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Engineering Site Investigation and Shallow Foundation Design in Ore Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

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The study integrates geophysical and geotechnical methods for subsoil evaluation and shallow foundation design. The study involved six vertical electrical sounding and geotechnical investigation involving cone penetration test and laboratory soil analysis. Three major geologic units were delineated; the topsoil, weathered layer and partly weathered/fractured/fresh bedrock. The overburden thickness is in between 15.2–32.9 m. Based on resistivity (16–890 ohm-m) and thickness (12.7–32 m) the weathered layer is competent to distribute structural load to underlying soil/rock. The groundwater level varies from 4.5 to 12.3 m. Therefore an average allowable bearing capacity of 200 kPa is recommended and would be appropriate for design of shallow foundation in the area, at a depth not less than 1.0 m with an expected settlement ranging from 9.03–48.20 mm. The ultimate bearing and allowable bearing capacity for depth levels of 1–3 m vary from 1403–2666 kPa and 468–889 kPa for strip footing while square footing varies in between 1956–3489 kPa and 652–1163 kPa respectively.