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Relationships of apolipoprotein E genotypes with a cluster of seven in persons with type 2 diabetes




The objective of the study was to determine if there would be statistically significant differences or trends among apolipoprotein E genotypes (2/2, 2/3, 2/4, 3/3, 3/4, and 4/4) for each member of the cluster of seven associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The cluster of seven includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, platelet hyperaggregability, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia (decreased plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and increased plasma levels of triglycerides)), increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and increased inflammation.


Forty-six patients with well-controlled T2D participated in the study. Abdominal obesity (assessed by waist circumference), hypertension (measured by manual sphygmomanometry), platelet hyperaggregability (measured by bleeding time), hyperglycemia (by enzymatic kit and spectrophotometry), decreased plasma levels of HDL-C and increased plasma levels of triglycerides (by enzymatic kit and spectrophotometry), increased LDL oxidation (measured by LDL conjugated dienes using spectrophotometry) and increased inflammation measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) (by EIA kit) were determined.


All genotypes, except 2/2 were found in the population studied. Abdominal obesity did not vary significantly across the five genotypes. However, glucose levels trended progressively higher going from 2/3 to 2/4 to 3/4 to 4/4. Systolic blood pressure was higher in 3/4 compared to 2/4 and trended higher in 3/4 compared to 3/3. Diastolic blood pressure trended higher in 3/3 vs 2/4 and significantly higher in 3/4 compared to 2/4. Triglycerides trended higher in 3/4 vs 3/3 while HDL-C came close to trending downward in 4/4 compared to 2/4. Bleeding time was unaffected by genotype. Plasma LDL conjugated dienes trended higher in 3/4 vs 2/4 and were significantly higher in 3/4 vs 3/3. CRP trended higher in 4/4 vs 2/3.


We can conclude that those with at least one 4 allele in the presence of another allele being 2, 3 or 4 is potentially (in the case of trends) deleterious or is deleterious in terms of hyperglycemia, hypertension (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), dyslipidemia, LDL conjugated dienes and CRP levels.