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Expression of selected nuclear receptors in human epithelial ovarian cell line Caov3 exposed to bisphenol derivatives

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Objectives. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an indispensable industrial chemical. However, as a proven endocrine disruptor, it may be associated with several health disturbances, including the reproductive functions impairment and cancer. Due to the restriction of BPA usage, many bisphenol derivatives gradually substitute BPA. However, studies have reported adverse biological effects of BPA analogs, but the specific sites of their action remain largely unknown. Nuclear receptors (NRs) appear to play significant roles in various types of cancer. In addition, they are considered relevant targets of bisphenols. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BPA and its analogs bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on mRNA expression of selected NRs in the human ovarian epithelial cell line Caov3. The NRs examined included retinoic acid receptor α (RARA), retinoid X receptor α (RXRA), peroxisome proliferator activating receptor β/δ (PPARD), chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor 2 (COUPTFII), and nuclear receptor-related protein 1 (NURR1).

Methods. Caov3 cells were treated with the bisphenols at the concentrations of 1 nM, 100 nM, 10 µM and 100 µM. After 24 h and 72 h of incubation, cell viability was determined by the MTS assay, and the selected genes expression was analyzed using RT-qPCR.

Results. Bisphenol treatment did not affect Caov3 cell viability, except the significant impairment after exposure to the highest BPAF dose (100 µM). At lower doses, neither bisphenol analog altered the expression of the NRs. However, at the highest concentration (100 µM), BPAF and BPA altered the mRNA levels of PPARD, COUPTFII, and NURR1 in a time- and receptor-specific manner.

Conclusions. The effects of bisphenols on the specific NRs in the epithelial ovarian cancer cells were addressed for the first time by the present study. Although generally we did not find that bisphenols may provoke significant alterations in the expression of the selected NRs in Caov3 cells, they may alter mRNA expression of certain NRs at high concentrations.