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Coniferous forests in Europe have a considerable number of pests that attack trees of all ages from youngest up to oldest ones. One of them is the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis. This species is widespread in Europe and occurs from warm southern areas (Spain) up to northern countries (Sweden, Finland). Larvae of this species do not cause damage, they help in the decomposition process of stumps and roots. Adults are harmful as they consume bark of young coniferous seedlings, above all of spruce and pine. One adult can consume on average 75 mm2 of bark per day. Individuals can live up to 4 years, and during their lives they can damage and kill several tens of coniferous seedlings. Traditional chemical protection of seedlings against this pest is and will gradually be more and more restricted or forbidden. In this review, we describe this method as well as all other alternative methods including biological protection. We estimate that H. abietis causes annual damages in Europe of almost 120 million € and damages several tens of thousands of hectares of young forest stands.

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Life Sciences, Plant Science, Ecology, other