship? The present study revealed that combination of morphological and ISSR data can identify the species.


Aedo, C., Aldasoro, J. J. & Navarro, C. 1998b: Taxonomic revision of Geranium L., sections Divaricata Rouy and Batrachioidea W.D.J. Koch (Geraniaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: 594–630. DOI: 10.2307/299201810.2307/2992018Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Aedo, C. & Estrella, M. D. L. 2006: Taxonomic revision of Geranium subsect. Tuberosa (Boiss.) Yeo. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 54:19–44.10.1560/054K-6548-3818-7932Search in Google Scholar

Aedo, C., Aldasoro, J. J., Sáez L. & Navarro, C. 2003: Taxonomic revision of Geranium sect. Gracilia (Geraniaceae). Brittonia 55: 93–126.10.1663/0007-196X(2003)055[0093:TROGSG]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Aedo, C. 1996: Revision of Geranium subgenus Erodioidea (Geraniaceae). Systematic Botany Monographs 49:1–104.10.2307/25027866Search in Google Scholar

Aedo, C., Alarcón, M. L., Aldasoro J. J. & Navarro, C. 2007: Taxonomic revision of Geranium subsect. Mediterranea (Geraniaceae). Systematic Botany 32: 93–128.10.1600/036364407780360111Search in Google Scholar

Aedo, C., Fiz, O., Alarcón, M. L., Navarro, C. & Aldasoro J. J. 2005a: Taxonomic revision of Geranium sect. Dissecta (Geraniaceae). Systematic Botany 30: 533–558.10.1600/0363644054782260Search in Google Scholar

Aedo, C., Navarro, C. & Alarcón, M. L. 2005b: Taxonomic revision of Geranium sections Andina and Chilensia (Geraniaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 149: 1–68.10.1111/j.1095-8339.2005.00432.xSearch in Google Scholar

Armbruster, W. S. 1993: Evolution of plant pollination systems: hypotheses and tests with the neotropical vine Dalechampia. Evolution 47: 1480–1505.10.1111/j.1558-5646.1993.tb02170.xSearch in Google Scholar

Baker, H. G. 1955: Self-compatibility and establishment after “long-distance” dispersal. Evolution 9: 347–349.10.1111/j.1558-5646.1955.tb01544.xSearch in Google Scholar

Baker, H. G. 1967: Support for Baker’s law as a rule. Evolution 21: 85–56.10.2307/2406780Search in Google Scholar

Carlquist, S.H. & Bissing, D. 1976: Leaf anatomy of Hawaiian Geranium in relation by ecology and taxonomy. Biotropica 8: 248–259.10.2307/2989717Search in Google Scholar

Davis, P.H. 1967: Geranium L. In: P.H. Davis, J. Cullen & J.E. Coode (eds.), Flora of Turkey, vol 2. University Press, Edinburg 19: 451–474.Search in Google Scholar

Davis, P.H. 1970: Geranium sect. Tuberosa, revision and evolutionary interpretation. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 19: 91–113.Search in Google Scholar

Duminil, J. & Di Michele, M. 2009: Plant species delimitation: A comparison of morphological and molecular markers. Plant Biosystems 143: 528–542.10.1080/11263500902722964Search in Google Scholar

Esfandani-Bozchaloyi, S., Sheidai, M., Keshavarzi, M. & Noormohammadi, Z. 2017a: Genetic Diversity and Morphological Variability In Geranium Purpureum Vill. (Geraniaceae) Of Iran. Genetika 49: 543–557. https://doi.org/10.2298/GENSR1702543B10.2298/GENSR1702543Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Esfandani-Bozchaloyi, S., Sheidai, M., Keshavarzi, M. & Noormohammadi, Z. 2017b: Species Delimitation In Geranium Sect. Batrachioidea: Morphological And Molecular. Acta Botanica Hungarica 59(3–4):319–334. doi: 10.1556/034.59.2017.3-4.310.1556/034.59.2017.3-4.3Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Esfandani-Bozchaloyi, S., Sheidai, M., Keshavarzi, M. & Noormohammadi, Z. 2017c: Genetic and morphological diversity in Geranium dissectum (Sec. Dissecta, Geraniaceae) populations. Biologia 72(10): 1121–1130. DOI: 10.1515/biolog-2017-012410.1515/biolog-2017-0124Search in Google Scholar

Esfandani-Bozchaloyi, S., Sheidai, M., Keshavarzi, M. & Noormohammadi, Z. 2017d: Analysis of genetic diversity in Geranium robertianum by ISSR markers. Phytologia Balcanica 23(2):157–166.Search in Google Scholar

Evanno, G., Regnaut, S. & Goudet, J. 2005: Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology 14: 2611–2620.10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02553.x15969739Search in Google Scholar

Falush, D., Stephens, M. & Pritchard, J.K. 2007: Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: dominant markers and null alleles. Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 574–578.10.1111/j.1471-8286.2007.01758.x197477918784791Search in Google Scholar

Freeland, J.R., Kirk, H. & Peterson, S.D. 2011: Molecular Ecology (2nded). Wiley-Blackwell, UK, 449 pp.10.1002/9780470979365Search in Google Scholar

Frichot, E., Schoville, S. D., Bouchard, G. & Francois, O. 2013: Testing for associations between loci and environmental gradients using latent factor mixed models. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30: 1687–1699.10.1093/molbev/mst063368485323543094Search in Google Scholar

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A. & Ryan, P.D. 2012: PAST: Paleontological Statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4: 9.Search in Google Scholar

Hedrick, P. W. 2005: A standardized genetic differentiation measure. Evolution 59:1633–1638.10.1111/j.0014-3820.2005.tb01814.xSearch in Google Scholar

Huson, D.H. & Bryant, D. 2006: Application of Phylogenetic Networks in Evolutionary Studies. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23: 254–267.10.1093/molbev/msj03016221896Search in Google Scholar

Janighorban, M. 2009: Flora of Iran. Geraniaceae. Vol. 62. The Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, 64 pp. [in Persian].Search in Google Scholar

Jost, L. 2008: GST and its relatives do not measure differentiation. Molecular Ecology 17: 4015–4026.10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.03887.xSearch in Google Scholar

Keshavarzi, M. 2015: Infrageneric classification of Geranium (Geraniaceae) based on fruit and seed morphology. Acta Biologica Szegediensis 59: 45–54.Search in Google Scholar

Keshavarzi, M., Behzadifar, M. & Nazem Bokaee, Z. 2016: Pollen morphology of some Geranium subgenus Robertium species of Iran. Modern Phytomorphology 10: 39–45.Search in Google Scholar

Knowles, L.L., & Carstens, B. 2007: Delimiting species without monophyletic gene trees. Systematic Biology 56: 887–895. doi:10.1080/10635150701701091.10.1080/1063515070170109118027282Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Mayr, E. 1982: The Growth of Biological Thought : Diversity, Evolution, and nheritance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 992 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Medrano, M., López-Perea E. & Herrera, C.M. 2014: Population genetics methods applied to a species delimitation problem: Endemic trumpet daffodils (Narcissus section Pseudonarcissi) from the Southern Iberian Peninsula. International Journal of Plant Sciences 175: 501–517. doi: 10.1086/67597710.1086/675977Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Meirmans, P.G. & Van Tienderen, P.H. 2004: GENOTYPE and GENODIVE: two programs for the analysis of genetic diversity of asexual organisms. Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 792–794.10.1111/j.1471-8286.2004.00770.xSearch in Google Scholar

Meirmans, P.G. 2012: AMOVA-based clustering of population genetic data. Journal of Heredity 103: 744–750.10.1093/jhered/ess04722896561Search in Google Scholar

Onsori, S., Salimpour, F. & Mazooji, A. 2010: The new record of Geranium linearilobum Dc. based on anatomy and micromorphological study of pollen and seed, in Iran. Journal of plant environmental physiology 5: 21-30. [in Persian with English abstract]Search in Google Scholar

Peakall, R. & Smouse, P.E. 2006: GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6: 288–295.10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.01155.xSearch in Google Scholar

Pérez-Losada, M., Eiroa, J., Mato, S., & Domínguez, J. 2005: Phylogenetic species delimitation of the earth worms Eiseniafetida (Savigny,1826) and Eiseniaandrei Bouché,1972 (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Pedobiologia 49: 317–324.doi: 10.1016/j.pedobi.2005.02.00410.1016/j.pedobi.2005.02.004Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Philipp, M. 1985: Reproductive biology of Geranium sessiliflorum, 1. Flower and flowering biology. New Zealand Journal of Botany 23: 567–589.Search in Google Scholar

Podani, J. 2000: Introduction to the Exploration of Multivariate Data English translation. Backhuyes publisher, Leiden, 407 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Pritchard, J.K., Stephens, M. & Donnelly, P. 2000: Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype Data. Genetics 155: 945–959.10.1093/genetics/155.2.945146109610835412Search in Google Scholar

Salimi Moghadam, N. 2015: Data from: Micromorphological studies on fruits and seeds of the genus Geranium (Geraniaceae) from Iran and their systematic significance – Dryad Digital Repository < http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.h1n71 >.10.5061/dryad.h1n71>Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Salimpour, F., Mazooji, A. & Onsori, S. 2009: Stem and leaf anatomy of ten Geranium L. species in Iran. African Journal of Plant Science 3: 238–244.Search in Google Scholar

Schluter, D. 2001: Ecology and the origin of species. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16: 372–380.10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02198-XSearch in Google Scholar

Schönbeck-Temesy, E. 1970: Geraniaceae. In: Rechinger, K.H. ed., Flora Iranica, Vol. 69, pp. 30–58, Akademische Druck, Graz, Austria.Search in Google Scholar

Sheidai, M., Zanganeh, S., Haji-Ramezanali, R., Nouroozi, M., Noormohammadi, Z. & Ghsemzadeh-Baraki, S. 2013: Genetic diversity and population structure in four Cirsium (Asteraceae) species. Biologia 68: 384–397.10.2478/s11756-013-0162-xSearch in Google Scholar

Sites, J.W. & Marshall, J.C. 2003: Delimiting species: A Renaissance issue in systematic biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 462–470.10.1016/S0169-5347(03)00184-8Search in Google Scholar

Stebbins, G. L. 1957: Self fertilization and population variability in the higher plants. American Naturalist 91: 337–354.10.1086/281999Search in Google Scholar

Stebbins, G. L. 1970: Adaptive radiation of reproductive characteristics in angiosperms, I: pollination mechanisms. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1: 307–326.Search in Google Scholar

Weising, K., Nybom, H., Wolff, K. & Kahl, G. 2005: DNA Fingerprinting in Plants. Principles, Methods, and Applications. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Rayton, 472 pp.10.1201/9781420040043Search in Google Scholar

Wiens, J.J. & Penkrot, T.A. 2002: Delimiting species using DNA and morphological variation and discordant species limits in spinylizards (Sceloporus). Systematic Biology 51: 69–91.10.1080/10635150275347588011943093Search in Google Scholar

Wiens, J.J. 2007: Species Delimitation: New approaches for discovering diversity. Systematic Biology 56: 875-878. doi:10.1080/10635150701748506.10.1080/1063515070174850618027280Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Yeo, P. F. 1984: Fruit-discharge-type in Geranium (Geraniaceae): its use in classification and its evolutionary implications. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 89:1–36. DOI: 10.1111/j.10958339.1984.tb00998.x10.1111/j.10958339.1984.tb00998.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Yeo, P. F. 2002: Hardy geraniums, ed. 2. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, 218 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Yeo, P. F. 2004: The morphology and affinities of Geranium sections Lucida and Unguiculata. The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 144: 409–429.Search in Google Scholar

Zohary, M. 1972: Flora Palaestina. Platanaceae to Umbelliferae. Vol. 4. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, Israel, 656 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo