1. bookVolume 18 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
23 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo

SEM, EDS, and XPS Characterization of Coatings Obtained on Titanium During AC Plasma Electrolytic Process Enriched in Magnesium

Published Online: 29 Oct 2018
Page range: 68 - 78
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
23 Sep 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo

Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) known also as Micro Arc Oxidation (MAO) process is widely used to fabricate porous coatings on titanium and its alloys mainly in water- and acid-based solutions to different applications, e.g. in biomaterials, catalysts, and sensors. In the present paper, the SEM, EDS, and XPS results of porous coatings obtained by PEO treatment on titanium in electrolytes based on concentrated phosphoric H3PO4 acid with calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2·4H2O, or magnesium nitrate hexahydrate Mg(NO3)2·6H2O, or zinc nitrate hexahydrate Zn(NO3)2·6H2O for 3 minutes at 200 Vpp (peak to peak) with frequency of 50 Hz, are presented. Based on EDS results, the Ca/P, Mg/P, and Zn/P ratios, which equal to 0.95, 0.176, and 0.231, respectively, were found out. The XPS studies of the top 10 nm of the porous layer clearly indicate that it contains mainly phosphates (PO43− and/or HPO42− and/or H2PO4, and/or P2O74−) with titanium (Ti4+) and calcium (Ca2+) or magnesium (Mg2+), or zinc (Zn2+).

Keywords

1. Rokosz K., Hryniewicz T., Simon F., Rzadkiewicz S.: Comparative XPS analysis of passive layers composition formed on AISI 304 L SS after standard and high-current density electropolishing. Surf. Interface Analysis 47 (2015), 87–92.Search in Google Scholar

2. Rokosz K., Lahtinen J., Hryniewicz T., Rzadkiewicz S.: XPS depth profiling analysis of passive surface layers formed on austenitic AISI 304L and AISI 316L SS after high-current-density electropolishing. Surface and Coatings Technology 276 (2015), 516-520.Search in Google Scholar

3. Rokosz K., Hryniewicz T., Raaen S.: Cr/Fe ratio by XPS spectra of magnetoelectropolished AISI 316L SS fitted by Gaussian-Lorentzian shape lines. Tehnicki Vjesnik-Technical Gazette 21(3) (2014), 533-538.Search in Google Scholar

4. Hryniewicz T., Rokosz K., Rokicki R., Prima F.: Nanoindentation and XPS Studies of Titanium TNZ Alloy after Electrochemical Polishing in a Magnetic Field. Materials. 8 (2015), 205-215.Search in Google Scholar

5. Aliasghari S., Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of Titanium, PhD Thesis of Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, The University of Manchester School of Materials, 2014, 223 pages.Search in Google Scholar

6. Gowtham S., Arunnellaiappan T., Rameshbabu N.: An investigation on pulsed DC plasma electrolytic oxidation of cp-Ti and its corrosion behaviour in simulated body fluid. Surf. Coat. Technol. 301 (2016), 63-73.Search in Google Scholar

7. Wang Y., Jiang B., Lei T., Guo L.: Dependence of growth features of microarc oxidation coatings of titanium alloy on control modes of alternate pulse. Materials Letters 58 (2004), 1907-1911.Search in Google Scholar

8. Simka W., Sadowski A., Warczak M., Iwaniak A., Dercz G., Michalska J., Maciej A.: Modification of titanium oxide layer by calcium and phosphorus. Electrochimica Acta 56(24) (2011), 8962-8968.Search in Google Scholar

9. Krząkala A., Mlynski J., Dercz G., Michalska J., Maciej A., Nieużyla L., Simka W.: Modification of Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface by EPD-PEO process in ZrSiO4 suspension. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 59(1) (2014), 199-204.Search in Google Scholar

10. Rokosz K., Hryniewicz T., Raaen S.: Development of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation for improved Ti6Al4V biomaterial surface properties. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 85 (2016), 2425-2437.Search in Google Scholar

11. Kazek-Kęsik A., Kuna K., Dec W., Widziołek M., Tylko G., Osyczka A.M., Simka W.: In vitrobioactivity investigations of Ti-15Mo alloy after electrochemical surface modification. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials. 104B (2015), 903-913.Search in Google Scholar

12. Rokosz K., Hryniewicz T., Raaen S.: SEM, EDS and XPS analysis of nanostructured coating obtained on NiTi biomaterial alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO). Tehnički Vjesnik-Technical Gazette. 24(1) (2017), 193-198.Search in Google Scholar

13. Simka W., Nawrat G., Chlode J., Maciej A., Winiarski A., Szade J., Radwanski K., Gazdowicz J.: Electropolishing and anodic passivation of Ti6Al7Nb alloy. Przemysł Chemiczny. 90(1) (2011), 84-90.Search in Google Scholar

14. Rokosz K., Hryniewicz T., Raaen S., Chapon P.: Investigation of porous coatings obtained on Ti-Nb-Zr-Sn alloy biomaterial by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation: Characterisation and Modelling. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 87(9) (2016) 3497–3512.Search in Google Scholar

15. Han Y., Hong S.H., Xu K.W.: Structure and in vitro bioactivity of titania-based films by micro-arc oxidation. Surface and Coatings Technology 168 (2003) 249-258.Search in Google Scholar

16. El Achhaba M., Schierbaum K.: Structure and hydrogen sensing properties of plasma electrochemically oxidized titanium foils. Procedia Engineering 47 (2012), 566–569; doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.09.210.Search in Google Scholar

17. Peng B.Y., Nie X., Chen Y.: Effects of Surface Coating Preparation and Sliding Modes on Titanium Oxide Coated Titanium Alloy for Aerospace Applications. Int. J. Aerospace. Eng. 2014 (2014), 640364, 1–10; doi:10.1155/2014/640364.Search in Google Scholar

18. Rokosz K., Hryniewicz T., Dalibor M., Raaen S., Valiček J., Dudek Ł., Harničarova M.: SEM, EDS and XPS Analysis of the Coatings Obtained on Titanium after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Electrolytes Containing Copper Nitrate. Materials 9(5) (2016), 1-12.Search in Google Scholar

19. Rokosz K., Hryniewicz T., Gaiaschi S., Chapon P., Raaen S., Pietrzak K., Malorny W.: Characterisation of Calcium- and Phosphorus-Enriched Porous Coatings on CP Titanium Grade 2 Fabricated by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation. Metals 7 (2017), 354; doi:10.3390/met7090354.Search in Google Scholar

20. Rokosz K., Hryniewicz T., Gaiaschi S., Chapon P., Raaen S., Pietrzak K., Malorny W., Salvador Fernandes J.: Characterization of Porous Phosphate Coatings Enriched with Magnesium or Zinc on CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation. Metals 8 (2018), 112; doi:10.3390/met8020112.Search in Google Scholar

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo