1. bookVolume 17 (2017): Issue 2 (May 2017)
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Rye non-starch polysaccharides: their impact on poultry intestinal physiology, nutrients digestibility and performance indices – a review

Published Online: 28 Apr 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 17 (2017) - Issue 2 (May 2017)
Page range: 351 - 369
Received: 16 Nov 2016
Accepted: 09 Feb 2017
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

A high content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), namely arabinoxylans (AX), in rye is a reason for the potential adverse effect of this grain on intestinal functions, gut microflora, absorption of nutrients and performance indices. As such, the use of rye grain in intensively produced poultry diets is limited. However, recently developed new types of hybrid rye are characterised not only by increased yield potential, resistance to fungus and pests and low production costs, but also the content of antinutritive substances may be reduced in these varieties. The aim of this paper is to discuss the mechanisms of NSP effects in the digestive tract, as well as to review the results of recent studies on the use of rye in poultry nutrition. Based on the literature data, it can be concluded that the use of new hybrid rye varieties with decreased NSP concentration and NSP-hydrolising enzymes may be a way of increasing the share of rye grain in poultry diets.


Almirall M., Esteve - Garcia E. (1994). Rate of passage of barley diet wíth chromium oxide: influence of age and poultry strain and effect of ß-glucanase supplementation. Poultry Sci., 73: 1433-1440.Search in Google Scholar

Andersson R., Westerlund E., Tilly A.C., Åman P. (1993). Natural variations in the chemical composition of white flour. J. Ceral. Sci., 17: 183-189.Search in Google Scholar

Annison G. (1993). The chemistry of dietary fiber. In: Dietary Fiber and Beyond-Australian Perspectives, Samman S. and Anisson G. (ed). Nutrition Society of Australia Inc. Perth, WA., pp. 1-18.Search in Google Scholar

Bach Knudsen K.E. (2001). The nutritional significance of “dietary fibre” analysis. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 90: 3-20.Search in Google Scholar

Bach Knudsen K.E. (2014). Fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide content and variation in common crops used in broiler diets. Poultry Sci., 93: 2380-2393.Search in Google Scholar

Bedford M.R., Cowieson A.J. (2012). Exogenous enzymes and their effects on intestinal microbiology. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 173: 76-85.Search in Google Scholar

Bedford M.R., Classen H.L., Campbell G.L. (1991). The effect of pelleting, salt, and pentosanase on the viscosity of intestinal contents and the performance of broilers fed rye. Poultry Sci., 70: 1571-1577.Search in Google Scholar

Boros D., Fraś A. (2015). Monographs and dissertations 49/2015. Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute - National Research Institute.Search in Google Scholar

Boros D., Marquardt R.R., Guenter W. (1998). Site of exoenzyme action in gastrointestinal tract of broiler chicks. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 78: 599-602.Search in Google Scholar

Brufau J., Cos R., Perez-Vendrell A., Esteve - García E. (1994). Performance of laying hens as affected by the supplementation ofabarley-based diet withacrude enzyme preparation from Trichoderma viride. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 74: 129-133.Search in Google Scholar

Campbell G., Campbell L., Classen H. (1983). Utilisation of rye by chickens: effect of microbial status, diet gamma irradiation and sodium taurocholate supplementation. Brit. Poultry Sci., 24: 191-203.Search in Google Scholar

Cardoso V., Ferreira A.P., Costa M., Ponte P.I.P., Falcão L., Freire J.P., Lordelo M.M., Ferreira L.M.A., Fontes C.M.G.A., Ribeiro T. (2014). Temporal restriction of enzyme supplementation in barley-based diets has no effect in broiler performance. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 198: 186-195.Search in Google Scholar

Choct M., Annison G. (1992). The inhibition of nutrient digestion by wheat pentosans. Brit. J. Nutr., 67: 123-132.Search in Google Scholar

Coles G.D., Hartunian-Sowa S.M., Jamieson P.D., Hay A.J., Atwell W.A., Fulcher R.G. (1997). Environmentally-induced variation in starch and non-starch polysaccharide content in wheat. J. Cereal Sci., 26: 47-54.Search in Google Scholar

Comino P., Collins H., Lahnstein J., Beahan Ch., Gidley M.J. (2014). Characterisation of soluble and insoluble cell wall fractions from rye, wheat and hull-less barley endosperm flours. Food Hydrocolloid., 41: 219-226.Search in Google Scholar

Cyran M., Lapinski B. (2006). Physico-chemical characteristics of dietary fibre fractions in the grains of tetraploid and hexaploid triticales:acomparison with wheat and rye. Plant Breeding Seed Sci., 54: 77-84.Search in Google Scholar

Dänicke S., Simon O., Jeroch H., Bedford M. (1997 a). Interactions between dietary fat type and xylanase supplementation when rye based diets are fed to broiler chickens. 1. Physicochemical chyme features. Brit. Poultry Sci., 38: 537-545.10.1080/000716697084180349510999Search in Google Scholar

Dänicke S., Simon O., Jeroch H., Bedford M. (1997 b). Interactions between dietary fat type and xylanase supplementation when rye based diets are fed to broiler chickens 2. Performance, nutrient digestibility and the fat-soluble vitamin status of liver. Brit. Poultry Sci., 38: 546-556.10.1080/000716697084180359511000Search in Google Scholar

Edney M.J., Marchylo B.A., MacGregor A.W. (1991). Structure of total barley beta glucan. J. I. Brewing., 97: 39-44.Search in Google Scholar

El - Wafa A.S., Shalash S.M., Selim N.A., Abdel- Khalek ? , Radwan A.M., Abdel- Salam A.F., (2013). Response of broiler chicks to xylanase supplementation of corn/rye containing diets varying in metabolizable energy. Int. J. Poultry Sci., 12: 705-713.Search in Google Scholar

Engberg R.M., Hedemann M.S., Steenfeldt S., Jensen B.B. (2004). Influence of whole wheat and xylanase on broiler performance and microbial composition and activity in the digestive tract. Poultry Sci., 83: 925-938.Search in Google Scholar

Francesch M., Pérez-Vendrell A.M., Broz J., (2012). Effects ofamono-component endoxylanase supplementation on the nutritive value of wheat-based broiler diets. Brit. Poultry Sci., 53: 809-816.Search in Google Scholar

Fuente J.M., Perez de Ayala P., Flores A., Villamide M.J. (1998). Effect of storage time and dietary enzyme on the metabolizable energy and digesta viscosity of barley-based diets for poultry. Poultry Sci., 77: 90-97.Search in Google Scholar

Fuller R. (2001). The chicken gut microflora and probiotic supplements. J. Poultry Sci., 38: 189-196.Search in Google Scholar

Gebruers K., Dornez E., Bedõ Z., Rakszegi M., Frás A., Boros D., Courtin C.M., Delcour J.A. (2010). Environment and genotype effects on the content of dietary fiber and its components in wheat in the HEALTHGRAINdiversity screen. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58: 9353-9361.Search in Google Scholar

Goncharenko A.A., Timoshchenko A.S., Berkutova N.S., Ermakov S.A., Makarov A.V., Semenova T.V., Tochilin V.N., Lazareva E.N., Tsygankova N.V., Krakhnalev S.V. (2011). Divergent selection for water extract viscosity in winter rye. Russian Agric. Sci., 37: 273-279.Search in Google Scholar

Grajewski J., Błajet - Kosicka A., Twarużek M., Kosicki R. (2012). Occurrence of mycotoxins in Polish animal feed in years 2006-2009. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 96: 870-877.Search in Google Scholar

GUS (2015). Land use and sown area in 2015. Information and statistical studies. Warsaw.Search in Google Scholar

Guyard - Nicodème M., Keita A., Quesne S., Amelot M., Poezevara T., Le Berre B., Sánchez J., Vesseur P., Martín Á., Medel P., Chemaly M. (2016). Efficacy of feed additives against Campylobacter in live broilers during the entire rearing period. Poultry Sci., 95: 298-305.Search in Google Scholar

Häner L.L, Stamp P., Kreuzer M., Bouguennec A., Pellet D. (2013). Viscosity of triticale varieties differs in its response to temperature after flowering. Field Crops Res., 149: 347-353.Search in Google Scholar

Hashemipour H., Khaksar V., Rubio L.A., Veldkamp T,van Krimpen M.M. (2016). Effect of feed supplementation withathymol plus carvacrol mixture, in combination or not with an NSP-degrading enzyme, on productive and physiological parameters of broilers fed on wheat-based diets. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 211: 117-131.Search in Google Scholar

Henry R.J. (1985). Acomparison of the non-starch carbohydrates in cereal grains. J. Sci. Food Agric., 36: 1243-1253.Search in Google Scholar

Hetland H., Svihus B. (2001). Effect of oat hulls on performance, gut capacity and feed passage time in broiler chickens. Brit. Poultry Sci., 42: 354-361.Search in Google Scholar

Hetland H., Svihus B., Choct M. (2005). Role of insoluble fiber on gizzard activity in layers. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 14: 38-46.Search in Google Scholar

Jacob J.P., Pescatore A.J. (2012). Using barley in poultry diets - Areview. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 21: 915-940.Search in Google Scholar

Jeroch H. (1998). Jahrbuch für die Geflügelwirtschaft, Publisher Eugen Ulmer Stuttgart, p. 126.Search in Google Scholar

Jiménez-Moreno E., González-Alvarado J.M., Lazaro R., Mateos G.G. (2009). Effect of type of cereal, heat processing of the cereal, and fiber inclusion in the diet on gizzard p Hand nutrient utilization in broilers at different ages. Poultry Sci., 88: 1925-1933.Search in Google Scholar

Johannson L., Tuomainen P., Ylinen M., Ekholm P., Virkki L. (2004). Structural analysis of water soluble and insoluble β-glucans of whole grain oats and barley. Carbohyd. Polym., 58: 267-274.Search in Google Scholar

Józefiak D., Rutkowskia A., Marti S.A. (2004). Carbohydrate fermentation in the avian ceca: Areview. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 113: 1-15.Search in Google Scholar

Józefiak D., Rutkowski A., Jensen B.B., Engberg R.M. (2006). The effect of β-glucanase supplementation of barley- and oat-based diets on growth performance and fermentation in broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract. Brit. Poultry Sci., 47: 57-64.Search in Google Scholar

Józefiak D., Rutkowski A., Jensen B.B., Engberg R.M. (2007). Effects of dietary inclusion of triticale, rye and wheat and xylanase supplementation on growth performance of broiler chickens and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 132: 79-93.Search in Google Scholar

Jurgens H.U., Jansen G., Wegner C.B., (2012). Characterisation of several rye cultivars with respect to arabinoxylans and extract viscosity. J. Agr. Sci., 5: 1-12.Search in Google Scholar

Kalantar M., Khajaliand F., Yaghobfar A. (2015). Different dietary source of non-starch polysaccharides supplemented with enzymes affected growth and carcass traits, blood parameters and gut physicochemical properties of broilers. Glob. J. Anim. Sci. Res., 3: 412-418.Search in Google Scholar

Langhout D.J., (1998). The role of the intestinal flora as affected by non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chicks. Department of Animal Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Search in Google Scholar

Latorre J.D., Hernandez-Velasco X., Bielke L.R., Vicente J.L., Wolfenden R., Menconi A., Hargis B.M., Tellez G. (2015 a). Evaluation ofa Bacillus direct-fed microbial candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation in broiler chickens fed onarye-based diet. Brit. Poultry Sci., 56: 723-732.10.1080/00071668.2015.110105326539833Search in Google Scholar

Latorre J.D., Hernandez-Velazco X., Kuttappan V.A., Wolfenden R., Vicente J.L., Wolfenden A., Bielke L., Prando O., Morales E., Hargis B.M., Tellez G. (2015 b). Selection of Bacillus spp. for cellulase and xylanase production as direct-fed microbials to reduce digesta viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation using an in vitro digestive model with different poultry diets. Front. Vet. Sci., 2: 25.10.3389/fvets.2015.00025467218626664954Search in Google Scholar

Lazaro R., Gracia M., Aranibar M.J., Mateos G.G. (2003). Effect of enzyme addition to wheat, barley- and rye-based diets on nutrient digestibility and performance of laying hens. Brit. Poultry Sci., 44: 256-265.Search in Google Scholar

Masey O’Neil H.V., Smith J.A., Bedford M.R. (2014). Multicarbohydrase enzymes for nonruminants. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 2: 290-301.Search in Google Scholar

Mathlouthi N., Mallet S., Saulnier L., Quemener B., Larbier M. (2002). Effects of xylanase and glucanase addition on performance, nutrient digestibility, and physico-chemical conditions in the small intestine contents and caecal microflora of broiler chickens fedawheat and barleybased diet. Anim. Res., 51: 395-406.Search in Google Scholar

Matin H.R.H., Saki A.A., Aliarabi H., Shadmani M., Abyane H.Z. (2012). Intestinal broiler microflora estimation by artificial neural network. Neural Comp. Appl., 21: 1043-1047.Search in Google Scholar

Mc Nab J.M., Boorman K.N. (2002). Poultry feedstuffs, supply, composition and nutritive value. Poult. Sci. S, 26, 65 pp.Search in Google Scholar

Meluzzi A., Fabbri C., Folegatti E., Sirri F. (2008). Survey of chicken rearing conditions in Italy: Effects of litter quality and stocking density on productivity, foot dermatitis and carcase injuries. Brit. Poultry Sci., 49: 257-264.Search in Google Scholar

Mendes A.R., Ribeiro T., Correia B.A., Bule P., Maçãs B., Falcão L., Freire J.P.B., Ferreira L.M.A., Fontes C.M.G.A., Lordelo M.M. (2012). Low doses of exogenous xylanase improve the nutritive value of triticale-based diets for broilers. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 22: 92-99.Search in Google Scholar

Meng X., Slominski B.A. (2005). Nutritive values of corn, soybean meal, canola meal, and peas for broiler chickens as affected byamulticarbohydrase preparation of cell wall degrading enzymes. Poultry Sci., 84: 1242-1251.Search in Google Scholar

Montagne L., Pluske J.R., Hampson D.J. (2003). Areview of interactions between dietary fibre and the intestinal mucosa, and their consequences on digestive health in young non-ruminant animals. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 108: 95-117.Search in Google Scholar

Mourão J., Pinheiro V. (2009). Effects of rye, wheat and xylanase supplementation on diet nutritive value and broiler chicken performance. Rev. Bras. Zootech., 38: 2417-2424.Search in Google Scholar

Munyaka P.M., Nandha N.K., Kiarie E., Nyachoti C.M., Khafipour E. (2015). Impact of combined β-glucanase and xylanase enzymes on growth performance, nutrients utilization and gut microbiota in broiler chickens fed corn or wheat-based diets. Poultry Sci., 95: 528-540.Search in Google Scholar

Nahas J., Lefrançois M.R. (2001). Effects of feeding locally grown whole barley with or without enzyme addition and whole wheat on broiler performance and carcass traits. Poultry Sci., 80: 195-202.Search in Google Scholar

O’Neill H.V., Smith J.A., Bedford M.R. (2014). Multicarbohydrase enzymes for non-ruminants. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 27: 290-301.Search in Google Scholar

Pan C.F., Igbasan F.A., Guenter W., Marquardt R.R. (1998). The effects of enzyme and inorganic phosphorus supplements in wheat- and rye-based diets on laying hen performance, energy, and phosphorus availability. Poultry Sci., 77: 83-89.Search in Google Scholar

Patel M.B., M C Ginnis J. (1980). Effect of gamma irradiating rye or supplementingarye-containing layer diet with penicillin or pectic enzymes on egg production. Poultry Sci., 59: 2287-2289.Search in Google Scholar

Petersson K., Nordlund E., Tornber E., Tornberg E., Buchert J. (2012). Impact of cell wall-degrading enzymes on water-holding capacity and solubility of dietary fibre in rye and wheat bran. J. Sci. Food Agric., 93: 882-889.Search in Google Scholar

Philippe S., Barron C., Robert P., Dexaux M.F., Saulnier L., Guillon F. (2006). Characterization using Raman microspectroscopy of arabinoxylans in the walls of different cell types during the development of wheat endosperm. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54: 5113-5119.Search in Google Scholar

Ravn J.L., Martens H.J., Pettersson D., Rangel N., Pedersen N.R. (2016). Acommercial GH 11 xylanase mediates xylan solubilisation and degradation in wheat, rye and barley as demonstrated by microscopy techniques and wet chemistry methods. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 219: 216-225.Search in Google Scholar

Ricke S. (2003). Perspectives on the use of organic acids and short chain fatty acids as antimicrobials. Poultry Sci., 82: 632-639.Search in Google Scholar

Rivière A., Moens F., Selak M., Maes D., Weckx S., De Vuyst L. (2014). The ability of bifidobacteria to degrade arabinoxylan oligosaccharide constituents and derived oligosaccharides is strain dependent. Appl. Env. Microbiol., 80: 204-217.Search in Google Scholar

Roberts C.L., Keita A.V., Duncan S.H. (2010). Translocation of Crohn’s disease E. coli across M-cells: contrasting effects of soluble plant fibres and emulsifiers. Gut, 59: 1331-1339.Search in Google Scholar

Roberts C.L., Keita A.V., Parsons B.N., Prorok - Hamon M., Knight P., Winstanley C., O’Kennedy N., Söderholm J.D., Rhodes J.M., Campbell B.J. (2013). Soluble plantain fibre blocks adhesion and M-cell translocation of intestinal pathogens. J. Nutr. Bioch., 24: 97-103.Search in Google Scholar

Rodehutscord M., Rückert Ch., Maurer H.P., Schenkel H., Schipprack W., Bach Knudsen K.E., Schollenberger M., Laux M., Eklund M., Siegert W., Mosenthin R. (2016). Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes. Arch. Anim. Nutr., 70: 87-107.Search in Google Scholar

Santos C.I., Ribeiro T., Ponte P.I.P., Fernandes V.O., Falcão L., Freire J.P., Prates J.A.M., Ferreira L.M.A., Fontes C.M.G.A., Lordelo M.M. (2013). The effects of restricting enzyme supplementation in rye-based diets for broilers. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 186: 214-217.Search in Google Scholar

Sarikhan M., Shahryar H.A., Gholizadeh B., Hosseinzadeh M.H., Beheshti B., Mahmoodnejad A. (2010). Effects of insoluble fiber on growth performance, carcass traits and ileum morphological parameters on broiler chick males. Int. J. Agric. Biol. Eng., 12: 531-536.Search in Google Scholar

Saulnier L., Guillon F., Sado P., Rouau X. (2007). Plant cell wall polysaccharides in storage organs: xylans (food applications). In: Kamerling, Hans, Comprehensive Glycoscience, NLD: Elsevier, pp. 653-689.10.1016/B978-044451967-2/00147-1Search in Google Scholar

Schwarz T., Kuleta W., Turek A., Tuz R., Nowicki J., Rudzki B., Bartlewski P.M. (2015). Assessing the efficiency of usingamodern hybrid rye cultivar for pig fattening, with emphasis on production costs and carcass quality. Anim. Prod. Sci., 55: 467-473.Search in Google Scholar

Silva S.S.P., Smithard R.R. (2002). Effect of enzyme supplementation ofarye-based diet on xylanase activity in the small intestine of broilers, on intestinal crypt cell proliferation and on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of the birds. Brit. Poultry Sci., 43: 274-282.Search in Google Scholar

Simon O. (2000). Non starch polysaccharide (NSP) hydrolysing enzymes as feed additives: mode of action in the gastrointestinal tract. Lohmann Inf., 23: 7-13.Search in Google Scholar

Slominski B.A. (2011). Recent advances in research on enzymes for poultry diets. Poultry Sci., 90: 2013-2013.Search in Google Scholar

Smulikowska S., Nguyen C.V. (2001). Anote on variability of water extract viscosity of rye grain from north-east regions of Poland. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 10: 687-693.Search in Google Scholar

Smulikowska S., Rutkowski A. (2005). Standards of Poultry Nutrition. 4th ed., Suppl. The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition PAN.Search in Google Scholar

Taylor R.D., Jones G.P.D. (2004). The incorporation of whole grain into pelleted broiler chicken diets. II. Gastrointestinal and digesta characteristics. Brit. Poultry Sci., 45: 237-246.Search in Google Scholar

Teirlynck E., Bjerrum L., Eeckhaut V., Huygebaert G., Pasmans F., Haesebrouck F., Dewulf J., Ducatelle R., Van Immerseel F. (2009). The cereal type in feed influences gut wall morphology and intestinal immune cell infiltration in broiler chickens. Brit. J. Nutr., 102: 453-1461.Search in Google Scholar

Tellez G., Latorre J.D., Kuttappan V.A., Kogut M.H., Wolfenden A., Hernandez-Velasco X., Hargis B.M., Bottje W.G., Bielkend L.R., Faulkner O.B. (2014). Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Front. Genet., 5: 1-7.Search in Google Scholar

Tellez G., Latorre J.D., Kuttappan V.A., Hargis B.M., Hernandez-Velasco X. (2015). Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in turkey poults. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122390).Search in Google Scholar

Thammarutwasik P., Hongpattarakere T., Chantachum S., Kijroongrojana K., Itharat A., Reanmongkol W. (2009). Prebiotics -areview. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Tech., 31: 401-408.Search in Google Scholar

Toole G.A., Wilson R.H., Parker M.L., Wellner N.K., Wheeler T.R., Shewry P.R., Mills E.N.C. (2007). The effect of environment on endosperm cell-wall development in Triticum aestivum during grain filling: an infrared spectroscopic imaging study. Planta, 225: 1393-1403.Search in Google Scholar

Van der Wielen P.W., Biesterveld S., Notermans S., Hofstra H., Urlings B.A.P.,van Knapen F. (2000). Role of volatile fatty acids in development of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens during growth. Appl. Env. Microbiol., 66: 2536-2540.Search in Google Scholar

van Krimpen M.M., Borgijink S., Schokker D., Vastenhouw S.,de Bree F.M., Bossers A., Fabri T.,de Bruijn N., Jansman A.J.M., Rebel J.M.J., Smits M.A., van Emous R.A. (2015). Effects of rye inclusion in grower diets on immunity-related parameters and performance of broilers. Livestock Research Report 889, Wageningen.Search in Google Scholar

Wasilewska E. (2008). Changes in the structure of crops in Poland in years 1996-2007. ZN SGGW Ei OGŻ, 71: 123-135.Search in Google Scholar

Williams P.E.V., Geraert P.A., Uzu G., Annison G. (1997). Factors affecting non-starch polysaccharide digestibility in poultry. In: Feed manufacturing in Southern Europe: new challenges, Morand-Fehr P. (ed). Zaragoza, Ciheam-Iamz., pp. 125-134.Search in Google Scholar

Williams M.P., Brown B., Rao S., Lee J.T. (2014). Evaluation of beta-mannanase and nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzyme inclusion separately or intermittently in reduced energy diets fed to male broilers on performance parameters and carcass yield. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 24: 715-723. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo