1. bookVolume 9 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Is Internet Access a Matter of Freedom of Expression? Some Examples from Ukraine

Published Online: 21 Dec 2019
Volume & Issue: Volume 9 (2019) - Issue 3 (September 2019)
Page range: 63 - 81
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Freedom of expression does not only mean absence of censorship or other restrictive content laws—it also means that people have real access to communication. Nowadays, internet is a key means of communication. In this article we explain the relevance of access to internet from legal, practical and market aspects for freedom of expression. To illustrate the question, we present the situation in Ukraine. We look at legislation, including restrictions due to national security—availability, affordability and accessibility of internet. Ukraine is an interesting example of a mixture of very positive indicators and some remaining restrictions.

Keywords

2IP (2019), [Home page]. Retrieved from https://2ip.me/en/ [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Access Now (2019), ‘Changes to Australia’s criminal code will create a new class of internet censorship,’ 2 April. Retrieved from https://www.accessnow.org/changes-to-australias-criminal-code-will-create-a-new-class-of-internet-censorship [accessed 14 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Altmark Trans GmbH and Regierungspräsidium Magdeburg v. Nahverkehrsgesellschaft Altmark GmbH, and Oberbundesanwalt beim Bundesverwaltungsgericht [2000], European Court of Justice, C-280/00.Search in Google Scholar

Burlyuk, O. (2015), ‘The introduction and consolidation of the rule of law in Ukraine: domestic hindrances at the level of the demand for law, Hague Journal on Rule of Law, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40803-015-0001-y10.1007/s40803-015-0001-yOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Cable UK (2019), ‘Worldwide data pricing.’ Retrieved from https://www.cable.co.uk/mobiles/worldwide-data-pricing/?fbclid=IwAR3HVmdI7Kd1QRn2RvoVe6yVIYiSLu7nc2DjRt_oRS5duIgOkAiVmtsa-s0 [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Commission Staff Working Document SWD(2013) 329 final: Impact Assessment, Accompanying the document Commission Recommendation on consistent non-discrimination obligations and costing methodologies to promote competition and enhance the broadband investment environment, 11.9.2013.Search in Google Scholar

Communication COM(1999) 539 from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Towards a new framework for Electronic Communications infrastructure and associated services, 10.11.1999.Search in Google Scholar

Corbeau [1991], European Court of Justice, C-320/91.Search in Google Scholar

De Muyter, L. (2012), ‘Regulatory asymmetry? The competition between telecommunication operators and other ICT players,’ Journal of European Competition Law & Practice, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 452–464. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeclap/lps04510.1093/jeclap/lps045Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

EU in Ukraine (2015), ‘Media freedom index: Georgia leads Eastern Partnership countries,’ Cooperation News. Retrieved from http://euukrainecoop.com/2015/02/25/media/ [accessed 14 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

European Convention on Human Rights (1952), 4 November 1950 CETS 005, in force 3 September 1953. Retrieved from http://www.conventions.coe.int/Treaty/ [accessed Nov 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Fastmetrics (2019), ‘Internet speeds by country (Mbps).’ Retrieved from https://www.fastmetrics.com/internet-connection-speed-by-country.php [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Forbes Russia (2014), ‘Durov obiasnil prodazhu doli vo “VKontakte” konfliktom s FSB’ [Durov explained the conflict with the FSB regarding the sale of VKontakte shares], 17 April. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.ru/news/255173-durov-obyasnil-prodazhu-doli-vo-vkontakte-konfliktom-s-fsb [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Freedom House (2018), ‘Freedom on the Net 2018.’ Retrieved from https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-net/2018/ukraine [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Giles, K. (2015), ‘Russia and its neighbours: old attitudes, new capabilities,’ in K. Geers (ed.) Cyber War in Perspective: Russian Aggression against Ukraine, Tallinn: NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, pp. 19–28.Search in Google Scholar

Government of Ukraine (2015), Decree of the President of Ukraine no. 878, ‘On the decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine,’ 26.5.2015; ‘On the strategy of National Security of Ukraine,’ 6.5.2015.Search in Google Scholar

Government of Ukraine (2016), Presidential Decree no. 96/2016 ‘On the decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine,’ 27.1.2016; ‘On the strategy of cybersecurity of Ukraine,’ 27.01.2016.Search in Google Scholar

Government of Ukraine (2017a), Decree of the President of Ukraine no. 47/2017 ‘On decision of the Council of National Security and Defense of Ukraine,’ 29.12.2016; ‘On the doctrine of information security of Ukraine,’ 29.12.2016.Search in Google Scholar

Government of Ukraine (2017b), Decree of the President of Ukraine no. 133/2017 ‘On the decision of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine,’ 28.4.2017; ‘On the application of personal special economic and other restrictive measures (sanctions),’ 28.4.2017.Search in Google Scholar

Gustafsson, L. (2017), ‘Telebolag vill ha supersnabbt bredband för alla finländare,’ Svenska YLE, 6 June. Retrieved from https://svenska.yle.fi/artikel/2017/06/06/telebolag-vill-ha-supersnabbt-bredband-alla-finlandare [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Habermas, J. (1991), The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Harrison, J. & Woods, L. (2007), European Broadcasting Law and Policy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO978051149529810.1017/CBO9780511495298Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Johansson, K. (2018), ‘Finland näst sämst i EU på bredband på glesbygden,’ Svenska YLE, 5 April. Retrieved from https://svenska.yle.fi/artikel/2018/04/05/finland-nast-samst-i-eu-pa-bredband-pa-glesbygden [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Jonsson, A. (2011), ‘Russia and Europe,’ in G. Gill & J. Young (eds.) Routledge Handbook of Russian Politics and Society, London: Routledge, pp. 444–453.Search in Google Scholar

Kamecke, U. & Körber, T. (2008), ‘Technological neutrality in the EC regulatory framework for electronic communications: a good principle widely misunderstood,’ European Competition Law Review, no. 5, pp. 330–337.Search in Google Scholar

MobUA (2019), ‘Maps.’ Retrieved from https://www.mobua.net/maps/?pos=49.339081,26.315016,7 [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Nakashima, E. (2018), ‘Russian military was behind ‘NotPetya’ cyberattack in Ukraine, CIA concludes,’ The Washington Post, 13 January. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/russian-military-was-behind-notpetya-cyberattack-in-ukraine-cia-concludes/2018/01/12/048d8506-f7ca-11e7-b34a-b85626af34ef_story.html?noredirect=on [accessed 7 Sep 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Nihoul, P. & Rothford, P. (2004), EU Electronic Communications Law. Competition and Regulation in the European Telecommunications Market, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Nikolinakos, N. Th. (2006), EU Competition Law and Regulation in the Converging Telecommunications, Media and IT Sectors, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International.Search in Google Scholar

Numbeo (2019), ‘Prices by country of internet (60 Mbps or more, unlimited data, cable/ADSL) (Utilities (monthly)),’ Retrieved from https://www.numbeo.com/cost-of-living/prices_by_country.jsp?displayCurrency=USD&itemId=33 [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Nyman Metcalf, K. (2018), ‘Post-conflict reconstruction of trust in media,’ in S. Sayapin & E. Tsybuluneko (eds.) The Use of Force against Ukraine and International Law, The Hague: Springer, pp. 425−445. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-222-4_2010.1007/978-94-6265-222-4_20Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Saraiva Campos, R. (2017), ‘Evolution of positioning techniques in cellular networks, from 2G to 4G,’ Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2017, Article ID 2315036. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2315036.10.1155/2017/2315036Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Schwarz, T.; Satola, D. & Bustani, C. (2001), ‘Telecommunications reform in emerging markets,’ in I. Walden & J. Angel (eds.) Telecommunications Law, London: Blackstone Press, pp. 488–529.Search in Google Scholar

Still, V. (2010), ‘Free movement of information,’ Scandinavian Studies in Law: ICT Legal Issues, vol. 56, pp. 329–358.Search in Google Scholar

The Bell (2018), ‘Pavel Durov—biografiia, sostoianie, “VKontakte” i Telegram’ [Pavel Durov—biography, situation, VKontakte and Telegram], 17 December. Retrieved from https://thebell.io/pavel-durov-biografiya-sostoyanie-vkontakte-i-telegram/ [accessed 13 Apr 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Universal Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), UNTS 999, United Nations, 16.12.1966. Retrieved from http://treaties.un.org/ [accessed Nov 2019]Search in Google Scholar

Van Eijk, N. (2008), ‘The new European framework for the communications sector,’ in O. Castendyk, E. Dommering & A. Scheuer (eds.) European Media Law, Alphen aan den Rijn: Wolters Kluwer, pp. 1109–1125.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo