Open Access

Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal


Bališ, M. (1980). Red deer (in Slovak). Bratislava: Priroda.Search in Google Scholar

Čermak P., Glogar, J. & Jankovsky L. (2004). Damage by deer barking and browsing and subsequent rots in Norway spruce stands of Forest Range Mořkov, Forest District Frenštat p. R. (the Beskids Protected Landscape Area). J.For. Sci., 50(1), 24−30.Search in Google Scholar

Čermak, P. & Mrkva R. (2006). Effects of game on the condition and development of natural regeneration in the National Nature Reserve Vrapač (Litovelske Pomoravi). J. For. Sci., 52(7), 329−336.10.17221/4515-JFSSearch in Google Scholar

Dobrowolska, D., Hein, S., Oosterbaan, A., Wagner, S., Clark, J. & Skovsgaard J.P. (2011). A review of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.): implications for silviculture. Forestry - an International Journal of Forest Research, 84(2), 133-148. doi : 10.1093/forestry/cpr001.Search in Google Scholar

Faško, P. & Švec M. (2013). Temperature, precipitation and snow conditions in winter 2012−2013 (in Slovak). Bratislava: SHMU. in Google Scholar

Faško, P. & Švec M. (2014). Oversized warm winter 2013−2014 (in Slovak). Bratislava: SHMU. in Google Scholar

Finďo, S. & Žilinec M. (1993). Effect of simulated winter bite to the development of some forestry important woody species (in Slovak). Folia Venatoria, 23, 37-50.Search in Google Scholar

Finďo, S. (2010). Factors influencing red deer damages of mountain forests in Nizke Tatry (Low Tatras) Mts (in Slovak). In B. Konopka (Ed.), Výskum smrečín destabilizovaných škodlivými činiteľmi (pp. 187- 197). Zvolen: NLC.Search in Google Scholar

Fišer, Z. & Lochman J. (1969). The results of studies of red deer and roe deer natural food (in Czech). In Huntsmanship - hoofed game (pp. 17-31). Proceedings of the National Conference. Česke Budějovice: Dům techniky CSVTS.Search in Google Scholar

Gačić, P.D., Danilović, M., Zubić, G. & Ćirović P. (2012). Bark stripping damage by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in the fenced rearing centre Lomnička reka. Bulletin of the Faculty of Forestry, 105, 35−50. DOI: 10.2298/GSF1205035G.10.2298/GSF1205035GSearch in Google Scholar

Gill, R., Webber, J. & Peace A. (2000). The economic implications of deer damage - A review of current evidence. (pp. 1−49). Final Report for the Deer Commission for Scotland, Forest Research Agency, Surrey.Search in Google Scholar

Jerina, K., Dajčman, M. & Adamič M. (2008). Red deer (Cervus elaphus) bark stripping on spruce with regard to spatial distribution of supplemental feeding places. Zbornik Gozdarstva in Lesarstva, 86, 33−43.Search in Google Scholar

Kalivodova, E. (1996). Fauna as the limiting factor of anthropic activities (in Slovak). Acta Environmentalica Universitatis Comenianae (Bratislava), 7, 65-68.Search in Google Scholar

Kiffner, C., Rossiger, E., Trisl, O., Schulz, R. & Ruhe F. (2008). Probability of recent bark stripping damage by red deer (Cervus elaphus) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) in a low mountain range in Germany - a preliminary analysis. Silva Fenn., 42, 125−134. DOI: 10.14214/sf.269.10.14214/sf.269Search in Google Scholar

Konopka, B., Pajtik, J., Kaštier, P. & Šebeň V. (2012). Determination of young ash tree dendromass eaten by red deer using allometric models (in Slovak). Zprávy Lesníckého Výzkumu, 57(3), 283−294.Search in Google Scholar

Krojerova-Prokešova, J., Barančekova, M. & Homolka M. (2009). Importance of floodplain forests for the management of red deer and roe deer (in Slovak). Folia Venatoria, 38−39, 17-25.Search in Google Scholar

Kunca, A., Konopka, B., Maľova, M. & Ivanič Ľ. (2010). Analysis of mostly deep-going disasters from 1996 year accordance data of Forest Protection Service (in Slovak). In B. Konopka (Ed.), Výskum smrečín destabilizovaných škodlivými činiteľmi (pp. 107−116). Zvolen: Narodne lesnicke centrum.Search in Google Scholar

Malik, V. & Karnet P. (2007). Game damage to forest trees. J. For. Sci., 53(9), 406-412.10.17221/2143-JFSSearch in Google Scholar

Marhold, K. & Hindak F. (Eds.) (1998). Checklist of non-vascular and vascular plants of Slovakia. Bratislava: Veda.Search in Google Scholar

Monteiro, J.M., Lins-Neto, E.M.F., Araujo, E.L., Amorim, E.L.C. & Albuquerque U.P. (2011). Bark regeneration and tannin content in Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemao after simulation of extractive damages-implications to management. Environ. Monit. Assess., 180, 31-39. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1770-3.10.1007/s10661-010-1770-3Search in Google Scholar

Motta, R. (1996). Impact of wild ungulates on forest regeneration and tree composition of mountain forests in the Western Italian Alps. For. Ecol. Manag., 88, 93−98. doi : 10.1016/S0378-1127(96)03814-5.Search in Google Scholar

Mrkva, R. (2001). Damages through peeling and gnawing of red deer are on increase (in Czech). Lesnická Práce, 80(4), 164−167.Search in Google Scholar

Ophoven, E. (2011). Fair game, biology, characters, hunting methods (in Slovak). Bratislava: Slovart.Search in Google Scholar

Prokešova, J. (2004). Red deer in the floodplain forests: the browse specialist? Folia Zool., 53, 293-302.Search in Google Scholar

Rajsky, M., Hell, P., Vodňansky, M. & Garaj M. (2007). Toward biological protection forward of damages by animals - part 1 (in Slovak). Lesník, 1, 16−17. Search in Google Scholar

Rajsky, M., Vodňansky, M., Hell, P., Slamečka, J., Kropil, R. & Rajsky D. (2008). Influence supplementary feeding on bark browsing by red deer (Cervus elaphus) under experimental conditions. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 54, 701−708. DOI: 10.1007/s10344-008-0199-2.10.1007/s10344-008-0199-2Search in Google Scholar

Ružičkova, J., Lehotska, B., Ďugova, O., Gombikova, Z., Hacekova, Z., Janitor, A., Kalivodova, E., Moravčikova, Z., Nevřelova, M. & Petrovič F. (2011). Selected terrestrial biocorridors and biocenters in the contact zone of Trnavská pahorkatina upland and Malé Karpaty Mountains (in Slovak). Bratislava: Univerzita Komenskeho.Search in Google Scholar

Saint-Andrieux, C., Bonenfant, C., Toigo, C., Basille, M. & Klein F. (2009). Factors affecting beech Fagus sylvatica bark stripping by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a mixed forest. Wildl. Biol., 15, 187−196. DOI: 10.2981/07-100.10.2981/07-100Search in Google Scholar

Salata, D., Penksza, K., Malatinszky, A. & Kenez A. (2010). Facts to the landscape history of the Oreg-Bakony Mountains. Tájökológiai Lapok, Special Issue, 79-88.Search in Google Scholar

Uradniček, L. & Chmelař J. (1995). Forest dendrology - part II. (in Czech). Brno: Mendelova Univerzita.Search in Google Scholar

Uradniček, L., Maděra, P., Ticha, S. & Kobližek J. (2009). Woody plants in Czech Republic (in Czech). Brno: Mendelova Univerzita.Search in Google Scholar

Vospernik, S. (2006). Probability of bark stripping damage by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Austria. Silva Fenn., 40, 589−601. DOI: 10.14214/sf.316.10.14214/sf.316Search in Google Scholar

Weisberg, P.J. & Bugmann H. (2003). Forest dynamics and ungulate herbivory: from leaf to landscape. For. Ecol. Manag., 181, 1-12. doi : 10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00123-3.10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00123-3Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, D.E. & Reeder D.M. (Eds.) (2005). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Publication timeframe:
2 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Geosciences, Geography, Life Sciences, Ecology, other