Otwarty dostęp

Tourism Demand in Tunisia: A VECM Approach


This research aimed to study the determinants of tourism demand in Tunisia from 1995 to 2019 with four independent variables: gross domestic product, consumer price index, the real exchange rate, and air transport passengers carried. The research employed the Unit root test, Co-integration test, and Vector Error Correction model (VECM) to examine the variables’ short- and long-run relationship dynamics. The results show that co-integrating relations exist among the variables; all independent variables negatively impact tourism demand except Air transport. Depending on the results obtained, policymakers should be aware of the negative effect of the country’s political instability on the extent of external tourism demand. In this sense, the government must restore political stability to encourage tourists to visit Tunisia. Future studies should consider factors such as the economy’s trade openness and oil prices.