1. bookVolume 3 (2016): Issue 1 (June 2016)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2354-0036
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Cognitive Poetry: Theoretical Framework for the Application of Cognitive Psychology Techniques to Poetic Text

Published Online: 08 Jun 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 3 (2016) - Issue 1 (June 2016)
Page range: 59 - 83
Received: 12 Jan 2016
Accepted: 15 Apr 2016
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2354-0036
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This article presents a theoretical framework for the author’s experimental work in contemporary poetry, which has received the term cognitive poetry. In contrast to cognitive poetics, which applies the principles of cognitive psychology to interpret poetic texts, cognitive poetry applies these principles to produce poetic texts. The theoretical considerations of cognitive poetry are based on the assumption that one of the major purposes of creative work is to elicit an aesthetical reaction in the beholder. The aesthetical reaction to poetic texts could be achieved via their satiation with multiple meanings presented through multiple sensory modalities. Cognitive poetry employs techniques developed in cognitive psychology to explicitly address cognitive processes underlying the construction of multiple conceptual planes. The following techniques are discussed: priming, the Stroop effect, multimodal and multilingual presentations. The applications of these techniques are illustrated with examples of poetic texts produced by the author.

Keywords

Androutsopoulos, J. (2013). Networked multilingualism: Some language practices on Facebook and their implications. International Journal of Bilingualism. doi: 10.1177/136700691348919810.1177/1367006913489198Search in Google Scholar

Aristotle. (2012). Poetics (J. Sachs, Trans.). Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Incorporated.Search in Google Scholar

Bernard, J. W. (1986). Messiaen's synaesthesia: The correspondence between color and sound structure in his music. Music Perception, 4, 41-68.10.2307/40285351Search in Google Scholar

Bhatia, T. K., & Ritchie, W. C. (2008). The Bilingual Mind and Linguistic Creativity. Journal of Creative Communications, 3, 5-21. doi: 10.1177/09732586080030010210.1177/097325860800300102Search in Google Scholar

Braun, J. (1998). Divided attention: Narrowing the gap between brain and behavior. In R. Parasuraman (Ed.), The attentive brain (pp. 327-351). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Broadbent, D. E. (1958). Perception and communication. Madison, WI: Pergamon Press.10.1037/10037-000Search in Google Scholar

Ceci, S. J., & Williams, W. M. (1999). The nature-nurture debate: The essential readings. Malden, MA US: Blackwell Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Chik, A. (2010). Creative multilingualism in Hong Kong popular music. World Englishes, 29, 508-522. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-971X.2010.01678.x10.1111/j.1467-971X.2010.01678.xSearch in Google Scholar

Cleary, B. P. (2004). Rainbow Soup: Adventures in Poetry. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books.Search in Google Scholar

Cohen Kadosh, R., & Henik, A. (2007). Can synaesthesia research inform cognitive psychology? Trends in Cognitive Psychologys, 11, 177-184.10.1016/j.tics.2007.01.003Search in Google Scholar

Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82, 407-428.10.1037/0033-295X.82.6.407Search in Google Scholar

Collins, A. M., & Quillian, M. R. (1969). Retrieval time from semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 240-247.10.1016/S0022-5371(69)80069-1Search in Google Scholar

Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York, NY: HarperCollins.Search in Google Scholar

Cytowic, R. E. (2002). Synaesthesia: A union of the senses. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.10.7551/mitpress/6590.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Cytowic, R. E., & Eagleman, D. M. (2009). Wednesday is indigo blue: Discovering the brain of synesthesia. Cambridge, MA US: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

de Groot, A. M. B. (2000). On the source and nature of semantic and conceptual knowledge. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 7-9.10.1017/S1366728900220117Search in Google Scholar

Deregowski, J. B. (1989). Real space and represented space: Cross-cultural perspectives. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 51-119.10.1017/S0140525X00024286Search in Google Scholar

Domino, G. (1989). Synaesthesia and creativity in fine arts students: An empirical look. Creativity Research Journal, 2, 17-29.10.1080/10400418909534297Search in Google Scholar

Duncan, J. (1999). Attention. In F. C. Keil & R. A. Wilson (Eds.), The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Psychologys. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Eagleman, D. M., & Goodale, M. A. (2009). Why color synesthesia involves more than color. Trends in Cognitive Psychologys, 13, 288-292.10.1016/j.tics.2009.03.009Search in Google Scholar

Edeline, F. (2012). The use of colour in visual poetry. Óbuda University e-Bulletin, 3, 285-299.Search in Google Scholar

Eliot, C. W. (Ed.). (2010). English Poetry II: Collins to Fitzgerald (Vol. XLI). New York, NY: Cosimo, Incorporated.Search in Google Scholar

Fainsilber, L., & Ortony, A. (1987). Metaphorical uses of language in the expression of emotions. Metaphor & Symbolic Activity, 2, 239-250.10.1207/s15327868ms0204_2Search in Google Scholar

Feynman, R. (1988). What do you care what other people think? Further adventures of a curious character. New York, NY: Norton.Search in Google Scholar

Frankl, V. E. (2000). Man's search for ultimate meaning. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.Search in Google Scholar

Garcia, O., & Li, W. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave.10.1057/9781137385765Search in Google Scholar

Grossenbacher, P. G. (1997). Perception and sensory information in synaesthetic experience. In S. Baron-Cohen & J. E. Harrison (Eds.), Synaesthesia: Classic and contemporary readings (pp. 148-172). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

Harhur, T. (2012). BCE. Moscow, Russia: E.Ra.Search in Google Scholar

Homer (2012). The Iliad (S. Mitchell, Trans.). New York, NY: Atria Books.Search in Google Scholar

Hubbard, E. M., & Ramachandran, V. S. (2005). Neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia. Neuron, 48, 509-520.10.1016/j.neuron.2005.10.012Search in Google Scholar

Hudson, W. (1960). Pictorial depth perception in sub-cultural groups in Africa. Journal of Social Psychology, 52, 183-208.10.1080/00224545.1960.9922077Search in Google Scholar

Ione, A., & Tyler, C. (2003). Neurohistory and the arts: Was Kandinsky a synesthete? Journal of the History of Neuroscience, 12, 223-226.10.1076/jhin.12.2.223.15540Search in Google Scholar

Jonsson, C. (2005). Code-switching in Chicano Theater. Umeå, Sweden: Umeå University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Kasof, J. (1997). Creativity and breadth of attention. Creativity Research Journal, 10, 303-315.10.1207/s15326934crj1004_2Search in Google Scholar

Kharkhurin, A. V. (2007). The role of cross-linguistic and cross-cultural experiences in bilinguals’ divergent thinking. In I. Kecskes & L. Albertazzi (Eds.), Cognitive Aspects of Bilingualism (pp. 175-210). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Search in Google Scholar

Kharkhurin, A. V. (2008). The effect of linguistic proficiency, age of second language acquisition, and length of exposure to a new cultural environment on bilinguals’ divergent thinking. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 11, 225-243.10.1017/S1366728908003398Search in Google Scholar

Kharkhurin, A. V. (2009). The role of bilingualism in creative performance on divergent thinking and Invented Alien Creatures tests. Journal of Creative Behavior, 43, 59-71.10.1002/j.2162-6057.2009.tb01306.xSearch in Google Scholar

Kharkhurin, A. V. (2011). Conceptual freedom of the globalized mind: Multicultural experiences enhance human cognition through the expansion of conceptual categories. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 18, 66-83.Search in Google Scholar

Kharkhurin, A. V. (2014). Creativity.4in1: Four-criterion construct of creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 26, 338-352. doi: 10.1080/10400419.2014.92942410.1080/10400419.2014.929424Search in Google Scholar

Kharkhurin, A. V., & Isaeva, M. G. (2014). Language mediated concept activation in bilingual memory as a facilitation mechanism of creative behavior. Paper presented at the The 3rd International Conference on the Interaction of Language and Cultures, Cherepovets, Russia.Search in Google Scholar

Kharkhurin, A. V., & Li, W.(2014). The role of code-switching in bilingual creativity. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1-17. doi: 10.1080/13670050.2014.88421110.1080/13670050.2014.884211Search in Google Scholar

Koestler, A. (1964). The act of creation. Lewiston, NY: Macmillan.Search in Google Scholar

Koestler, A. (1968). The ghost in the machine. Lewiston, NY: Macmillan.Search in Google Scholar

Kroll, J. F., & de Groot, A. M. B. (1997). Lexical and conceptual memory in the bilingual: Mapping form to meaning in two languages. In A. M. B. de Groot & J. F. Kroll (Eds.), Tutorials in bilingualism: Psycholinguistic perspectives (pp. 169-199). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Search in Google Scholar

Kuhn, T. S. (1993). Metaphor in science. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (2nd ed., pp. 137-163). New York: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Lamb, S. (1999). Pathways of the brain. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.10.1075/cilt.170Search in Google Scholar

Li W., & Wu, C.-J. (2009). Polite Chinese children revisited: Creativity and the use of codeswitching in the Chinese complementary school classroom. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12, 193-211. doi: 10.1080/1367005080215321010.1080/13670050802153210Search in Google Scholar

Loftus, E. F., & Klinger, M. R. (1992). Is the unconscious smart or dumb? American Psychologist, 47, 761-765. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.47.6.76110.1037/0003-066X.47.6.761Search in Google Scholar

Loose, R., Kaufmann, C., Auer, D. P., & Lange, K. W. (2003). Human prefrontal and sensory cortical activity during divided attention tasks. Human brain mapping, 18, 249-259. doi: 10.1002/hbm.1008210.1002/hbm.10082Search in Google Scholar

Lubart, T. I. (2000). Models of the creative process: past, present and future. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 295-308.10.1207/S15326934CRJ1334_07Search in Google Scholar

Lubart, T. I., & Getz, I. (1997). Emotion, metaphor and the creative process. Creativity Research Journal, 10, 285-301.10.1207/s15326934crj1004_1Search in Google Scholar

Lucy, J. A. (1997). Linguistic relativity. Annual Review of Anthropology, 26, 291-312.10.1146/annurev.anthro.26.1.291Search in Google Scholar

MacCormac, E. R. (1986). Creative metaphors. Metaphor & Symbolic Activity, 1, 171-184.10.1207/s15327868ms0103_2Search in Google Scholar

Marks, L. E. (1978). The unity of the senses: Interrelations among the modalities. New York: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mayr, S., & Buchner, A. (2007). Negative Priming as a Memory Phenomenon. Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Journal of Psychology, 215, 35-51. doi: 10.1027/0044-3409.215.1.3510.1027/0044-3409.215.1.35Search in Google Scholar

McClelland, J. L., & Rumelhart, D. E. (1985). Distributed memory and the representation of general and specific information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 114, 159-188.10.1037/0096-3445.114.2.159Search in Google Scholar

McNamara, T. P., & Holbrook, J. B. (2003). Semantic memory and priming. In A. F. Healy & R. W. Proctor (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 447-474). New York: Wiley.Search in Google Scholar

Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69, 220-232.10.1037/h0048850Search in Google Scholar

Mednick, S. A., & Mednick, M. T. (1967). Examiner's manual: Remote Associates Test. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Search in Google Scholar

Mendelsohn, G. A. (1976). Associative and attentional processes in creative performance. Journal of Personality, 44, 341-369.10.1111/j.1467-6494.1976.tb00127.xSearch in Google Scholar

Meyer, D. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 227-234.10.1037/h0031564Search in Google Scholar

Miall, D. S. (1987). Metaphor and affect: The problem of creative thought. Metaphor & Symbolic Activity, 2, 81-96.10.1207/s15327868ms0202_1Search in Google Scholar

Mulvenna, C., & Walsh, V. (2005). Synaesthesia. Current Biology, 15, 399-400.10.1016/j.cub.2005.05.039Search in Google Scholar

Mulvenna, C. M., Hubbard, E. M., Ramachandran, V. S., & Pollick, F. (2004). Synaesthesia and creativity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 188.Search in Google Scholar

Nabokov, V. (1967). Speak, memory: An autobiography revisited. New York, NY: Vintage Books.Search in Google Scholar

Neely, J. H. (1991). Semantic priming effects in visual word recognition: A selective review of current findings and theories. In D. Besner & G. W. Humphreys (Eds.), Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition (pp. 264-336). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Search in Google Scholar

Neisser, U., & Becklen, R. (1975). Selective looking: Attending to visually specified events. Cognitive Psychology, 7, 480-494. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(75)90019-5Search in Google Scholar

Paradis, M. (1997). The cognitive neuropsychology of bilingualism. In A. M. B. de Groot & J. F. Kroll (Eds.), Tutorials in bilingualism: Psycholinguistic perspectives (pp. 331-354). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Search in Google Scholar

Paradis, M. (2000). Cerebral representation of bilingual concepts. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 22-24.10.1017/S1366728900270119Search in Google Scholar

Parasuraman, R. (1998). The attentive brain: issues and prospects. In R. Parasuraman (Ed.), The attentive brain (pp. 3-15). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Pavlenko, A. (2000). New approaches to concepts in bilingual memory. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 1-4.10.1017/S1366728900000110Search in Google Scholar

Pavlenko, A. (2014). The Bilingual mind: And what it tells us about language and thought. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139021456Search in Google Scholar

Peacock, K. (1985). Synesthetic perception: Alexander Scriabin's color hearing. Music Perception, 2, 483-506.10.2307/40285315Search in Google Scholar

Penfield, W., & Roberts, L. (1959). Speech and brain mechanisms. Princeton, NJ, US: Princeton University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Piaget, J. (1936). La naissance de l'intelligence chez l'enfant. Oxford, UK: Delachaux et Niestlé.Search in Google Scholar

Plotnik, A. (2007). Spunk & bite: A writer's guide to bold, contemporary style. New York, NY: Random House Reference.Search in Google Scholar

Pushkin, A. S. (2002). Collected narrative and lyrical poetry (W. Arndt, Trans.). Woodstock, NY: Ardis.Search in Google Scholar

Rich, A. N., & Mattingley, J. B. (2002). Anomalous perception in synaesthesia: A cognitive neuroscience perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 43-52.10.1038/nrn702Search in Google Scholar

Rothenberg, A. (1979). The emerging goddess: The creative process in art, science and other fields. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Rothenberg, A. (1996). The Janusian process in scientific creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 9, 207-231.10.1207/s15326934crj0902&3_8Search in Google Scholar

Sagiv, N., Simner, J., Collins, J., Butterworth, B., & Ward, J. (2006). What is the relationship between synaesthesia and visuo-spatial number forms? Cognition, 101, 114-128.10.1016/j.cognition.2005.09.004Search in Google Scholar

Scroffa, C. (1568). I cantici di Fidentio ristampati con aggionta d'alcune uaghe compositioni nel medesimo.Search in Google Scholar

Sebba, M., Jonsson, C., & Mahootian, S. (2012). Language mixing and code-switching in writing : approaches to mixed-language written discourse. New York: Routledge.10.4324/9780203136133Search in Google Scholar

Silvia, P. J., & Beaty, R. E. (2012). Making creative metaphors: The importance of fluid intelligence for creative thought. Intelligence, 40, 343-351.10.1016/j.intell.2012.02.005Search in Google Scholar

Simner, J., & Hubbard, E. M. (2006). Variants of synesthesia interact in cognitive tasks: Evidence for implicit associations and late connectivity in cross-talk theories. Neuro-science, 143, 805-814.10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.08.018Search in Google Scholar

Simner, J., Ward, J., Lanz, M., Jansari, A., Noonan, K., Glover, L., & Oakley, D. A. (2005). Non-random associations of graphemes to colours in synaesthetic and nonsynaesthetic populations. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22, 1069 - 1085.10.1080/02643290500200122Search in Google Scholar

Spelke, E., Hirst, W., & Neisser, U. (1976). Skills of divided attention. Cognition, 4, 215-230. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(76)90018-4Search in Google Scholar

Sperry, R. W. (1968). Hemisphere deconnection and unity in conscious awareness. American Psychologist, 23, 723.10.1037/h0026839Search in Google Scholar

Stockwell, P. (2002). Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction. London, UK: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-662.10.1037/h0054651Search in Google Scholar

Tsur, R. (1992). Toward a theory of cognitive poetics. Amsterdam, NL: North-Holland.Search in Google Scholar

Vaid, J. (2000). New approaches to conceptual representations in bilingual memory: The case for studying humor interpretation. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 3, 28-30.10.1017/S1366728900290111Search in Google Scholar

Vygotsky, L. S. (1925/1971). Psychology of art. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Wagner, T., Valero-Cabre, A., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2007). Noninvasive Human Brain Stimulation. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 9, 527-565. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.bioeng.9.061206.13310010.1146/annurev.bioeng.9.061206.133100Search in Google Scholar

Ward, J., Huckstep, B., & Tsakanikos, E. (2006). Sound-colour synaesthesia: To what extent does it use cross-modal mechanisms common to us all? Cortex, 42, 264-280.10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70352-6Search in Google Scholar

Ward, T. B. (1994). Structured imagination: The role of category structure in exemplar generation. Cognitive Psychology, 27, 1-40.10.1006/cogp.1994.1010Search in Google Scholar

Ward, T. B., Patterson, M. J., Sifonis, C. M., Dodds, R. A., & Saunders, K. N. (2002). The role of graded category structure in imaginative thought. Memory & Cognition, 30, 199-216.10.3758/BF03195281Search in Google Scholar

Ward, T. B., Smith, S. M., & Vaid, J. (1997). Creative thought: An investigation of conceptual structures and processes. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Search in Google Scholar

Whorf, B. L. (1956). Language, thought, and reality: selected writings. Cambridge, MA: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Search in Google Scholar

Williams-Whitney, D., Mio, J. S., & Whitney, P. (1992). Metaphor production in creative writing. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 21, 497-509.10.1007/BF01067527Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo