1. bookVolume 20 (2017): Issue 2 (December 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1027-5207
First Published
11 Dec 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Differences Between Regular and Distance Education in a Teacher’s Training Program

Published Online: 23 Jan 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 20 (2017) - Issue 2 (December 2017)
Page range: 17 - 29
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1027-5207
First Published
11 Dec 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the differences in social presence and autonomy concerning the two methods of education used in a training program for science teachers in the years 2015-2016. The first method was the traditional face to face and the other was the Distance Education method. In particular, the study focused on whether there are differences in the social presence and autonomy between the two teaching methods, and the teaching experience of the participants. A closed-type questionnaire of Likert type was used to collect the data, while t-test for independent samples was used for statistical analysis. The study indicated differences in the social presence and autonomy between the two methods of teaching.

Keywords

1. Akcaoglu, M., & Lee, E. (2016). Increasing Social Presence in Online Learning through Small Group Discussions. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3), 1-17.10.19173/irrodl.v17i3.2293Search in Google Scholar

2. Al-Harthi, A. (2010). Learner Self-Regulation in Distance Education: A Cross Cultural Study. The American Journal of Distance Education, 24(3), 135-150. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2010.49823210.1080/08923647.2010.498232Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

3. Anastasiadis, P. (2004). Open and Distance Learning Education - Main Principles Rethymno. Retrieved from http://www.edc.uoc.gr/~panas/UoCrete/VC%20Dimotiko%20Sxoleio/Notes%20Vc/Master%20DL3.docSearch in Google Scholar

4. Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(3), 80-97.10.19173/irrodl.v12i3.890Search in Google Scholar

5. Andrade, M. S. (2015). Teaching Online: A Theory-based Approach to Student Success. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 3(5), 1-9.10.11114/jets.v3i5.904Search in Google Scholar

6. Antoniou, Κ., Volioti, Ch., & Stilianidis, P. (2012). Distance learning cooperative activities: In a case study on Information and Communication Technologies in Education. In Ch. Karagiannidis, P. Politis, & I. Κarasavidis (Eds.), Volos: University of Thessaly.Search in Google Scholar

7. Arvanitis, N. (2007). The portfolio as a means of alternative and authentic pedagogical evaluation of the student. Scientific Step, 6, 168-180.Search in Google Scholar

8. Angelaki, C., & Mavroidis, I. (2013). Communication and Social Presence: The Impact on Adult Learners’ Emotions in Distance Learning. European Journal of Open, Distance and ELearning, 16(1), 78-93.Search in Google Scholar

9. Balaban-Sali, J. (2008). Designing motivational learning systems in distance education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 9(3), 149-161.Search in Google Scholar

10. Barnard, L., Lan, W., To, Y., Paton, V., & Lai, S. L. (2009). Measuring self-regulation in online and blended learning environments. Internet and Higher Education, 12(1), 1-6.10.1016/j.iheduc.2008.10.005Search in Google Scholar

11. Basdogan, C., Ho, C. H., Srinivasan, M., & Slater, M. (2000). An experimental study on the role of touch in shared virtual environments. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 7(4), 443-460.10.1145/365058.365082Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

12. Benson, P. (2007). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language teaching, 40(1), 21-40.10.1017/S0261444806003958Search in Google Scholar

13. Berg, S., & Chyung, S. Y. (2008). Factors that Influence Informal Learning in the Workplace. Journal of workplace learning, 20(4), 229-244.10.1108/13665620810871097Search in Google Scholar

14. Bray, E., Aoki, K., & Dlugosh, L. (2008). Predictors of Learning Satisfaction in Japanese Online Distance Learners. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 9(3). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/525/115410.19173/irrodl.v9i3.525Search in Google Scholar

15. Chartofilaka, A-M. (2007). Towards a dynamic teaching tool for Distance Education. Open Education: The Journal for Open and Distance Education and Educational Technology, 3(2).Search in Google Scholar

16. Chmiliar, L. (2011). Self Regulation skills and the post secondary distance learner. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 318-321.10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.245Search in Google Scholar

17. Christophel, D. M. (1990). The relationships among teacher immediacy behaviors, student motivation, and learning. Communication Education, 39, 323-340.10.1080/03634529009378813Search in Google Scholar

18. Christophel, D. M., & Gorham, J. (1995). A test-retest analysis of student motivation, teacher immediacy, and perceived sources of motivation and demotivation in college classes. Communication Education, 44, 292-306.10.1080/03634529509379020Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

19. Creswell, J. (2011). The study in Education (1st ed.). (Ch. Tzobartzoudis Ed., & Ν. Κouvarakou, Trans.) Athens: Greece.Search in Google Scholar

20. Driver, M. (2002). Exploring student perceptions of group interaction and class satisfaction in the web-enhanced classroom. Internet and Higher Education, 5(1), 35-45.10.1016/S1096-7516(01)00076-8Search in Google Scholar

21. Falloon, G. (2011). Making the Connection: Moore’s Theory of Transactional Distance and Its Relevance to the Use of a Virtual Classroom in Postgraduate Online Teacher Education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(3), 187-209.10.1080/15391523.2011.10782569Search in Google Scholar

22. Firat, M. (2016). Measuring the e-Learning Autonomy of Distance Education Students. Open Praxis, 8(3), 191-201.10.5944/openpraxis.8.3.310Search in Google Scholar

23. Fotiadou, T. (2001). The portfolio as a tool for developing students’ skills: A proposal. Education Review, 5, 128-138.Search in Google Scholar

24. Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21st Century: A framework for research and practice. London: Routledge/Falmer.10.4324/9780203166093Search in Google Scholar

25. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2, 87-105.10.1016/S1096-7516(00)00016-6Search in Google Scholar

26. Garrison, R., & Akyol, Z. (2009). Role of instructional technology in the transformation of higher education. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 21(1), 19-31.10.1007/s12528-009-9014-7Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

27. Garrison, R., & Arbaugh, B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157-172.10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.04.001Search in Google Scholar

28. Ghamdi, A., Samarji, A., & Watt, A. (2016). Essential Considerations in Distance Education in KSA: Teacher Immediacy in a Virtual Teaching and Learning Environment. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 6(1), 17-22.10.7763/IJIET.2016.V6.651Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

29. Giagli, S., Giaglis, G., & Κoutsouba, M. (2010). Autonomy in learning as it concerns the of distance learning education. Open Education - The Journal for Open and Distance Education and Educational Technology, 6(1-2), 90-105.Search in Google Scholar

30. Gillies, D. (2008). Student perspectives on videoconferencing in teacher education at a distance. Distance Education, 29(1), 107-118.10.1080/01587910802004878Search in Google Scholar

31. Gilmore, J., Vieyra, M., Timmerman, B., Feldon, D., & Maher, M. (2015). The relationship between undergraduate research participation and subsequent research performance of early career STEM graduate students. The Journal of Higher Education, 86(6), 834-863.10.1353/jhe.2015.0031Search in Google Scholar

32. Gunawardena, C. N., & Zittle, F. G. (1997). Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction within a computer mediated conferencing environment. American Journal of Distance Education, 11(3), 8-26.10.1080/08923649709526970Search in Google Scholar

33. Hartley, K., & Bendixen, L. D. (2001). Educational research in the Internet age: Examining the role of individual characteristics. Educational Researcher, 30(9), 22-26.10.3102/0013189X030009022Search in Google Scholar

34. Hurd, S., Beaven, T., & Ortega, A. (2001). Developing autonomy in a distance language learning context: issues and dilemmas for course writers. System, 29(3), 341-355.10.1016/S0346-251X(01)00024-0Search in Google Scholar

35. Huwe, T. K. (2006). Social networking mixes the hip with the proven. Computers in Libraries, 26(10), 31-33.Search in Google Scholar

36. Karava, Ε. (2014). Developing an online distance training programme for primary EFL teachers in Greece: Entering a brave new world. Research Papers in Language Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 70-86.Search in Google Scholar

37. Kastanos, N., Petropoulos, P., & Roussis, R. (2004). Design proposal for the design of decentralized distance learning programs for teachers in the teaching of natural sciences. Paper presented at the 2nd Conference of the Association for Natural Science Teaching and 2nd IOSTE in Southern Europe concerning the Teaching Science & Technology: Challenges of the 21st Century. Kalamata.Search in Google Scholar

38. Kear, K. (2010). Social presence in online learning communities. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Networked Learning 2010. Denmark.Search in Google Scholar

39. Keegan, D. (1996). Foundations of Distance education (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

40. Keegan, D. (2001). Οι Βασικές Αρχές της Ανοικτής και Εξ Αποστάσεως Εκπαίδευσης. (A. Μελίστα, Trans.) Αθήνα: Μεταίχμιο.Search in Google Scholar

41. Kim, J., Kwon, Y., & Cho, D. (2011). Investigating factors that influence social presence and learning outcomes in distance higher education. Computers & Education, 57, 1512-1520.10.1016/j.compedu.2011.02.005Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

42. Komis, B., Zagouras, Ch., Eggarchou, D., Skountzis, G., Goumenakis, G., Simotas, K., & Fragkaki, M. (2014). The conceptual design of the mixed education model for primary school teachers (UE 60-70). In P. Anastasiadis, N. aranis, B. Oikonomidis & M. Kalogiannakis (Eds.), 9th Pan-Hellenic Conference with International Participation in Information and Communication Technologies in Education (pp. 1025-1032). Rethymnon: University of Crete.Search in Google Scholar

43. Kozan, K. (2016). A Comparative Structural Equation Modeling Investigation of the Relationships among Teaching, Cognitive and Social Presence. Online Learning Consortium, 20(3), 210-227.10.24059/olj.v20i3.654Search in Google Scholar

44. Kožuh, I., Hintermair, M., Hauptman, S., & Debevc, M. (2015). What predicts the frequencies of activities on social networking sites among the D/deaf and hard of hearing. Procedia Computer Science, 67, 185-192.10.1016/j.procs.2015.09.262Search in Google Scholar

45. Kucuk, S., & Sahin, I. (2013). From the Perspective of Community of Inquiry Framework: An Examination of Facebook Uses by Pre-Service Teachers as a Learning Environment. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology - TOJET, 12(2), 142-156.Search in Google Scholar

46. Lazakidou-Kafetzi, G., Paraskeva, F., & Retalis, S. (2004). By detecting ways of using metacognitionfor to mathematical problems solution. Proceedings of the 4th HSCSE Congress, 143-152. Athens.Search in Google Scholar

47. Lee, Y., & Choi, J. (2011). A review of online course dropout research: implications for practice and future research. Education Tech Research, 59, 593-618. doi: 10.1007/s11423-010- 9177-ySearch in Google Scholar

48. Li, N., Lee, K., & Kember, D. (2000). Towards self-direction in study methods: The ways in which new students learn to study part-time. Distance Education, 21(1), 6-28.10.1080/0158791000210102Search in Google Scholar

49. Lionarakis, A. (2001). Which Distance Learning Education we are talking for? Concerning the records of the 1st Panhellenic Conference for Open and Distance Learning Education. Hellenic Open University of Patra.Search in Google Scholar

50. Lionarakis, A. (2004). Towards a theory of Open and Distance Learning Education - the development of complexity. Retrieved from TEI of Larissa: http://elektra.teilar.gr/syncppt/theoryOfTeleeducation.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

51. Lionarakis, A. (2009) Developing a Methodological Approach (Teaching) of Lifelong Learning Programs from distance. Athens: Institute for Adult Education.Search in Google Scholar

52. Lombard, M., & Ditton, T. (1997). At the heart of it all: The concept of presence. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00072.x/full10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00072.x/fullOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

53. Lombard, Μ., Ditton, Τ. Β., Crane, D., & Davis, B. (2000). Measuring presence: A literaturebased approach to the development of a standardized paper-and-pencil instrument. Proceedings of the Third international workshop on presence, 240, 2-4. Netherlands.Search in Google Scholar

54. Masino, M. (2015). Integration of blackboard in the online learning environment. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 16. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1069393.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

55. Moore, Α., Masterson, J. T., Christophel, D. M., & Shea, K. A. (1996). College teacher immediacy and student ratings of instruction. Communication Education, 45, 29-39.10.1080/03634529609379030Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

56. Moore, M. G. (2016). Thirty Years Later: Self-Directed Learning and Distance Education-In Retrospect. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 31(2). Retrieved from http://ijede.ca/index.php/jde/article/view/1000/1656Search in Google Scholar

57. Moore, G. M., & Kearsley, G. (2005). Distance Education. A Systems View (2nd ed.). Canada: Thomson Wadsworth.Search in Google Scholar

58. Mouzakis, C., & Balaouras, P. (2009). Real-time Video Services for Continuing Professional Development of the Greek Academic Network’s Technical Staff. In T. Bastiaens (Ed.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (pp. 1836-1841). Chesapeake: VA: AACE.Search in Google Scholar

59. Mouzakis, Ch., Vathis, S., & Gogolou, A. (2014). Learning experiences through online discussions: Making use of Edmodo in distance education of teachers. Science and Technology Issues in Education, 7(1-2), 77-97.Search in Google Scholar

60. Nikolaki, E., & Koutsouba, M. (2012). Support and promotion of self-regulated learning through the educational material at the Hellenic Open University. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 13(3), 226-238.Search in Google Scholar

61. Noteboom, J., & Claywell, L. (2010). Student Perceptions of Cognitive, Social, and Teaching Presence. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning, 1-4.Search in Google Scholar

62. Nowak, K., & Biocca, F. (2003). The Effect of the Agency and Anthropomorphism on Users’ Sense of Telepresence, Copresence, and Social Presence in Virtual Environments. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 12(5), 481-494.10.1162/105474603322761289Search in Google Scholar

63. Ntalakou, B. P. (2005). Application of learning through problem solving in distance education: Detection of student’s views on the administrative organization in Greece. In Α. Lionarakis (Ed.), Applications of Pedagogy and Technology. Records Kept of the 3rd International Conference concerning the Open and Distance Education (pp. 317-325). Athens: Forerunner (Propobos).Search in Google Scholar

64. Offir, B., Lev, Y., & Bezalel, R. (2008). Surface and deep learning processes in distance education: Synchronous versus asynchronous systems. Computers & Education, 51(3), 1172-1183.10.1016/j.compedu.2007.10.009Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

65. Pantis, I. (2016). Compulsory laboratory activities of Physical Sciences in High Schools, General Lyceums and Vocational High Schools. For the school year 2015-2016. Marousi: Ministry of Education Research and Religious Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.minedu.gov.gr/publications/docs2016/26-01-16_ergastiriakes.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

66. Papanikolaou, K., Giouli, E., & Makri, K. (2013). A mixed teacher education framework concerning the teaching of digital technology. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference in Open & Distance Learning, 7, 243-255. Athens.Search in Google Scholar

67. Papastamatis, A., Grivas, E., Valkanos, E., & Giavrimis, P. (2010). Professional development of teachers: Teachers’ needs in Second Chance Schools and suggested training methods. (K. Afoi, Ed.) Thessaloniki.Search in Google Scholar

68. Paraskevas, A., & Psilos D. (2009). Research of the active participation and interaction of teachers, in their distance education cooperation in the context of their training in the area of fluids. Open Education - The Journal for Open and Distance Education and Educational Technology, 5(1), 64-76.Search in Google Scholar

69. Paulsen, M. F. (1993). The hexagon of cooperative freedom: A distance education theory attuned to computer conferencing. Distance Education Online Symposium, 3(2).Search in Google Scholar

70. Peters, Ο. (2001). Learning and teaching in distance education: Analyses and interpretations from an international perspective. London: Kogan Page.Search in Google Scholar

71. Peters, O. (2010). Distance education in transition: Developments and issues (5th ed.). Oldenburg, Germany: BIS-Verlag der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg. Retrieved from https://www.unioldenburg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/c3l/master/mde/download/asfvolume5_5_ebook.pdfSearch in Google Scholar

72. Poellhuber, B., Anderson, T., & Roy, N. (2011). Distance students’ readiness for social media and collaboration. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 12(6), 102-125. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/viewFile/1018/199210.19173/irrodl.v12i6.1018Search in Google Scholar

73. Richardson, C., & Swan, Κ. (2003). Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students’ perceived learning & satisfaction. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(1), 68-88.Search in Google Scholar

74. Rovai, A. P. (2002). Development of an instrument to measure classroom community. Internet and Higher Education, 5(3), 197-211.10.1016/S1096-7516(02)00102-1Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

75. Rubin, B., Fernandes, R., & Avgerinou, M. (2011). How the Use of Virtual Learning Environment Tools Affects the Online Learning Experience? Proceedings of the 6th International Conference in Open & Distance Learning, 595-601. Loutraki.Search in Google Scholar

76. Schubert, T. W., Friedmann, F., & Regenbrecht, H. T. (1999). Decomposing the sense of presence: Factor analytic insights. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Presence, 6-7. University of Essex.Search in Google Scholar

77. Shea, P., & Bidjerano, T. (2009). Community of inquiry as a theoretical framework to foster “epistemic engagement” and “cognitive presence” in online education. Computers & Education, 52, 543-553.10.1016/j.compedu.2008.10.007Search in Google Scholar

78. Shearer, R. (2007). Instructional Design in Distance Education: An Overview. In M. Moore, & W. Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of distance education (pp. 275-286). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.Search in Google Scholar

79. Shin, N., & Chan, J. (2004). Direct and indirect effects of online learning on distance education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 35(3), 275-288.10.1111/j.0007-1013.2004.00389.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

80. Sibgatullina, A. (2015). Contemporary Technologies to Improve the Quality of Education When Training Teachers. International Education Studies, 8(3), 167-174.10.5539/ies.v8n3p167Search in Google Scholar

81. Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., & Albri, M. (2008). Teaching and Learning at a Distance Foundations of Distance Education (4th ed.).Search in Google Scholar

82. Smith, C. (2007). When in Rome: Teaching 21st century students using 21st century tools. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Instructional Technology Conference, 3, 3-20. Murfreesboro. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496202.pdf#page=3Search in Google Scholar

83. So, H.-J., & Brush, Τ. (2006). Student perceptions of cooperative learning in a distance learning environment: Relationships with social presence and satisfaction. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), 1(1).Search in Google Scholar

84. So, Η., & Brush, Τ. (2008). Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence & satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships & critical factors. Computers & Education, 51(1), 318-336.10.1016/j.compedu.2007.05.009Search in Google Scholar

85. Sreebny, O. (2007). Digital rendezvous: Social software in higher education. EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research, 2.Search in Google Scholar

86. Steuer, J. (1992). Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication, 42(4), 72-93.10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.xSearch in Google Scholar

87. Sung, Ε., & Mayer, R. E. (2012). Five facets of social presence in online distance education. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5), 1738-1747.10.1016/j.chb.2012.04.014Search in Google Scholar

88. Tam, M. (2000). Constructivism, Instructional Design, and Technology: Implications for Transforming Distance Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 3(2), 50-60.Search in Google Scholar

89. Themeli, C., & Bougia, A. (2016). Tele-proximity: Tele-community of Inquiry Model. Facial Cues for Social, Cognitive, and Teacher Presence in Distance Education. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(6), 145-163.Search in Google Scholar

90. Tsiotakis, P., & Tzimogiannis, A. (2014). The role study of the Structure in the Development of Electronic Learning Communities of Teachers. In P. Anastasiadis, N. Zaranis, V. Oikonomidis, & M. Kalogiannakis (Eds.), 9th PanHellenic Conference with International Participation: Technologies of Information & communication in Education (pp. 309-318). Rethymno: University of Crete.Search in Google Scholar

91. Tsitlakidou E. (2011). The role of the teacher concerning the autonomy in learning for distance education learners. Postgraduate Thesis, Open University of Patra, Studies in Education, Patra.Search in Google Scholar

92. Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. (MIT, Ed.) Presence, 7(3), 225-240.10.1162/105474698565686Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo