1. bookVolume 10 (2020): Issue 3 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Regulatory Framework of the Research-Based Approach to Education in the EU

Published Online: 24 Dec 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 10 (2020) - Issue 3 (December 2020)
Page range: 109 - 136
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Higher education institutions around the world have embarked on complex journeys of organizational change to facilitate the transition towards a more competent and educated society, especially one able to adapt to advanced and sustainable political, economic and sociotechnical paradigms. in this context, leading universities have adopted the Research-Based (rB) approach as a fundamental component of their strategies to bring closer together their main educational activities: teaching, learning and research. However, in spite of ample efforts, serious shortcomings at the implementation level are commonly reported. Especially revealing are the students’ limited self-reliance, confidence, and academic research and writing skills documented in the literature. This article examines and updates the concept of Research-Based maps and explores the multilevel regulatory framework that has conditioned the implementation and alignment of educational initiatives, including the institutional arrangements that are common in public universities in the European union, and in Estonia, as an example. it enhances the understanding of complex institutional and regulatory interactions in general, emphasizing the importance of reflexive and well justified normative determination.

Keywords

Aditomo, A.; Goodyear, P.; Bliuc, A.-M. & Ellis, R.C. (2013), ‘Inquiry-based learning in higher education: principal forms, educational objectives, and disciplinary variations,’ Studies in Higher Education, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1239–1258. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.61658410.1080/03075079.2011.616584 Search in Google Scholar

Barroga, E. & Mitoma, H. (2019), ‘Improving scientific writing skills and publishing capacity by developing university-based editing system and writing programs,’ Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e910.3346/jkms.2019.34.e9631844230618516 Search in Google Scholar

Berland, L. K.; Schwarz, C. V.; Krist, C.; Kenyon, L.; Lo, A. S. & Reiser, B. J. (2015), ‘Epistemologies in practice: making scientific practices meaningful for students,’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 1082–1112. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.2125710.1002/tea.21257 Search in Google Scholar

Boyer Commission (1998), Reinventing Undergraduate Education: A Blueprint for America’s Research Universities, Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University, Stony Brook, NY: State University of New York at Stony Brook. Search in Google Scholar

Chochia, A. & Kerikmäe, T. (2020), ‘Georgia on its path to Europeanisation: academic cooperation,’ TalTech Journal of European Studies, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 3–6. https://doi.org/10.1515/bjes-2020-001110.1515/bjes-2020-0011 Search in Google Scholar

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, The Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. On a renewed EU agenda for higher education, COM(2017) 247 final, 30.5.2017. Search in Google Scholar

Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, 2012/C 326/01, OJ C326/47, 26.10.2012. Search in Google Scholar

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2012), ‘Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: An overview of self-determination theory,’ in R. M. Ryan (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 85–107. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195399820.013.000610.1093/oxfordhb/9780195399820.013.0006 Search in Google Scholar

Downing, T.; Garrido, A.; Giansante, C.; Iglesias, E.; del Moral, L.; Pedregal, G.; ... & SIRCH Team (1999), A Framework for Institutional Analysis, ed. by K. Bakker, University of Oxford, Environmental Change Unit. Search in Google Scholar

Dunne, J. (2006), ‘Newman now: re-examining the concepts of ‘philosophical’ and ‘liberal’ in the idea of a university,’ British Journal of Educational Studies, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 412–428. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8527.2006.00347.x10.1111/j.1467-8527.2006.00347.x Search in Google Scholar

Edelson, D. C.; Gordin, D. N. & Pea, R. D. (1999), ‘Addressing the challenges of inquiry-based learning through technology and curriculum design,’ Journal of the Learning Sciences, vol. 8, nos. 3–4, pp. 391–450. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.1999.967207510.1080/10508406.1999.9672075 Search in Google Scholar

EFFECT (2016), [Home page], European Forum for Enchanced Collaboration in Teaching. Retrieved from https://eua.eu/101-projects/560-effect.html [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

EHEA (n.d.), [Home page]. Retrieved from http://www.ehea.info/ [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

EHEA (2015), ‘Yerevan Communiqué: The Bologna Process Revisited: The Future of the European Higher Education Area.’ Ministerial Conference. Retrieved from http://www.ehea.info/media.ehea.info/file/2015_Yerevan/71/1/Bologna_Process_Revisited_Future_of_the_EHEA_Final_613711.pdf [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

EHEA (2018), ‘Paris Communique.’ Retrieved from http://www.ehea.info/media.ehea.info/file/2018_Paris/77/1/EHEAParis2018_Communique_final_952771.pdf [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Elen, J.; Lindblom-Ylänne, S. & Clement, M. (2007), ‘Faculty development in research-intensive universities: The role of academics’ conceptions on the relationship between research and teaching,’ International Journal for Academic Development, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 123–139. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360144070160494810.1080/13601440701604948 Search in Google Scholar

Elsen, G. M. F.; Visser-Wijnveen, G. J.; van der Rijst, R. M. & van Driel, J. H. (2009), ‘How to strengthen the connection between research and teaching in undergraduate university education,’ Higher Education Quarterly, vol. 36, pp. 64–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2273.2008.00411.x10.1111/j.1468-2273.2008.00411.x Search in Google Scholar

Estonian Constitution (1992), Eesti Vabariigi Põhiseadus, Riigi Teataja, RT I, 15.05.2015, 2. Search in Google Scholar

Estonian Education Act (1992), Eesti Haridusseadus, Riigi Teataja, RT I, 16.06.2020, 3. Search in Google Scholar

Estonian Higher Education Quality Assessment Council (2012), ‘Quality Assessment of Study Programme Groups in the First and Second Cycles of Higher Education of the EKKA.’ Retrieved from https://ekka.edu.ee/wp-content/uploads/Quality_Assessment_SPG_11.11.2016.pdf [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Estonian Higher Education Strategy 2006–2015, Eesti kõrgharidusstrateegia, Riigi Teataja, RT I 2006, 52, 386. Search in Google Scholar

European Commission (2020), Education and Training, European Policy Cooperation (ET 2020 Framework). Search in Google Scholar

Giller, P. (2011), ‘Integrating research into the undergraduate curriculum: a case study from Ireland,’ Presentation at EUA Conference, Aarhus, April 2011. Search in Google Scholar

Gornitzka, Å. (2007), ‘The Lisbon process: a supranational policy perspective,’ in P. Maassen & J. P. Olsen (eds.) University Dynamics and European Integration, Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 155–178. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-5971-1_810.1007/978-1-4020-5971-1_8 Search in Google Scholar

Gresty, K. A.; Pan, W.; Heffernan, T. & Edwards-Jones, A. (2013), ‘Research-informed teaching from a risk perspective,’ Teaching in Higher Education, vol. 18, pp. 570–585. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2013.79593710.1080/13562517.2013.795937 Search in Google Scholar

Griffiths, R. (2004), ‘Knowledge production and the research-teaching nexus: the case of the built environment disciplines,’ Studies in Higher Education, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 709–726. https://doi.org/10.1080/030750704200028721210.1080/0307507042000287212 Search in Google Scholar

Hajdarpasic, A.; Brew, A. & Popenici, S. (2015), ‘The contribution of academics’ engagement in research to undergraduate education,’ Studies in Higher Education, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 644–657. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013.84221510.1080/03075079.2013.842215 Search in Google Scholar

Haverhals, B. (2007), ‘The normative foundations of research-based education: philosophical notes on the transformation of the modern university idea,’ Studies in Philosophy and Education, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 419–432. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11217-007-9053-310.1007/s11217-007-9053-3 Search in Google Scholar

Healey, M. (2005), ‘Linking research and teaching to benefit student learning,’ Journal of Geography in Higher Education, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 183–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/0309826050013038710.1080/03098260500130387 Search in Google Scholar

Healey, M. & Jenkins, A. (2009), Developing Undergraduate Research and Inquiry, York: The Higher Education Academy. Search in Google Scholar

Healey, M.; Jenkins, A. & Lea, J. (2014), Developing Research-Based Curricula in College-Based Higher Education, York: The Higher Education Academy. Search in Google Scholar

Healey, M.; Jordan, F.; Pell, B. & Short, C. (2010), ‘The research–teaching nexus: a case study of students’ awareness, experiences and perceptions of research,’ Innovations in Education and Teaching International, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 235–246. https://doi.org/10.1080/1470329100371896810.1080/14703291003718968 Search in Google Scholar

Higher Education Law Act (2019), Kõrgharidusseadus, Riigi Teataja, RT I, 16.06.2020, 9. Search in Google Scholar

Hodson, D. (1992), ‘An exploration of some issues relating to integration in science and science education,’ International Journal of Science Education, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 541–562. https://doi.org/10.1080/095006992014050610.1080/0950069920140506 Search in Google Scholar

Katkin, W. (2003), ‘The Boyer Commission Report and its impact on undergraduate research,’ New Directions for Teaching and Learning, vol. 93, pp. 19–38. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.8610.1002/tl.86 Search in Google Scholar

Kinkead, J. (2011), ‘The impact of undergraduate research,’ Newsletter for the Council of Fellows of the American Council on Education, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 21–22. Search in Google Scholar

Krahenbuhl, K. S. (2016), ‘Student-centered education and constructivism: challenges, concerns, and clarity for teachers,’ The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 97–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098655.2016.119131110.1080/00098655.2016.1191311 Search in Google Scholar

Lambert, C. (2009), ‘Pedagogies of participation in higher education: a case for research-based learning,’ Pedagogy, Culture & Society, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 295–309. https://doi.org/10.1080/1468136090319432710.1080/14681360903194327 Search in Google Scholar

LERU (2002), The European Higher Education and Research Areas and the Role of Research-Intensive Universities. Retrieved from: https://www.leru.org/files/The-European-Higher-Education-and-Research-Areas-and-the-Role-of-Research-Intensive-Universities-Full-paper.pdf [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Loukkola, T. & Dakovic, G., eds. (2017), EUA’s Learning and Teaching Initiative – Report from the Thematic Peer Groups in 2017, Brussels: European University Association. Search in Google Scholar

Maher, M. A.; Feldon, D. F.; Timmerman, B. E. & Chao, J. (2014), ‘Faculty perceptions of common challenges encountered by novice doctoral writers,’ Higher Education Research & Development, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 699–711. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2013.86385010.1080/07294360.2013.863850 Search in Google Scholar

Martens, R. L. & de Brabander, C. J. (2014), ‘Towards a unified theory of task-specific motivation,’ Educational Research Review, vol. 11, pp. 27–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2013.11.00110.1016/j.edurev.2013.11.001 Search in Google Scholar

Matthews, K. E.; Cook-Sather, A. & Healey, M. (2018), ‘Connecting learning, teaching and research through student-staff partnerships: towards universities as egalitarian learning communities,’ in V. C. H. Tong, A. Standen & M. Sotiriou (eds.) Shaping Higher Education with Students: Ways to Connect Research and Teaching, London: UCL Press, pp. 23–29. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt21c4tcm.710.2307/j.ctt21c4tcm.7 Search in Google Scholar

Miller, A.; Sharp, J. & Strong, J., eds. (2012), What is Research-Led Teaching? Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives, London: Consortium for Research Excellence, Support and Training (CREST). Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Education of Estonia (2020a), Eesti elukestva õppe strateegiad [Estonian strategies of lifelong learning]. Retrieved from https://www.hm.ee/sites/default/files/strateegia2020.pdf [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of Education of Estonia (2020b), Haridusvaldkonna arengukava 2021–2035 [Higher education strategy 2012–2035]. Retrieved from https://www.hm.ee/sites/default/files/eesti_haridusvaldkonna_arengukava_2035_seisuga_2020.03.27.pdf [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Öberg, J. (2017), ‘Subsidiarity as a limit to the exercise of EU competences,’ Yearbook of European Law, vol. 36, pp. 391–420. https://doi.org/10.1093/yel/yew02710.1093/yel/yew027 Search in Google Scholar

Observatory Magna Charta Universitatum (n.d.), ‘Living values in high education institutions. Prospectus.’ Retrieved from: http://www.magna-charta.org/activities-and-projects/living-values-project [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Patten, M. L. & Newhart, M. (2017), Understanding Research Methods: An Overview of the Essentials, New York: Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/978131521303310.4324/9781315213033 Search in Google Scholar

Priscoli, J. B. (1989), ‘Public involvement, conflict management: means to EQ and social objectives,’ Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 31–42. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(1989)115:1(31)10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9496(1989)115:1(31) Search in Google Scholar

Rasmussen, J. S.; Hørsted, A. & Nygaard, C. (2017), ‘The Bologna Process as a possible driver for the globalisation of HE?’ in Globalisation of Higher Education: Political, Institutional, Cultural, and Personal Perspectives, Faringdon: Libri Publishing Ltd, pp. 17–34. Search in Google Scholar

Rauhvargers, A.; Deane, C. & Pauwels, W. (2009), Bologna Process Stocktaking Report, Report from working groups appointed by the Bologna Follow-up Group to the Ministerial Conference in Leuven/Louvain la Neuve, April 2009. Retrieved from http://ehea.info/media.ehea.info/file/20090326-27-Prague/61/0/BFUG_CZ_16_5.1a_stocktaking_final_594610.pdf [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Recommendation CM/Rec(2007)6 by the Council of Europe’s Committee of Ministers on the public responsibility for higher education and research, 16.5.2007. Search in Google Scholar

Rutherford, A. (2016), ‘The effect of top-management team heterogeneity on performance in institutions of higher education,’ Public Performance & Management Review, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 119–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2016.117755910.1080/15309576.2016.1177559 Search in Google Scholar

Schapper, J. & Mayson, S. E. (2010), ‘Research-led teaching: moving from a fractured engagement to a marriage of convenience,’ Higher Education Research & Development, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 641–651. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2010.48923610.1080/07294360.2010.489236 Search in Google Scholar

Schouteden, W.; Verburgh, A. & Elen, J. (2016), ‘Teachers’ general and contextualised research conceptions,’ Studies in Higher Education, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 79–94. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.91491510.1080/03075079.2014.914915 Search in Google Scholar

Selamat, A.; Alias, R. A.; Hikmi, S. N.; Puteh, M. & Tapsi, S. M. (2017), ‘Higher education 4.0: Current status and readiness in meeting the fourth industrial revolution challenges,’ Redesigning Higher Education towards Industry, vol. 4, pp. 23–24. Search in Google Scholar

Simons, M. (2006), ‘‘Education through research’ at European universities: notes on the orientation of academic research,’ Journal of Philosophy of Education, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 31–50. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.2006.00493.x10.1111/j.1467-9752.2006.00493.x Search in Google Scholar

Simons, M. & Elen, J. (2007), ’The ‘research-teaching nexus’ and ‘education through research’: An exploration of ambivalence,’ Studies in Higher Education, vol. 32, pp. 617–631. https://doi.org/10.1080/0307507070157378110.1080/03075070701573781 Search in Google Scholar

Sin, C.; Veiga, A. & Amaral, A. (2016), ‘European higher education policies,’ in European Policy Implementation and Higher Education, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 41–62. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-50462-3_310.1057/978-1-137-50462-3_3 Search in Google Scholar

Soriano, F. H. & Mulatero, F. (2010), ‘Knowledge policy in the EU: From the Lisbon strategy to Europe 2020,’ Journal of the Knowledge Economy, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 289–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-010-0020-910.1007/s13132-010-0020-9 Search in Google Scholar

Spronken-Smith, R. & Walker, R. (2010), ‘Can inquiry-based learning strengthen the links between teaching and disciplinary research?’ Studies in Higher Education, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 723–740. https://doi.org/10.1080/0307507090331550210.1080/03075070903315502 Search in Google Scholar

Standard of Higher Education (2019), Kõrgharidusstandard, Riigi Teataja, RT I, 12.07.2019, 17. Search in Google Scholar

Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG) (2015), Brussels, Belgium. Search in Google Scholar

Uskov, V. L.; Bakken, J. P.; Penumatsa, A.; Heinemann, C. & Rachakonda, R. (2017), ‘Smart pedagogy for smart universities,’ in International Conference on Smart Education and Smart E-Learning, Cham: Springer, pp. 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59451-4_110.1007/978-3-319-59451-4_1 Search in Google Scholar

Tardy, C. M. (2005), ‘“It’s like a story”: rhetorical knowledge development in advanced academic literacy,’ Journal of English for Academic Purposes, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 325–338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2005.07.00510.1016/j.jeap.2005.07.005 Search in Google Scholar

Telfer, R. A., ed. (2018), Aviation Instruction and Training, London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/978042946327310.4324/9780429463273 Search in Google Scholar

Tong, V. C.; Standen, A. & Sotiriou, M., eds. (2018), Shaping Higher Education with Students: Ways to Connect Research and Teaching, London: UCL Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt21c4tcm10.2307/j.ctt21c4tcm Search in Google Scholar

Van der Rijst, R. (2017), ‘The transformative nature of research-based education: A thematic overview of the literature,’ in Research-Based Learning: Case Studies from Maastricht University, Cham: Springer, pp. 3–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50993-8_110.1007/978-3-319-50993-8_1 Search in Google Scholar

Van der Rijst, R. M.; Visser-Wijnveen, G. J.; Verstelle, T. & Van Driel, J. H. (2009), ‘Studentbeleving van de onderzoekintensiviteit van universitaire onderwijsomgevingen,’ Pedagogische Studiën, vol. 86, pp. 214–229. Search in Google Scholar

Verburgh, A. L.; Schouteden, W. & Elen, J. (2013), ‘Patterns in the prevalence of research-related goals in higher education programmes,’ Teaching in Higher Education, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 298–310. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2012.71915310.1080/13562517.2012.719153 Search in Google Scholar

Visser-Wijnveen, G. J.; Van Driel, J. H.; Van der Rijst, R. M.; Verloop, N. & Visser, A. (2010), ‘The ideal research-teaching nexus in the eyes of academics: building profiles,’ Higher Education Research & Development, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 195–210. https://doi.org/10.1080/0729436090353201610.1080/07294360903532016 Search in Google Scholar

Walkington, H. (2015), Students as Researchers: Supporting Undergraduate Research in the Disciplines in Higher Education, York: The Higher Education Academy. Search in Google Scholar

Walkington, H. (2016), ‘Students as researchers, students as authors: strategies for engaging students in research and dissemination,’ Presentation at the 7th Innovation Room on ‘Investigative Learning’ of the Centre for Education and Learning on 11 November. Retrieved from http://www.educationandlearning.nl/news/cel-innovation-room-7-investigative-learning [accessed Nov 2020] Search in Google Scholar

Wallin, P.; Adawi, T. & Gold, J. (2017), ‘Linking teaching and research in an undergraduate course and exploring student learning experiences,’ European Journal of Engineering Education, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 58–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043797.2016.119312510.1080/03043797.2016.1193125 Search in Google Scholar

Zamorski, B. (2002), ‘Research-led teaching and learning in higher education: a case,’ Teaching in Higher Education, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 411–427. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562510276055391910.1080/135625102760553919 Search in Google Scholar

Zhu, W. (2004), ‘Faculty views on the importance of writing, the nature of academic writing, and teaching and responding to writing in the disciplines,’ Journal of Second Language Writing, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 29–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.00410.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.004 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo