Objectives. Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) is a severe and underdiagnosed complication of parathyroidectomy in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) and secondary hyper-parathyroidism to chronic kidney disease (SHP-CKD).

Methods. A longitudinal study was conducted to compare the postoperative outcomes of patients who developed HBS in two different time frames: before and after implementing a protocol with an intensive electrolytic monitoring and an algorithm regarding electrolytic supplementation.

Results. Overall, 77 parathyroidectomies were included. In PHP, a protocol implementation led to an increased admission of patients in the Intermediate Care Unit for intensive electrolytic monitoring (p<0.001) and an increased rate of oral calcium replacement during hospital stay (p=0.013) compared to pre-protocol era. In SHP-CKD, duration of intravenous calcium replacement was reduced (p=0.010). The prevalence of HBS (9.8% in PHP and 58.3% in SHP-CKD) was similar between the two periods, although its diagnosis had an increased trend in PHP since the protocol implementation. None of the diagnosis of HBS was established due to hypocalcemic symptoms in the post-protocol era (contrary to pre-protocol period, p=0.021). Both hypocalcemia length and duration of surgical ward hospitalization were reduced (p=0.047 and p=0.042, respectively).

Conclusions. An improved assessment of hyperparathyroidism and a decrease in HBS severity were noted in the post-protocol era. We strongly recommend the implementation of a standardized protocol with an intensive phosphocalcium monitoring in the high-risk patients who undergo parathyroidectomy due to hyperparathyroidism as it improves the health care and management of HBS.