1. bookVolume 4 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2354-0036
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Procrastination is Detrimental to Undergraduate Students’ Self-Rated Creativity: The Mediating Role of State Anxiety

Published Online: 30 Jun 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 4 (2017) - Issue 1 (June 2017)
Page range: 99 - 115
Received: 22 Nov 2016
Accepted: 05 May 2017
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2354-0036
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Procrastination has been found to negatively impact academic and job performance. However, little attention has been given to the effect of procrastination on creative performance. Moreover, past studies have mainly focused on the antecedent role of anxiety in procrastination. The impact of procrastination on anxiety is not clear, though literature has suggested that procrastination may induce anxiety. The primary question addressed in the present study is whether and how procrastination influences creativity. Some exceptional studies have indicated that procrastination allows incubation and hence is conducive to creativity. However, on the basis of the literature, we argued and hypothesized that procrastination may impair creativity through state anxiety. A total of 218 Malaysian undergraduate students were recruited via social networking sites and responded to a packet of online survey questionairres, including self-report of procrastination tendency, state and trait anxiety, and creativity. Results showed that procrastination was positively associated with state and trait anxiety and negatively correlated with creativity. A negative relationship was also observed between state and trait anxiety and creativity. In addition, mediation analysis supported our hypothesis that state anxiety mediates the relationship between procrastination and creativity after controlling for the effect of trait anxiety. Specifically, people tend to experience feeling anxious when they postpone task completion. The high level of anxiety, in turn, is negatively associated with creative performance. As a whole, the findings not only offer the first empirical evidence supportive of the detrimental effect of procrastination on creativity, but also reveal the underlying process. Future directions and limitations are also explored.

Keywords

Baas, M., De Dreu, C., K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activatioin, or regulatory focus? Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 779-806.10.1037/a0012815Search in Google Scholar

Beswick, G., Rothblum, E. D., & Mann, L. (1988). Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian Psychologist, 23, 203-217.10.1080/00050068808255605Search in Google Scholar

Brownlow, S., & Reasinger, R. D. (2000). Putting off until tomorrow what is better done today: Academic procrastination as a function of motivation toward college work. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15, 15-34.Search in Google Scholar

Byron, K., & Khazanchi, S. (2011). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship of state and trait anxiety to performance on figural and verbal creative tasks. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(2), 269-283. doi: 10.1177/0146167210392788Search in Google Scholar

Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (2012). The anxiety and worry workbook: The cognitive behavioral solution. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Search in Google Scholar

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity : flow and the psychology of discovery and invention: New York, NY: Harper Perennial. Search in Google Scholar

De Acedo-Baquedano, M. T. S., & de Acedo-Lizarraga, M. L. S. (2012). Relationships between state and trait anxiety with verbal and graphic creativity in students in compulsory Secondary Education. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10(3), 1123-1138.Search in Google Scholar

Deane, F. P., Spicer, J., & Leathem, J. (1992). Effects of videotaped preparation information on expectations, anxiety, and psychotherapy outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 980-984.10.1037/0022-006X.60.6.980Search in Google Scholar

Díaz-Morales, J. F., Cohen, J. R., & Ferrari, J. R. (2008). An integrated view of personality styles related to avoidant procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(6), 554-558. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.06.018Search in Google Scholar

Dunn, K. (2014). Why wait? The influence of academic self-regulation, intrinsic motivation, and statistics anxiety on procrastination in online statistics. Innovative Higher Education, 39(1), 33-44.10.1007/s10755-013-9256-1Search in Google Scholar

Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 7(2), 336-353.10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.336Search in Google Scholar

Fales, C. L., Barch, D. M., Braver, T. S., Burgess, G. C., Schaefer, A., Mennin, D. S., & Gay, J. R. (2008). Anxiety and cognitive efficiency: Differential modulation of transient and sustained neural activity during a working memory task. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 8(3), 239-253. doi: 10.3758/CABN.8.3.239Search in Google Scholar

Ferrari, J. R. (1991). Compulsive procrastination: Some self-reported characteristics. Psychological Reports, 68(2), 455-458.10.2466/pr0.1991.68.2.455Search in Google Scholar

Ferrari, J. R., & Dovidion, J. F. (2001). Behavioral information search by indecisives. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 1113-1123.10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00094-5Search in Google Scholar

Ferrari, J. R., O’Callaghan, J., & Newbegin, I. (2005). Prevalance of the procrastination in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia: Arousal and avoidance delays among adults. North American Journal of Psychology, 7(1), 1-6.Search in Google Scholar

Förster, J., Friedman, R. S., & Liberman, N. (2004). Temporal construal effects on abstract and concrete thinking: Consequences for insight and creative cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(2), 177-189.10.1037/0022-3514.87.2.177Search in Google Scholar

Friedman, R. S., & Förster, J. (2008). Activation and measurement of motivational states. Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 235-248). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Search in Google Scholar

Fritzsche, B. A., Rapp Young, B., & Hickson, K. C. (2003). Individual differences in academic procrastination tendency and writing success. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1549-1557. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00369-0Search in Google Scholar

George, J. M., & Zhou, J. (2007). Dual tuning in a supportive context: joint contributions of positive mood, negative mood, and supervisory behaviors to employee creativity. The Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 605-622.10.5465/amj.2007.25525934Search in Google Scholar

Gevers, J., Mohammed, S., & Baytalskaya, N. (2015). The conceptualisation and measurement of pacing styles. Applied Psychology, 64(3), 499-540. doi: 10.1111/ apps.12016Search in Google Scholar

Glick, D. M., Millstein, D. J., & Orsillo, S. M. (2014). A preliminary investigation of the role of psychological inflexibility in academic procrastination. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3(2), 81-88.10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.04.002Search in Google Scholar

Gros, D. F., Antony, M. M., Simms, L. J., & McCabe, R. E. (2007). Psychometric Properties of the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA): Comparison to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychological Assessment, 19(4), 369-381.10.1037/1040-3590.19.4.369Search in Google Scholar

Gros, D. F., Simms, L. J., & Antony, M. M. (2010). Psychometric properties of the statetrait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (sticsa) in friendship dyads. Behavior Therapy, 41, 277-284. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2009.07.001Search in Google Scholar

Hao, N., Liu, M., Ku, Y., Hu, Y., & Runco, M. A. (2015). Verbal divergent thinking facilitated by a pleasurable incubation interval. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(3), 286-295. doi: 10.1037/a0038851Search in Google Scholar

Haycock, L. A., McCarthy, P., & Skay, C. L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 317-324.10.1002/j.1556-6676.1998.tb02548.xSearch in Google Scholar

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis : A regression-based approach: New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Search in Google Scholar

Heilman, K. M. (2014). Creativity and the brain. New York, NY: Psychology Press. Search in Google Scholar

Heilman, K. M., Nadeau, S. E., & Beversdorf, D. O. (2003). Creative innovation: Possible brain mechanisms. Neurocase, 9(5), 369-379.10.1076/neur.9.5.369.16553Search in Google Scholar

Kim, H.-Y. (2013). Statistical notes for clinical researchers: Assessing normal distribution (2) using skewness and kurtosis. Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics, 38(1), 52-54. doi: 10.5395/rde.2013.38.1.52Search in Google Scholar

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.02.038Search in Google Scholar

Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 915-931. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.07.001Search in Google Scholar

McCabe, M. P. (1991). Influence of creativity and intelligence on academic performance. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 25(2), 116-122. doi: 10.1002/j.2162-6057.1991.tb01361.Search in Google Scholar

Mohsin, F. Z., & Ayub, N. (2014). The relationship between procrastination, delay of gratification, and job satisfaction among high school teachers. Japanese Psychological Research, 56(3), 224-234. Doi: 10.1111/jpr.1204610.1111/jpr.12046Search in Google Scholar

Mumford, M. D., & Gustafson, S. B. (1988). Creativity syndrome: integration, application, and innovation. Psychological Bulletin, 103(1), 27-43.10.1037/0033-2909.103.1.27Search in Google Scholar

Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Academic procrastination and statistics anxiety. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1), 3-19.10.1080/0260293042000160384Search in Google Scholar

Owens, A. M. N. I. (1997). Procrastination in high school achievement: A causal structural model. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 12(4), 869-887.Search in Google Scholar

Patrzek, J., Sattler, S., van Veen, F., Grunschel, C., & Fries, S. (2014). Investigating the effect of academic procrastination on the frequency and variety of academic misconduct: A panel study. Studies in Higher Education, 40(6), 1014-1029. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2013.854765Search in Google Scholar

Protogerou, C., Fleeman, N., Dwan, K., Richardson, M., Dundar, Y., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Moderators of the effect of psychological interventions on depression and anxiety in cardiac surgery patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Behavior Research and Therapy, 73, 151-164.10.1016/j.brat.2015.08.004Search in Google Scholar

Ree, M. J., French, D., MacLeod, C., & Locke, V. (2008). Distinguishing cognitive and somatic dimensions of state and trait anxiety: Development and validation of the statetrait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(03), 313-332.10.1017/S1352465808004232Search in Google Scholar

Reiter-Palmon, R., Morral, E., Kaufman, C., & Santo, J. B. (2012). Evaluation of self-perceptions of creativity: Is it a useful criterion? Creativity Research Journal, 24(2-3), 107-114.10.1080/10400419.2012.676980Search in Google Scholar

Rice, K. G., Richardson, C. M. E., & Clark, D. (2012). Perfectionism, procrastination, and psychological distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(2), 288-302. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026643Search in Google Scholar

Rothblum, E. D., Solomon, L. J., & Murakami, J. (1986). Affective, cognitive, and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(4), 387-394.10.1037/0022-0167.33.4.387Search in Google Scholar

Runco, M. A., & Jaeger, G. J. (2012). The standard definition of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 92-96. Doi: 10.1080/10400419.2012.65009210.1080/10400419.2012.650092Search in Google Scholar

Ryska, T. A. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral strategies and precompetitive anxiety among recreational athletes. The Psychological Record, 48(4), 697-708.10.1007/BF03395299Search in Google Scholar

Sarason, I. G. (1988). Anxiety, self-preoccupation and attention. Anxiety Research, 1(1), 3-7. doi: 10.1080/10615808808248215Search in Google Scholar

Scott, G. M., Lonergan, D. C., & Mumford, M. D. (2005). Conceptual combination: Alternative knowledge structures, alternative heuristics. Creativity Research Journal, 17(1), 79-98. doi: 10.1207/s15326934crj1701_7Search in Google Scholar

Silvia, P. J., & Kimbrel, N. A. (2010). A dimensional analysis of creativity and mental illness: Do anxiety and depression symptoms predict creative cognition, creative accomplishments, and creative self-concepts? Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 4(1), 2-10. doi: 10.1037/a0016494Search in Google Scholar

Sirois, F., & Pychyl, T. (2013). Procrastination and the priority of short-term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 115-127. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12011Search in Google Scholar

Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive- behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 503-509.10.1037/0022-0167.31.4.503Search in Google Scholar

Spielberger, C. D. (1976). The nature and measurement of anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger & R. Diaz-Guerrero (Eds.), Cross-cultural anxiety (pp. 3-10). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.Search in Google Scholar

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65-94.10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65Search in Google Scholar

Subotnik, R., Steiner, C., & Chakraborty, B. (1999). Procrastination revisited: The constructive use of delayed response. Creativity Research Journal, 12(2), 151-160.10.1207/s15326934crj1202_7Search in Google Scholar

Tan, C. S., Lau, X. S., & Lee, L. K. (2017). The mediating role of creative process engagement in the relationship between shyness and self-rated creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/jocb.173Search in Google Scholar

Tan, C. S., Lau, X. S., Kung, Y. T., & Kailsan, R. (2016). Openness to experience enhances creativity: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation and the creative process engagement. Journal of Creative Behavior. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1002/jocb.170Search in Google Scholar

Tuckman, B. W. (1991). The development and concurrent validity of the procrastination scale. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 51(2), 473.10.1177/0013164491512022Search in Google Scholar

Van Eerde, W. (2003). A meta-analytically derived nomological network of procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(6), 1401-1418. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00358-6Search in Google Scholar

Van Eerde, W., Beeftink, F., & Rutte, C. G. (2015). Working on something else for a while: Pacing in creative design projects. Time & Society. doi: 10.1177/0961463x15577274Search in Google Scholar

Wong, J. K.-K. (2004). Are the learning styles of Asian international students culturally or contextually based? International Education Journal, 4(4), 166.Search in Google Scholar

You, J. W. (2015). Examining the Effect of Academic Procrastination on Achievement Using LMS Data in e-Learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), 64-74.Search in Google Scholar

Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 682-696. doi: 10.2307/3069410Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo