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Nasal cavity extramedullary plasmacytoma: literature review and clinical experience

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BACKGROUND. Extramedullary plasmacytoma is an extremely rare solitary plasma cell neoplasm that occurs in locations other than bone, without involving the bone marrow. It is commonly located in the upper aerodigestive tract. In the head and neck region, the most frequent location is the sinonasal region.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. A systemic review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines was done with research works in PubMed, Elsevier database, Cochrane library, Web of Science, Scopus, Crossref and Google Scholar. The search was carried out using the keywords “plasmacytoma and nose”, “extramedullary plasmacytoma”, “extramedullary plasmacytoma of nose”, “plasmacytoma and nasal cavity”, and “extramedullary plasmacytoma of nasal cavity”.

RESULTS. We analysed 27 research works with a total number of 32 cases. The most common presenting symptoms were nasal cavity bleeding. The disease showed a male preponderance (78.1%). Bone erosion was seen in 7 cases. The histopathological examination showed plasma cells arranged predominantly as a uniform population or sheet-like appearance. A common immunohistochemical marker was CD138 (11 cases). Treatment was primarily radiotherapy (43.7%). We are also reporting a case of a 53-year-old male with plasmacytoma of the middle turbinate managed by wide resection and postoperative radiotherapy.

CONCLUSION. Though a less common condition, in a case of polypoidal-like lesion with bleeding tendency, the clinician should keep in mind the possibility of extramedullary plasmacytoma. The diagnosis is made with histopathological examination and immunohisto-chemistry of the tissue involved. Treatment can be radiotherapy, surgery, or a combination of modalities.

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